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2011, Vol., No.47

  • 1.

    Cultural-philosophical consideration on the games and the myth in the digital convergence era.

    Kim jonggyu | 2011, (47) | pp.5~40 | number of Cited : 1
    The aim of this paper is to cultural-philosophically review the bond between online games and myth focusing on the dimension of digital convergence. Generally online games are a representative of rationality and myth is a representative of irrationality. Thus the bond between online games and myth is regarded as a bond between two different world views or a xenogeneic hybrid. This explains the bond between online games and myth as a mysterious phenomenon that the limit of rationality returns to the limit of irrationality. However in this explanation, the bond between online games and myth could not be fundamentally explained. Furthermore, the bond between online games and myth cannot be seen as xenogeneic hybrid. Let us consider why it is briefly. First, digital convergence does not mean a mere juxtaposition of different things. In the stream of digital convergence, the myth is digitally reduced, and thus the bond between online games and myth can not be regarded as a xenogeneic hybrid. Second, the games and the myth are not foreign in their origin. Games are play, and the play is traced back to the ritual, which is a dramatic element of myth. So, in the ritual, play and myth(or mythical thinking) were already bonded. In the mythical thinking, κρίσις(crisis,division) means disaster and disease which can be cured through a ritual. In this sense, the ritual was a kind of play therapy. This is the reason why we call for myth in the digital convergence era. In the digitalization, the separated individuals have a existential desire to maintain their identity, and they demand the myth in order to overcome this separatedness, human alienation. In this situation, the games bonded with myth involve a curing function which 『인문과학』 제47집- 40 -overcomes pathological phenomenon of the human alienation with its function of cyber communication. However the digitalization of the myth or mythical thinking could badly restrict the curing function of the myth or mythical thinking itself. Because myth could not be totally digitalized. If we understand myth in so far as it is digitalized, the original meaning of myth might be reduced and damaged. Futhermore, in this reduction and damage, the curing function of myth could be greatly restricted. Thus, if we have to maximize this curing function, we should accept the secret of myth, and the digitalization of myth should progress asymptotically.
  • 2.

    ‘TransHuman’, Eine kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung über hybrides Wesen von Maschine-Menschen 1 -Selbstorganization der Hybridisierung als eine theoretische Untersuchung des hybriden Wesens-

    Yun-Sun Kim | 2011, (47) | pp.41~56 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Es scheint so, dass die Theorie der Selbstorganisation bei der Hybridisierung von Menschen und Maschine im 21. Jahrhundert eine bedeutende Rolle spielt. Dabei ruft sie die wesentliche Frage des Menschen selbst hervor. Die Ermittlung der Menschen-Maschine-Beziehungen reflektiert die Verkettung zwischen dem Körper und der Maschine. Daher kommt es zu dem Ergebnis,dass sich das Biologische und das Mechanische zunehmend vermischen würden. Eben daran ist interessiert die vorliegende Untersuchung. Um Menschen-Maschine-Verquickung zu diskutieren, besteht sie aus den zwei Teilen: erster Teil: theoretische Untersuchung über die Selbstorganisation der Hybridisierung,zweiter Teil: kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung über die Verbindung zwischen dem Körper und der Maschine. Diese Arbeit wird als erster Teil insbesondere das theoretische Prizip der Selbstorganisation innerhalb des Prozesses der Hybridisierung behandeln. Die Selbstorganisation wird eigentliche nach den Gesetzen komplexer dynamischer Systeme in der Chemie entdeckt. Diese Arbeit läßt die Ergebnisse der Naturwissenschaft ebenso in den geisteswissenschaftlichen Diskurs einfließen. Daher erörtert sie die Interaktion innerhalb der Selbstorganisation. Interaktivität weist im Allgemein auf eine Wechselbeziehung zwischen zwei oder mehreren Heterogenen hin, bei der implizit Informationen ausgetauscht werden. In diesem Sinne steht die Hybridisierung in einem Zusammenhang mit dem logischen Prinzip der Selbstorganisation. Die Selbstorganisation der Hybridisierung bewirkt durch interaktive Selbststrukturierung ausgelöste organisatorische Veränderung.
  • 3.

