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2011, Vol., No.48

  • 1.

    J. Dewey’s View of Reality and Its Implications for Education

    MooGil Kim | 2011, (48) | pp.5~31 | number of Cited : 2
    Traditional epistemology pre-supposes that there is the permanent, ultimate reality separated from human experience. However, according to Dewey, the idea of ultimate reality is merely the place of refuge to escape the indeterminate, dangerous situations of life. In fact, the place of refuge does not exist. Dewey downgrades the status of reality from the meta-physical reality to the practical world of experience. Dewey’s concept of reality has two co-related meanings. One is the natural world surrounding us, the other is our meaning construction of life-experience. We can call the former as phenomenal reality,the latter as constructive reality. Phenomenal reality means the existences prior to the inquiry and discovery, constructive reality means experiential meaning construction through thinking and inquiry. Phenomenal reality and constructive reality are co-related closely, having continual relation in a transactional situation. This co-relationship helps a unit experience to become a meaningful object of knowledge. In other words, when a constructive reality is a warranted assertion, it becomes an object of knowledge, and this process of construction gives the momentum toward the continual growth of experience. In this point,the growth of experience is identical with the extension of cognition about reality. Therefore educators need to research into the educative environment for learners to experience the construction of reality, and to perform the role of mediator to incite learner’s thinking.
  • 2.

    In Xinjing(新京), Poet 백석 「흰 바람벽이 있어」

    Eunggyo Kim | 2011, (48) | pp.33~63 | number of Cited : 8
    In the 1940s, the poems of Baek Seok mostly treated the subject matters which he described his wandering life in Xinjing(新京, New capital) of the Great Manchu State(Manchukuo). This study referred to previous study and looked onto the poem 「There is a white wall(흰 바람벽이 있어)」 as for the aspect of the Space of Xinjing and Modernism. The first, 「There is a white wall」 also should be noted that an innocent voice is one of the way to gain the sympathy, and is related to the agonizing reality. But we have to notice that 「There is a white wall」 is completely different with another poetry written by another poets who wrote on the poverty of the wanderer in the Great Manchu State. The second, 「There is a white wall」 is a kind of Narrative poem but it is a Cene-Poem that it has a character of a ‘showing’ that a ‘telling’. This poem seemed to have been influenced by Cine-poetry. This research focuses on the Movie imaginations of Baek Seok’s poetry. The third, The fact that Baek’s romanticism does not indulge in sentimentalism and that he boldly describes the pain of reality, we can see that Baek Seok’s poetry has a substantial element of modernity in it. In the 「There is a white wall」, We can notice a Visual-Modernity. The fourth, Baek often quoted Laotzu, Confucius, Lunwen, Dubo and other Eastern classics, and such quotations usually displayed seclusive and escapist lifestyle. The secluded imaginations found in Baek’s later poems are evidence of his escapist attitude. As discussed above, Baek Seok’s poetry preserves heterogeneity of things,and pursues a harmonious, coexisting and matricentric community. This research is based on a unique foundation that modem characteristics of Baek Seok’s poetry can be verified through the way he used Visual imaginations in his work. This study is about Baek Seok’s poems which had an excellent literary achievement in the late of 1940’s.
  • 3.

    Cultural-philosophical Consideration on the Digital Media

    Kim jonggyu | 2011, (48) | pp.65~91 | number of Cited : 4
    The aim of this paper is to cultural-philosophically review the bond between digital media and culture, focusing on the dimension of digital convergence. Smart-phone is representative of smart media. Smart media construct the wired society, and are becoming the new variable in building human culture. This phenomenon implies the process of cultural admission of smart media. Thus, in order to explain the bond between digital media and human culture, we must trace the conditions of admitting digital media. The main condition of admitting digital media is the similarity of the both. Digital media have the fundamental character of the convergence media. This character is made by digital convergence in which media are converged. Media convergence is governed by the principle of modularity. This principle is similar with the principle of pars pro toto in human cultural structure. Because both of the principles regulates the relation between parts and whole. The cultural admission of digital media is based on this similarity. However, despite of this similarity, there is difference in the integrating way of the parts. This difference may ingenerate disharmomy between desire which wants to be united communication network and way which meets the desire. The possibility of overcoming this disharmony is found in the change of the reality. The communication network of the digital media asks for the change of reality which does not support the network any more. The changed reality is the mixed reality. The main point of the mixed reality is the deterritorialization. Through this, the virtual and the real are not distinguished any more. In fact, distinguishing between the virtual and the real is originally unfamiliar with the human reality. Because human ‘lived reality’always has hung between the virtual and the real. But our understanding of the mixed reality is based on the dichotomous way of thinking that distinguishes the real from the virtual. This understanding is bringing about the problem of territorialization which tries to control the new reality by the existing way.
  • 4.

