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2010, Vol., No.45

  • 1.

    The Study about the Chinese Poetry in the Japanese Ruling Era

    Lee Hee-Mok | 2010, (45) | pp.5~26 | number of Cited : 17
    This paper covers flow, trait, and meaning of Chinese poetry carried by mass media in Japanese Ruling Era. Chinese poetry in this time was written by many authors who were aware of the Japanese Empire. As a result, pro-Japanese group’s activity was outstanding. Chinese poetry became recreational, and the poetry treating object was composed a lot. The poetry in this time is evaluated negatively. On the other hand, different type of poetry was still written. There were some poets who were aware our people’s circumstances well. They comforted the public, satirized on society, and were enthusiastic about Son Ki-jung’s victory. Also, they expressed their longing for the independence very secretly by quoting expressions from famous poems. This is the real value of Chinese poetry in that time. Although intellectuals don’t do writing by Chinese character any more, Chinese poetry is still contributing importantly for the ethnic heritage because the poetic feeling is expressed by Chinese poetry better than modern style. Therefore Chinese poetry is not the thing to be discarded, but a part of the ethnic literature.
  • 2.

    Étude des Personnages à Travers ≪Le Théâtre dans le Théâtre≫ dans le Tartuffe

    Kiil Kim | 2010, (45) | pp.27~51 | number of Cited : 1
    Lorsqu’on analyse un texte littéraire, il est important d’avoir plusieurs points de vue sur l’objet de l’étude. Notre étude concerne Le Tartuffe, oeuvre écrite en 1669 par Molière. Molière a utilisé ≪le théâtre dans le théâtre≫dans plusieurs de ses pièces, et notamment dans la quasi-totalité de ses comédies-ballets, et la plupart de ses rivaux y ont recouru au moins une fois. Il expérimente les formes du théâtre et met en relief les sujets, en utilisant les fonctions et les types divers que ≪le théâtre dans le théâtre≫contient. En particulier, il expérimente de nouvelles techniques dramaturgiques dans Le Tartuffe. Notre étude a ainsi pour but d’envisager concrètement les personnages dans la réalisation du procédé qu’est ≪le théâtre dans le théâtre≫du Tartuffe. Elle a envisagé la fonction et la structure ≪du théâtre dans le théâtre≫, l’aspect ≪du théâtre dans le théâtre≫et finalement les caractéristiques des personnages dans Le Tartuffe. Dans Le Tartuffe, ce procédé se complique dans la mesure où il remplit la fonction d’analyse du contenu des personnages. Cette pièce se compose de cinq ≪théâtre dans le théâtre≫où treize personnages font du théâtre. Chaque ≪théâtre dans le théâtre≫peut se considérer comme du théâtre en ce sens que les personnages font du théâtre. Pourtant, dans chaque ≪théâtre dans le théâtre≫, il y a aussi un espace de mise en abyme. Les personnages y montrent leurs désirs et leurs rapports qu’ils refoulaient ou cachaient dans la réalité. Comme nous l’avons envisagé, le procédé de Molière a pour but la recherche de l’intérieur de l’homme. En fin de compte, l’orginalité de Molière réside dans le fait qu’il donne naissance au théâtre dans le théâtre avec une fonction nouvelle. Grâce à ce travail, nous pouvons rendre compte que les traits des personnages du 17e siècles existeront aussi dans le futur.
  • 3.