    Milton’s View of Education Reform -A Study on Milton’s Of Education-

    KIM SEONGHOON | 2011, (47) | pp.57~80 | number of Cited : 2
    Milton’s Of Education was published in 1644. In this anonymous eight page tract, Milton’s purpose was to lay down principles for ‘a complete and generous education’ designed for peace and war. Milton, however, addressed himself to a much deeper and more universal issue of ‘repair[ing] the ruins of our first parents by regaining to know God aright.’ Serving a dual purpose in education Milton proposed to set up a secular institution, Academy where he planned liberal arts program that will place human in relation to both God and civil society. Despite its brevity and causal origin, Milton’s Of Education was distinguished by the loftiness of his aim that anchored to the earthly method. Driven by the Realistic movement of the period Milton emphasized ‘orderly conning over the visible and inferior creature.’ But Milton was still a Renaissance child who cannot keep himself outside the “old renowned authors’ of the past. Also,Milton was very much influenced by Encyclopaedist like Comenius. Milton’s curriculum was, therefore, at once Realistic, Humanistic and Encyclopaedic. Milton’s teaching methods addressed learning in a number of pleasant ways:stressing the correct sequence of studies; insisting on teaching by example,using gentle persuasion; and, recognizing the individual differences. Milton’s Of Education was a product of his time. Like other contemporary reformers Milton was quarreling with scholastic learning from which grew many mistakes that have made learning unpleasing and unsuccessful. Yet Milton’s noble ideas for reforming education may have their relevance today:Milton’s scheme of liberal education can be an alternative to the current market assault on education; Milton’s methodical thinking can be an earnest plea for making learning-experience ‘a happy nurture’; and, Milton’s claim to national education system for social progress can be a merit everlasting.
  • 4.

    Seaway Envoy Trip in 1636 and 『Sungㆍjeongㆍbyeongㆍjaㆍjoㆍcheonㆍrok (崇禎丙子朝天錄)』 of Lee Man Yeong(李晩榮)

    ChangRoc Jo | 2011, (47) | pp.81~100 | number of Cited : 6
    1636 was the year of Byeongㆍjaㆍhoㆍran(丙子胡亂) by which Qing invaded Joseon and Joseon surrendered to Qing. Battle between Ming and Qing occurred near Shanㆍhaiㆍguan(山海關) also in 1636. Lee Man Yeong(李晩榮)had experienced these historical events during his envoy trip from 1636 to 1637. The record of that envoy trip is 『Sungㆍjeongㆍbyeongㆍjaㆍjoㆍcheonㆍrok(崇禎丙子朝天錄)』. Two important characteristics of the envoy trip are as follows: first, it was a seaway envoy trip to Beijing under Qing’s control of East Liao(遼東) region. Second, it became the last envoy trip to Ming due to Joseon’s surrender to Qing. Now, there are two records of this envoy trip; 『Joㆍgyeongㆍilㆍrok(朝京日錄)』 and 『Joㆍcheonㆍrok(朝天錄)』 written by Kim Yuk(金堉). Considering these, this article examined some significant contents contained in 『Sungㆍjeongㆍbyeongㆍjaㆍjoㆍcheonㆍrok』. First, this article examined the selection of delegation and its trip route. It was found that envoy ships had often sunk in the route and most officials evaded being selected for the envoy while some people tried to participate in the envoy, even giving some bribe, to get profit from the seaway trade. Second, 『Sungㆍjeongㆍbyeongㆍjaㆍjoㆍcheonㆍrok』 contains rare information and historic facts that cannot be found in other materials, such as the situations of Ming vs. Qing battle and diplomatic activities around Byeongㆍjaㆍhoㆍran. This article paid attention especially to these points. chief researcher of Daedong Institude in Sungkyunkwan University/
  • 5.

    Korean Woman Poetry and Narcissism

    Jin SoonAe | 2011, (47) | pp.101~124 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper shows a relation of narcissism and woman poetry in the early of 20c of Korea. Free love and writing were the conditions of Korean feminism practice of the early of 20c. The feministes were single, divorced, and intellectual women who had no good relation and settlement with their patriarchal lovers. Ironically their lost lovers was a motif for their writing which was a more wise feminism practice than free love. They wrote to resist the patriarchal society politically. KimMyoungSoon and NoCheonMyoung were also single and intellectual women who were narcissistes. Their poetry represented of narcissism is based on the ideal world. Because the ideal world is a narcissism code to subvert the patriarchal society. Their poetry is composed of double narcissism selves, the alienated self and the ideal self. Furthermore, two women’s poetry stand for a writing of modern self-discovery in the early of 20c of Korea.
  • 6.