    장자 개인의 욕망과 자유 Ⅱ-개체 본성과 욕망 주체에 관한 연구-

    김희 | 2011, (48) | pp.93~114 | number of Cited : 5
    본 논문은 장자의 철학에서 강조되고 있는 性의 의미를 개체의 자기보존적인 생명활동과 연계하여 살펴보는 것을 목적으로 한다. 이것을 통해서 필자는 개체의고유한 性이 발현되는 의미를 온전한 삶에 대한 인간의 욕망과 연계하여 살펴본다. 이것을 위해서 필자는 장자의 철학에서 부각되고 있는 性에 대한 담론체계의발전과정을 선진시대 초기 철학가들의 사상을 통해서 살펴본다. 이러한 과정은 춘추전국시대의 특수한 시대상황과 맥을 같이한다. 다시 말해서 통일제국의 형성을위한 새로운 사회질서의 확립은 인간과 사회의 조화를 위한 보편의 원리를 요구하게 만든다. 이런 측면에서 볼 때 장자의 철학에서 부각되고 있는 개체가 지니는있는 고유한 본성에 대한 논의는 인간에 대한 새로운 이해를 가능하게 한다. 또한인간에 대한 이와 같은 이해의 변화과정은 선진시대 초기 철학자들에 의해 제기된인간 본성에 관한 논의들을 토대로 하고 있다. 그러므로 필자는 장자의 철학에서강조되고 있는 性에 대한 이해를 인간 개체의 자기보전적인 생명활동과 연계하여 살펴보고, 그 의미를 온전한 삶에 대한 인간의 욕망과 연계하여 살펴본다.
  • 5.

    A Study of the Mind-Body Theory in Spinoza -Related to Strawson’s Person Theory-

    Sam-Yel Park | 2011, (48) | pp.115~139 | number of Cited : 1
    Since Desecrate clearly distinguished mind and the body as substance thinking and substance extended, mind-body issue has formed the main question of philosophy. Spinoza, the successor of Desecrate, acknowledged the one substance and in a position of regarding mind and body as two parts of identical substance, tried to overcome the problem of mind-body theory in Desecrate. In this paper, I considered Spinoza’s mind-body theory with the emphasis on Ethica. Especially, in chapter Ⅴ, by examining Spinoza’s doubleaspect theory with its modified theories of Strawson’s person theory, it is defined that Spinoza’s mind-body theory can provide a clue on mind-body issue that is discussed in contemporary philosophy of mind. It can be said that there are two main achievement Spinoza had made in the field of mind-body theory. First, he was the first philosopher who clearly opposed to the dualism thinking of mind and body which the idea had generally flown from Platon at the beginning and through the Middle Age, the Renaissance and to Desecrate. Second, Spinoza’s thought on mind and body seemed to promise real insight into the nature of mind and body in contemporary philosophy of mind as Spinoza’s double-aspect theory continued to Strawson. Spinoza’s double aspect theory which is a kind of neutral monism tried to solve the mind-body problem by overcoming identity theory, despite the fact that they are both monism. For this reason, though Spinoza’s mind-body theory was in many aspects insufficient, it is worth to put much importance on his theory. Spinoza’s mind-body theory dealt in this paper has the purpose of seeking the settlement of mind-body issue by searching from the very root of its origin. In addition, it is believed that Spinoza’s mind-body theory implies the possibility of the settlement to be made as one valuable classic theory.
  • 6.