    The Origin and Trait of the Discourse of ‘Youth’ in Early La Jeunesse

    Song Injae | 2010, (45) | pp.53~77 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In Modern China youth was connected closely with modernity in La Jeunesse. In pre-modern China qingnian(靑年) only means ‘young’ or ‘young age’. In the modern age, qingnian began to have the meaning of young generation. Especially, it means new group of student who studies new and western knowledge. Because of the national trial of China, Chinese young students concerned about their nation and participated political movements. From that time, Chines young man did not only mean young man or new-type student but the new subject of constructing modern nation China. At first most of them only emphasized patriotism. It is about in early 1900s. The founder of La Jeunesse, Chen Duxiu(陳獨秀) was one of them at that time. But after some years there was a turning point of his thoughts. From 1914 Chen no more agree to blind patriotism and emphasized that consciousness of the purpose and condition of nation. From that time his thoughts began to escape from nation-centrism and turned toward individualism. From the frist edition of La Jeunesse, Chen and writers of that journal called youth as a new subject of constructing new China. And they emphasized that Chinese youth must awake their essential value and important role in constructing new society. And many articles in La Jeunesse argued that individual is most essential in human society and more important than nation. Like this, La Jeunesse connected youth and modernity in Modern China. The main value of its discourse of ‘Youth’ was Consciousness, Social role and Individualism of youth in modern China.
  • 4.

    Inner Quests for Survival and Redemption -Margaret Laurence’s The Tomorrow-Tamer-

    Yoon, Myung-Ok | 2010, (45) | pp.79~99 | number of Cited : 0
    The pattern of the inner quests for survival and redemption is one of the typical themes of Margaret Laurence’s novels. The stories in The Tomorrow-Tamer which are set in Ghana, Africa are also heightened by Laurence’s awareness that the questions of survival and redemption still have to be answered less on political grounds than on more personal levels. The themes that run through her stories are closely connected with freedom, independence, and the relationships of equality and communication which Laurence attempts to imbue into her characters, regardless of whether they are white or black, European or African. For Laurence, freedom and survival in her fiction is not only physical but also spiritual, with human dignity and the ability to give and receive love. These themes relate both to the social/external world and to the spiritual/inner one. In The Tomorrow-Tamer, therefore, she extends the analysis of the clash of cultures she began in This Side Jordan and attempts symbolically to span diverse histories and cultures in an effort to break down psychological, intellectual, and social barriers to discern essential human correspondences, with humane and artistic sensibilities.
  • 5.

    Creation Methods and Tragic Romanticism Revealed in the Structure of Geumo-sinhwa

    Kim, Chang-Hyun | 2010, (45) | pp.101~123 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    After showing Geumo-sinhwa(金鰲新話) is delicately structuralized based on the author’s deliberation and agony by exploring the overall structure of that great literary masterpiece, this paper attempts to show connecting an author and an interpretation of his or her works can reveal already settled aesthetic matter. Geumo-sinhwa adopting a graphic writing style called chuanqi(傳奇)tells its author’s own story. The reason this piece appears more tragic than the previous two and looser than the following two is that the author must have attempted to write so on purpose or intentionally put such the order to the stories when editing them. That is, this masterpiece constructs the system with Manboksa-jeopo-gi(萬福寺樗蒲記) relatively calmly singing fidelity and conquest, Yiseng-guijang-jeon(李生窺墻傳) showing intensive tragedy, Chwiyu-bubyeokjeonggi(醉遊浮碧亭記) putting the finishing touches by contemplating history and life, Namyeom-buju-ji(南炎浮洲志) unfolding the desire for warning to the world, and finally Yonggung-buyen-lok(龍宮赴宴錄) recognizing human beings’ being trivial and vanity of life. Featuring tragic romanticism as its aesthetic essence, this writing’s tragic intensity corresponds to the close adhesion level between two main characters of ‘natural character-supernatural character.’ Although hanging out for a short period, Yangsaeng and a female ghost share deep affection and reliance. Yisaeng and Choirang keep most intensely adhered relation going beyond the boundary of life and death. Hongsaeng and Taoist Fairy feel warm sympathy to each other though each belonging to a different world. While Baksaeng and the king of the next world are like-minded comrades who develop feelings toward the opposite sex, Hansaeng and a river god display the least close adhesion level although they respect each other. This close examination reveals a reverse structure of Freytag’s Pyramid with the steep front, a similar structure with other Korean tragedies extending catastrophe and internalizing tragic elements. Contrary to Freytag’s Pyramid structure of Western tragedy maximizing catastrophic effects through destroying individuals in the face of fate’s tremendous and outrageous power, Korean tragedy’s structure is based on the thoughts considering the world(universe-fate) and individuals in complementary cooperation further into being the one. Tragic and romantic elements tend to coexist in East Asian chuanqi(傳奇) because East Asian tragedies are rooted in a different philosophical ground from Western tragedies’. Especially, Geumosinhwa appears to internalize profound tragic elements into literary and philosophical ones to ease them off romantically.
  • 6.