    Storytelling and City Design -City Storytelling with Use of Sensuous Feature of Epic Story-

    Kim, Chang-Hyun | 2011, (47) | pp.125~146 | number of Cited : 6
    This paper addresses that Seoul, the biggest urban city of Korea, should be designed as a place comprising time and story aura through storytelling. A story has a power to move readers by taking out hidden truths through concreteness and configurationally and to let them to keep the contents in mind for longer time. Eventually it encourages a better grasp of understanding and communication by having the storytelling object tread to its past and origin. Such attributes are effective in restoring Seoul’s fading sense of place. The sense of place is established and strengthened by the space relevant accumulated experiences, which are likely to be reconstructed in their consciousness. The reconstruction process is identical to that of storytelling. The story lines provide readers with indirect experiences and structuralize past events in a valuable and inspiring way, subsequently incurring equivalent effect to that of accumulated experiences for long time. Here, a 7 stage working sequence is presented for the redesigning of the metropolitan image of Seoul, a city where a story triggers another story subsequently, with the purpose of ‘Brand image establishment based on Seoul’s sense of place.’ The first stage is to foster core epic stories with key-images and then to reconstruct the city image based on these stories. Every single discovered and collected story might bring a significance, however such core epic stories are especially expected to unveil stories as sources of films,dramas, or novels while placing the history of Seoul in the lime light. As the urban city has been an important place in which people lead their lives, the storytelling of the city will serve as basic content resource for other cultural industries.
  • 7.

    Joyce’s Narrative Strategy of Palimpsest and His Historical Perception

    Dauk-Suhn Hong | 2011, (47) | pp.147~170 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper deals with Joyce’s historical sense and ideology in terms of the strategy of his narrative writing which is very similar with the medieval text of the palimpsest. In the medieval period, the palimpsest text on the parchment has been scraped off and can be used again. A palimpsest is thus of interest because, in an illusion of layered depth, “otherwise unrelated texts are involved and entangled, intricately interwoven, interrupting and inhabiting each other.”The process of palimpsest has a continuing relevance to the strategy of Joyce’s historical writing. It brings to light the past text which change the very way we interpret and know that past. This study is mainly focused on how the Irish national history of “The Murders in Dublin Phoenix Park” in May 6, 1882 was textualized in Ulysses:the processes of intentional errors, the complex palimpsest, and the melodramatic romance. Joyce delighted in having his characters of Ulysses display their imperfect historical memories so that the readers fall into confusion and doubt about which are factual and fictional. The writer even intertwined this historical event with the others in its representation, to make the text a kind of palimpsest writing. By this narrative method of palimpsest writing, all of the courageous sacrifice of the revolutionary heroes are parodied in the melodramatic situation. Joyce attempted to expose and subvert Irish popular culture’s received notion of the national heroic martyrdom. It is the way for him to rebel the immutability of history, and to open the infinite possibility of national history.
  • 8.

    The Aspects of Official memories and Division Images showed on the War related photo exhibitions -Photographies as the medium of records and arts-