    Korean Traditional Music of the Early 20th Century -A Commodity Aesthetics Approach-

    Sanghwan Bak | 홍희주 | 2011, (48) | pp.141~168 | number of Cited : 2
    The present study examines the cultural value of the traditional music as it is created and distributed as a commercial product in the early 20th century. From a commodity aesthetics standpoint, the study analyzes the impact of the theater, the record industry, and broadcasting media on popularization of the early 20th century traditional music in modern Korean history. By doing so, the present study seeks to identify the social communication and change in perception of traditional music from a commodity aesthetics standpoint. During the 17th to 18th century, as Seoul evolved into an industrial city, its inhabitants began to enjoy music with worldly entertainment. At this period of time, music was divided into that which was preferred by the high class and that of the common class. As the 19th century opened, however, the music culture expanded to the masses, and the emergence of the theater and Hyeop Ryul Sa the around 1900 century strengthened the popularization of traditional culture and the performance culture of the traditional art form. The development of the record and radio as mass media in the early 20th century rooted traditional music as popular music genre. In addition, music enjoyed only within the realm of respective classes were pervading to the masses through the means of record industry. By 1930, the boundary that had separated high art from low art was blurred with the spread of the gramophone. Music became available anywhere to anyone. Traditional music covered the majority of recorded music in the early 20th century, which explains the musical taste of the masses that brought about profit for the capitalistic product. Radio broadcast, which took off with the establishment of Kyungseong Broadcasting Station in 1927, became a national medium. The limitation of accessibility of imperial and traditional music disappeared with radio broadcast. Such phenomenon may be defined as a creation of a tradition and modern transformation. The prevalence of traditional music in the theater and radio broadcast in the early 20th century shows that the theater, record and broadcast industry of the time adopt edit as ‘capitalistic commodity culture’ due to its commercial value. The ‘sign value’ and ‘aestheticity’ of traditional music was adopted to make consumption of such modern medium easily accessible for consumers. The past and present in modernization process is confronted along with interpretation of tradition, and perspectives on cultural essentialism and cultural change is easily found within traditional discourse. The development of high quality cultural content that is founded on tradition is accomplished by reinterpretation of culture. Reinterpretation of culture calls for aesthetic correspondence that is appropriate to the particular period of time.
  • 7.

    Total Digitalization and Future of Humanities

    Seung Ug Park | 2011, (48) | pp.169~186 | number of Cited : 0
    In this paper I have suggested a new possibility of Humanities in the new digital environment. Digital revolution make a change our everyday life and paradigms of sciences. At a first glance, this radical change seems to have negative influence on the future of Humanities. Everything which is given to us can be translation in binary language representation by digital technology-I have called this phenomenon to “total digitalization”. It means that humanities has to give up the traditional paradigm. But it means at the same time that we have a new powerful tool of representation. A new possibility of humanities lies, I believe, in this new language, because myths, sciences, and humanities are all attempts to modelling of the multiple world which we live in. A historical reflection of science makes this point clear.
  • 8.