    Korean-Chinese Cultural Exchange in the 19th Century Viewed through Buyeonilgi

    HAN, YOUNG GYU | 2010, (45) | pp.125~150 | number of Cited : 9
    Exchange between Korean and Chinese literati in the late Chosun Dynasty was developed largely in three trends. The trends are exchange as distant friendship, exchange for cultural communication, and exchange of academic nature. Hong Dae-yong, Yoo Deuk-gongㆍPark Je-ga, and Kim Jeong-hee are, respectively, the representative figures of the three trends. This study focused on the exchange between the diplomatic mission to Yenching in 1828 and Qing poet Jang Je-ryang. This exchange was made after the transition of the central axis from friendship and literature to arts and culture. This case was an accidental and isolated exchange. When illuminated with poems left by Jang Je-ryang and records on the travel to Yenching written by the Chosun diplomatic mission, their association was very unique and noteworthy in the history of Korean-Chinese cultural exchange in the 19th century. Jang Je-ryang, who attracted the attention of Chusa Kim Jeong-hee, attached a special meaning to the meeting with the Chosun mission and expressed his feelings in poetry. Leaving Beijing, he wrote a long free verse titled Sabyeolsi. In the poem, he described his friendship with the Chosun mission by writing ‘Byeolsa’ separately in addition to ‘Byeolsa,’ ‘Byeolu’ and ‘Byeolbok.’ He overcame the conventionality of poems written in social associations and those for farewell through borrowing the long breath of free verses and exposing his thoughts exhaustively. In addition, through Jang Je-ryang’s records, this paper found that the authors of Buyeonilgi and Seohaengrok, which have been anonymous, are Lee Jae-heup and Geum Ro-sang, respectively.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Anecdote-Centered Narration Used in Park-Mi’s Prose

    LEE SEONG MIN | 2010, (45) | pp.151~170 | number of Cited : 1
    One of the characteristics apparent in proses written by Park-Mi[朴瀰] is the active use of anecdotes in their creative process. This feature of Park-Mi’s proses is closely related to a family tradition of the Bannam Park Clan[潘南朴氏], whose elders passed down to their descendents anecdotes about their ancestors. His father Park Dongryang[朴東亮]’s influence played a large role in this as well, whose interest in collecting anecdotes had led him to write Gijejapgi[寄齋雜記]. In particular, Park-Mi’s active use of anecdotes in his Biziryu[碑誌類] works endowed credibility and veracity to the contents of his writings. He also appropriately applied dialogical sentences, succeeding in conveying the liveliness of the object that he depicted. Meanwhile, Park-Mi attached great importance in the documentary value of the anecdotes themselves and actively collected and recorded anecdotes in his works. These efforts resulted in establishing the recording of anecdotes with documentary values in the literatures.
  • 8.

    King Jeongjo’s View of the Discipline for Taoism

    KIM, YONG TAI | 2010, (45) | pp.171~188 | number of Cited : 2
    Taoism is mostly thought to be associated with personal transcendence or fantasy. We think it is not so associated with a social problem. It is known that King Jeongjo established the theory of a powerful king based on Neo-Confucianism and suppressed new ideology and academic heresy. It is a surprise that he was very interested in the discipline for Taoism and had profound knowledge of it. Jeongjo took a medical approach to the discipline for Taoism. He argued that Taoism was a branch of Confucianism, so the discipline for Taoism could be regarded as Confucianism so long as we excluded superstitious factors from it. He highly emphasized usefulness of the discipline for Taoism and tried to square it with ruling a country. This shows that he had flexibility in his view of heresy. I think his endeavor to square the discipline for Taoism with ruling a country, was influenced by Seo Myeong-eung, his teacher. He interpreted Taoism positively and wanted to use it for theory of public administration. This issue needs to be covered seriously in the history of Korean Taoism.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Cultural Contents and the Philosophical Consideration of ‘Cultural Memory’ -Focusing on the Time and the Space of Korean Modern Time-