    KIM SANG MI | 2011, (47) | pp.171~204 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper aims to analyze the aspects of official memories which are showed in Korean War related photo exhibition, and to examine deconstructing features of official memories(ideology of anticommunism) focusing on photo exhibitions of post-war photographers. For example, the exhibitions held during a certain period especially 1960s to 1990s have a extraordinary characters, for the memories of photographers were formed by selective procedure affected by documentary photos that were the origin of the War and the division. Hence,the major medium of photographies have helped Korean government’s reproducing the division images project as historical records and the educational materials for anticommunism. The research tells us that the history of photo exhibitions, commemorating the Korean War, had two turning points, which could be before 1990s and after 2000. Photographies of post-war generation show mostly two main features;they objectified official memories and against them at the same time, which are the characteristics showed especially after 2000. Besides, the photos objectified official memories of 1960s-1990s as well. Those features are the very reason of dissolving official memories, pursuing documentary value and artistic value at the same time. Overall, images of the war and the division have concentrated on more artistic value, showing contemporary ‘autobiographical memories’. Meanwhile, it shows whole different images emerging opposite view with it. In other words,photographers’ memories which had been formed by experiencing photo exhibitions of 1960s-1990s made photos of the War and the division change into the artistic objects. Therefore, examining these changes could be a significant procedure to analyze all the images remained. The constant history of 60 years and parallel-psychological conflicts between South and North Korea has been never better without a certain fundamental solution. To examine the possible solution of these conflicts among generations,regions, and ideologies, this paper tried to analyze the history of trial overcoming the division situation, researching the exhibitions of post-war generation. This is a trial of understanding the dissolving procedure of official memories that objectified the Korean War and created an anticommunism. That is, the images made by post-war generation could be examples to prove the changes of the history of photographies and the artistic values. Division images of photographies have perverted the original meaning of War in politicalㆍsocialㆍcultural ways. Thus, these transformed images made by reorganizing documentary photos have been obtaining more reliability than ever, creating more different images from the origin.
  • 9.

    The Educational Background of the Chinese Foreign Envoys in the Latter Era of the Qing Dynasty

    Kim, Jong-Sung | 2011, (47) | pp.205~228 | number of Cited : 0
    The Sinocentrism of Chinese people was visibly shaken by the Opium War(1840). Did the Chinese foreign envoys in the late 19th century have objective intellectual capacity that could relieve the shock of a world view and adapt themselves to their overseas place of work? This paper studied this subject. To solve this question, this paper investigated the educational background of the Chinese foreign envoys in the latter era of the Qing Dynasty. They were 61 persons. The first Chinese foreign envoy was Guo Chongdao, the diplomatic minister to the British Empire. He was dispatched to the British Empire in 1875. He had graduated from Yuelu Academy and passed the last examination for office. He was a typical traditional intellectual. The traditional intellectuals as him was 41persons. They hold a majority. They didn’t receive an education that was necessary for understanding the Western. Rong Hong was the first Chinese student studying in USA. He was dispatched to USA in 1875. The foreign envoys who had studied abroad as him was 7 persons. They received an education that was necessary for understanding the Western and performing their functions at their overseas post. Wang Fengzao was the first envoy who had graduated from Tongwenguan,a government school for teaching Western languages, founded Beijing in 1862. The foreign envoys who had graduated from Tongwenguan as Wang Fengzao was 12 persons. The education that they had received wasn’t suited to understanding the Western, but suited to performing their functions at their overseas post. As above, the Chinese foreign envoys in the latter era of the Qing Dynasty was mostly traditional intellectuals. The majority of them didn’t receive an education that was necessary for understanding the Western. Even if the graduates of Tongwenguan began to stand out since 1902, it was too late.
  • 10.