    L’Etude sur l’image de l’eau chez Jules Supervielle-à travers Gravitations

    LEE Goo-Hyun | 2011, (48) | pp.187~210 | number of Cited : 0
    Supervielle est né à Montevideo (Uruguay) le 16 janvier 1884 ; en octobre de la même année, alors qu’il avait huit mois, ses parents ont trouvé la mort en France, à Oloron-Sainte-Marie. Suite à cette mort accidentelle, Supervielle a dûrevenir à Montevideo avec son oncle. Plus tard, quant il fut en âge d’étudier, il fit la navette entre Paris et Montévidéo, qu’il rejoignait pour les vacances. Il paraît donc naturel que le voyage sur l’eau et les expériences qui y sont liées constituent un paysage poétique dans son oeuvre. Il y a cent ans environ, sur un bateau qui n’est pas plus grand, ni plus moderne qu’un bateau d’aujourd’hui, Supervielle, âgé quatorze ans, s’est adonnéà l’écriture de poèmes. Qu’était la mer pour lui ? Il a vu d’abord l’horizon, avec sa beauté et tout ce qu’il évoque d’inconnu et de liberté ; c’est lui qui a lui a donné le courage de se lancer vers l’ailleurs. A partir de Gravitations-Supervielle a alors quarante ans-cet horizon se mue en mer profonde, devient l’incarnation de sa propre mère et de lui-même. Pour reprendre l’expression de Michel Collot,les “horizons verticaux” s’installent en lui. On peut voir là le signe que Supervielle est devenu poète de l’intérieur. La mer, au delà de l’homophonie fatidique pour Supervielle, devient un espace symbolique où ses paroles oniriques s’écoulent sur le thème de la mer-mère. Il crée ses poèmes à partir du silence de la mer qu’il croit entendre, animé par “le souffle de son mensonge”. L’eau supervillienne est un élément qui lui permet de glisser dans un murmure incessant. L’eau de la mer, qui vit comme un grand silence matérialisé,“bourdonne” pour Supervielle. Il faut la considérer comme “l’eau parlante”. Selon Bachelard, “[s]a liquidité est (…) le désir même de son langage”. Dans cet univers de la mer-mère, se déploie “le mythe du noyé”. Il imagine “un village sur les flots”. Dans la poésie “Le survivant”, le passage de la vie à la mort s’effectue sans violence grâce au cheval, représenté comme psychopompe. A travers les symboles du langage et du cheval, Supervielle imagine une autre forme de survie, plus poétique ; le poète noyé perçoit la mer comme un espace paisible d’où “les bêtes de son enfance et de la Création”viennent “comme s’il était au pays natal”. En recevant le pouvoir de la parole de l’eau et en transmettant une sorte de rassurance, le poète chantonne dans un pays de fable “où l’on ne peut pas mourir”. Nous avançons vers la mer qui ne peut plus aujourd’hui Mettre fin à notre fuite. Notre coeur se fait salin dessous la fable des eaux (…)D’autres ondulent aveugles remorquant les féeries De quelque poète noyéQui croit encore à la vie. “Loin de l’humaine saison”Sur un bateau transatlantique, le poète devrait écrire en pensant à la mort de sa mère, mort qui joue un rôle fondamental pour l’exploration de son univers intérieur ; peut-être sent-il aussi l’odeur intime de la mer imprégnée de ses rêveries grâce au pouvoir purificatif de l’eau. C’est sans doute pour cette raison que Marcel Raymond a pu écrire que Supervielle est “né peut-être de quelque souffle, dans le plein-ciel de la pampa, ou d’une écume blanche de l’Atlantique-Sud, face à la nuit crépitante d’étoiles”.
  • 9.

    Paik Nam June and FLUXUS -Nam June Paik as a Center of FLUXUS Performance by the Contant of Material-