    Sanghwan Bak | 김희 | 2010, (45) | pp.189~213 | number of Cited : 4
    This study analyzes logical structure of ‘cultural memory’ reflected in history of time and space which symbolize modern history of Korea in connection with political factors in effort of searching for the right direction of cultural contents industry which government offices lead and pushing the boundaries of cultural contents discourse. Through this, it aims to examine the influence of political factors which intervene in the process of reconstruction of ‘cultural memory’establishing ties with the limitation of narrative organization about production of contents. For this I examined the problem of time and space in Korean culture centering around ‘memory’ in side of ‘cultural memory’. The aim is to approach and understand in diversified sides various symbolic space and identity of time which were embodied in Korean society in continuity of time which passes through the past and present. In such side, I make it the conversation topic dismantling of the Capitol having meaning system embodied in various context of society, history, culture, and etc. examined political factors which are intervening in its process in the sides of formation and transmission of ‘cultural memory’. It was also examined through the theory of ‘cultural memory’ whether the past memory which did not arranged in special cultural topography in Korean society(liquidating the past history of the Japanese colonial period, the Korean War, and prodemocracy uprising in Kwangju) can be enjoyed as side of ‘culture’, and pointed out the problem of direction of its enjoyment. Finally it was examined actuality and direction in future of cultural contents industry in Korea on the basis of cultural study as such in relationship to the role of humanities.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Meaning of Emotional Communication in the Traditional Theatre through『Sheng-wu-ai-lo-lun』by Hsi K’ang

    Kim, Woo-Cheol | 2010, (45) | pp.215~236 | number of Cited : 1
    One of the differential features between the Oriental and Western traditional theater is to control the emotional communication between the speakers(actors or actresses) and audience. So far, the studies on the emotional communication in the Oriental traditional theater have been committed primarily to the analysis of the styles. So they have not explained precisely the meaning of the communication of the Oriental cultural and ideal emotion. An ancient Chinese music theory,『sheng-wu-ai-lo-lun』, covers the non-heteronomous emotional communication between speakers and audience. By studying this, it has been found that the emotional communication in Oriental traditional theater shows either of the two aspects: empathy or the exclusion of empathy. Each derives from the Oriental Stoicism(堅忍主義) attitude, focusing on the moderate harmony of the emotion and based on the idea of the emotion not leaning to one direction. The non-heteronomous emotional communication style in the Oriental traditional theater inclines actively autonomous attitude to the contemporary regulatory order.
  • 11.

    Le Surréalisme et l’art Contemporain -À Travers la Peinture, la Mode, et L’exposition-