    Die Entwicklung der Lesemedien und der Wandel der Lesekultur

    Sangwon Ahn | 2011, (47) | pp.229~256 | number of Cited : 5
    Bei dieser Arbeit handelt es sich um eine Überlegung über die Einflüsse der Lesemedien auf die Lesekultur. Das Alphabet hat einen endgültigen Beitrag zur Formung der frühen Zivilisationen geleistet. Die Dominenz der Literalität hat die auf Oralität beruhende, primitive Gemeinschaft aufgelöst und die Ständeverteilung bewirkt. Von der Antike bis zur Moderne hat die Entwicklung des Lesemediums ständige Einflüsse auf die jeweilige Gesellschaft und Kultur ausgeübt. Die Erfindung des Buchdruckes im 15. Jarhrhundert hat die kirchlichen und weltlichen Autoritäten entkräftet. Sie hatte allgemeine Verbreitung des Wissens zur Folge, und beförderte den Fortschritt aus dem Mittelalter in die Moderne. Im 18. Jarhrhundert hat sich eine allgemeine Lesekultur in Westeuropa verbreitet. Zwischen der Produktion(Autor), der Rezeption(Leser), und der Distribution(Verlag/ Buchhandel) wurde ein kommunikatives System konstruiert. Nach dem Ende der ‘Gutenberg-Galaxis’ ermöglichte die Digitaltechnik eine Revolution des elektronischen Publizierens. Das Lesemedium für E-books hat sich vom PC zum tragbaren E-Book-Lesegerät entwickelt. Digital-Convergence-Medien wie Smartphone und Tablet-PC sind auch als Lesemedien zu gebrauchen. Digitale Publizierung und neue digitale Lesemedien verursachten eine Veränderung der Lesekultur. Dadurch wurden die Autor-Leser-Beziehung und die Struktur der Publizierung und Distribution neu definiert. Neue Medien haben neue Leseweise entstehen lassen. Mit einem digitalen Lesemedium wird die Mobilität des Lesens am höchsten verstärkt. Überdies erschaffen die Digital-Convergence-Medien eine mehrfache Räumlichkeit im Cyberspace. Man kann allein mit einem Digital-Gerät verschiedene Aktivitäten ausführen. Die Grenzen dieser Räume im Cyberspace sind sehr leicht zu überschreiten, deswegen kann auch das konzentriertes Lesen leicht gestört werden. Für de Jugendlichen, die ein Convergence-Gerät als ein Lesemedium verwenden, bekommt das Lesen eine neue Bedeutung als ein Kommunikationsakt. Die leicht lesbaren Texte, die jungen Leser gerne lesen, sind Medien für ihre Kommunikation und ihre eigene Kultur. In der digitalen Lesekultur verändern sich auch die Funktion der Bibliothek. Sie bietet nicht nur analoge Materialien wie Bücher an, sondern auch digitale audiovisuelle Informationen durch verschiedene Medien. Zukünftige Bibliotheken können neue Aufgabe als ein Knotenpunkt ausführen, eine große Menge disitalisierte Informationen zu versammeln und miteinander zu verbinden.
  • 11.

    1930’s China Shang-hai Film Study to memorize Modern history

    Han, Dal-Ho | 2011, (47) | pp.257~274 | number of Cited : 3
    This study is aimed to consider how to remember and interpret about Shang-hai’s Modern city through the content analysis on two films <Street Angel>(1937) and <Crossroads>(1937) on 1930’s China Shang-hai’s characteristic to memorize Modern history. Shang-hai’s memory in Film, which appears in the character relationship at city’s space as modern’s symbol, is expressed as the ambivalence figure of comedy and tragedy through the subject’s desire on fantasy and reality as the relationship of character and city. Additionally, it expressed to connect to progressive meaning for modern space to transpose as society from personal trouble. In particular, as carrying into film from reality it could be shown the will of willing diversion for comedy life through romance of tragedy trouble about social reality. Although on the magnificent Shang-hai’s two aspects the main characters in <Street Angel> and <Crossroads> have hard lives at pathetic space, their lives were appeared to contrast life’s will as living city’s lower class people without losing bright smile. They attempt to escape from financial difficulties and pressure life as unemployment. However, poverty and hopelessness reality that cannot solve merely as their will comes true to them. This reality was represented as hopeful massage to overcome with love.
  • 12.

    Avatar Discourse

    AHN, SANGHYUK | 2011, (47) | pp.275~290 | number of Cited : 2
    The emergence of the popular internet social networking portals such as Facebook, and Tweeter, enables real time interaction among the users via texting. And, the recent coming of the film <Avatar> had prompted renewed attention and interest to the concept of avatar. Together, these call for the need to realign our perception of avatar and the virtual environment. The common expectation that the public had for second life’ with the usage of avatars is not heading in the direction that we had originally intended for. therefore, there needs to be a statement that can justify the need for re-establishment of the core concept of avatar. In this digital age, people feel content to stand behind the virtual mask or avatar that digital technology provides. Therefore, often they are visited by anxious, uneasy, alienated feeling when they question about the meaning of their real-life existence. The more profoundly they bore themselves, the more powerfully do they serve to divert these people who bore themselves. So, those who design avatar should underatand those others who bore to entertain others. The presence of anxiety and uneasiness reveals and veils the nature of human and freedom. In conclusion, the purpose of this research is to re-define and expand the concept of avatar through understanding of existence in Kierkegaard.