    Kwang-Heam Jeang | 2010, (45) | pp.237~283 | number of Cited : 0
    Maurice Nadeau distingue trois phases dans le développement du mouvement surréaliste-une période héroïque, une période analytique, et une période d’autonomie. Malgrè cette distinction, le surréalisme a toujours été multiple; des surréalismes peuvent bien se développer et rester vivalts dans les têtes. Durant l’année 1923, deux figures du monde littéraire et théâtral, Ivan Goll et Pau Dermée se réfèrent au terme ‘surréalisme’ inventé par Apollinaire en 1917 pour spécifier une forme d’expression dont les effets vont au-delà du réalisme, souvent grâce à des juxtapositions inattendues-une manifestation de ce qu’il appelle alors l’esprit nouveau. En même temps, il avait prononcé une conférence au théâtre du Vieux-Colombier, ‘l’esprit nouveau’. dans alquelle il faisait allusion aux poètes qui vous conduiront, viavnts et éveillés, dans le monde nocturne et clos du rêve. Ailleurs, on retouve souvent dans l’écriture surréaliste les éléménts relatifs au mystérieux et au merveilleux de l’art surréaliste, parfois diamétralement et parois plus subtilement opposés. Les traces, les pistes et les signaux désignent un extérieur et un intérieur. Une grande scène semble se jouer sous nos yeux, à moins qu’elle ne viennent de se dérouler, ne laissant que le décor. Les rapports entre les objets et les individus sont esquissés, suggérés, rarement explicités. La cruyauté semble chose courante, à donner foid dans le dos. Pourtant, une certaine dignité, une impassibilité face au destin se laissent deviner. Les objets ne sont plus bienveillants, chacun paraït porter en lui le poids d’un non-dit souvent menaçant. Un certain nombre de commentateurs ont établi un lien entre la violence et l’angoisse présentes ou implicites dans de nombreuses oeuvres surréalistes et les traumatisme engendrés par la première guerre mondiale. Ce lien est devenu en quelque sorte une découverte esthétique de la sensibilité contemporaine, souvent réinventée par les artistes. Ensuite, dans le domaine de la mode, on retrouve des imges et des objets surréalistes le plus souvent préférés ou profités par les inventeurs de la mode. Comme a dit Aragon, “la femme est l’avenir de l’homme”. Femme voyante, épouse castratrice, mélusine enchantée ou miroir de tous les fantasmes, cette femme douée des pouvoirs magiques de toute sorcière bien-aimée recourt à la mode pour exercer ses artifices. Avec son cérémonial, véritable machine à chavrier l’esprit, le surréalisme, près d’un siècle après sa mis en règle, influence encore aux gens de la mode. Peut-être même constitue-t-il le meilleur d’une mode qui aujourd’hui se porte moins qu’elle ne s’exhibe. Interroge moins qu’elle n’interpelle. Etonné moins désormais qu’elle ne détourne. Associant quête et désir, espoir et réalité comme les moteurs essentiels d’une hypothétique, mais définitive, libération des moeurs. Le surréalisme n’est pas encore mort. Selon Michael Lowy, le mouvement surréaliste était caractérisé par la devise bien connue combinant à la fois le transformer le monde de Karl Marxe et le changer la vie d’Arthur Rimbaud et ne pouvait se réduire à l’objectif contenu dans la phase anondine figurant dans le catalogue de l’exposition: “Participer à l’organisation de la société”. De fait, cette formulation faisait plus penser à une vente de charité annoncé dans un journal local qu’à l’aventure de transformation du monde et de l’esprit suggérée par le grand mot de ‘révolution’. Dans les oeuvres contemporaines qui s’inspirent de l’héritage surréaliste, on retrouve cette atmosphère d’excitation, de paradoxe, de contestation authentique, de parti pris et, surtout, de parti laissée au hasard. Ce qui ressort de la convergence de ces regards contemporains sur l’inquiétante étrangeté, l’inattendu et la passion pourrait bien être-si nous savons l’aborder dans une attitude de disponibilité-cet état de conscience transformé dans lequel le surréalisme continue d’exister.
  • 12.

    Study about the Background of Chinese Film Revival in 1930’s

    AHN, SANGHYUK | Han, Dal-Ho | 2010, (45) | pp.285~306 | number of Cited : 4
    This dissertation is aimed to introduce collected materials as precedence study process for Chinese film study in 1930’s. This time was got rid of the modern time’s identity, was represented personal thinking’s start, and considered individuals’ lives In a boundary between tradition and modern ages, combination of cultures was running in a rush without knowing time is running. Also, Shang-hai in 1930’s was a properly perfect space for film industrial development to present summarily the colonialistic modern, and offered film consumption circumstance. The left-wing line’s film directors who desired new change supported ‘the left-wing culture social business’ on having attention of that age’s society contradiction. Additionally, almost film makers informed resistance to Japan and democracy, left-wing films helped agitprop through film award to finally approach Chinese film’s golden era. 1930’s Chinese film was expressed human’s pain and reality as opposed to conceal Shang-hai’s splendorous and attractive side, and film’s massage was extremely impressed by sound’s effect the changing point from silent film to vocal film. Therefore, socialism realism films claimed anti-imperialism, semi-feudalism and the citizens’ centre, films of strong social characteristic were being exposed bitter reality in 1930’s films than conventional happy ending in 1920’s films. Also, a modern woman’s signification as modern values change was presented social identity, not by beauty’s object that patriarchy system defines.