    Cheon Seon-Ja | 2011, (48) | pp.211~251 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Paik Nam June was incredibly educated, he was familiar with all the German philosophers(Hegel, Heideger) and writers and Buddhism. He was a great enricher to that post-serial or still serial music scene. In 1957-1959,<Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik> in Darmstadt was the centre of modern art. Schoenberg and Weber and their music had already accustomed our ears to shrill tones, but that had not happend in ‘visual art’ yet. In art, there was Tachismus and also abstract art, but it didn’t hurt our eyes the way the music hurt our ears. In the sphere of visual art, it was still a matter of visible things that did not hurt. But Paik hurt our ears and our eyes with acoustic and visual collage, and that was his intention. Yet Paik was not determined to create new objects, but to create new states of awareness(Bewusstseinszustaende). His concern was with the deeply philosophical: what is the square root of ... what is the quintessence?Cologne was a center of modern music with Electronic Studio. For that reason Paik came to Cologne. The occupying forces had divided Germany into five zones and that each zone had its own radio programme. They were competing with and against one another with new music of diverse genres and in that way man got far many modern music on those different, decentralized radio programmes. Germany, as a result of this division into separate radio stations, led the way, and WDR Cologne was the most progressive broadcaster. Here Paik was never one of Karlheinz Stockhausen’s pupils, as one can often read or hear today in the media. But he was a close observer. He was always a loner and certainly a man on his own. At that time, when he was welcome in Jean Pierre Wilhelm’s Galerie 22 in 1958-59, he was not a group. Later,when Maciunas came from America, he always became a part of people who attached themselves to him, or he himself joined in with Things. The avantgard artists in the Rheinland had Dada-intention and asceticism and in September 1958 paik entered into this situation with his keen mind and his demand that music had to move things-he was still a musician. And than in Winter he was going to change medium, to enter art soon. In 13. November 1959 he did the first concert <Hommage à John Cage> in Galerie 22,Düsseldorf. He could play the piano fantastically. But in 6. September 1960 in concert <Etude für Piano Forte> he played Chopin-and at the moment when man was all happily listening to Chopin, he suddenly banged his head on the keys and dashed all their expectations of ultimate ‘salvation though the classical and harmonious’. Exactly it was the destruction of traditional music and performance by him. And than he was something in-between, between music and art. And that sums up in the <Originale>(1961.10.26-11.6), that is the originalle people-artists-, Paik as painter, and played some time of their own. Paik was in such a state of concentration with his hands in front of his face. At the same time the Kontakte are playing, with incredibly alien sounds, there is this Zen-like peace, the thin ascetic face of Paik: that was a moment of deep emotion. he performed something different every evening. It all had something to do with DADA revival. He was still the loner at the time. It was Paik with his own distress, with his knowledge of culture, with his crossing over the borders between music and the visual, and with his consciousness of action and time. And he brought an enhancement that truly moved Europe. But there was no Fluxus yet. Basically, abstract Modernism was dead, its pretensions were too high, and Paik had seen these things on a very deep level, had experienced them deeply,and he introduced them again in an entirely different way. He said the way it was <Fluxus> as “a new world”, where he was a center of the group as organizations man, as performer, as assistant.
  • 10.

    Korean Wave Viewed from ‘Comparison of the Eastern and Western Cultures’ -The Possibility of New Popular Culture-

    Hyesun Jeong | 2011, (48) | pp.253~276 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper analyzed the particularity appeared in the stories of Korean wave drama contents by comparing the Eastern and Western cultures, and based on this, attempted to explore the possibility of Korean cultural industry from the viewpoint of humanities by identifying the position of Korean wave in the world. Through the comparison of the Eastern and Western cultures, it could be confirmed that Korean culture is characterized by ‘the ultimate of mind,dynamism, and oneness. Also, Korean dramas are products in which various factors such as interest, commercial viability, and trends are put together and I proved that such Korean culture is reflected on the story structure. Korean dramas have great advantages in that they use the world’s common languages such as justice, hope, and pure mind and draw all men to make them heroes of emotion. Accordingly, Korean dramas are currently new popular culture concentrating on oneness of mind, arising from grafting things that are oriental and Korean. At the same time, they also have the possibility of becoming a cultural phenomenon in that they are expanded to, and accepted by the world including Europe and the U.S. beyond Asia. As confirmed through Korean dramas, Korean wave has certainly overcome the stageof fashion that is bound to disappear, and it is concluded that they exist as the possibility of new popular culture.
  • 11.

    The Trends of Arts and Sciences among Noble Families in Seoul in the 19th Century and the Trends of Thought in the Late Ming Dynasty

    HAN, YOUNG GYU | 2011, (48) | pp.277~300 | number of Cited : 5
    The late Ming Dynasty is a very remarkable period in the history of Chinese thoughts and arts and sciences. Contemporary Chinese aesthetician Cheng Fu-wang divided the streams of Chinese thoughts into Confucianism, Taoism,Buddhism and Qu Yuan, and added the thoughts of the late Ming Dynasty as another stream, identifying five mainstreams. Including Qu Yuan in Confucianism and Buddhism in Taoism, Chang Fa viewed Chinese thoughts as three lines, namely, Confucianism, Taoism and the thoughts in the late Ming Dynasty. New interests in the thoughts of the late Ming Dynasty are found also in research on Chinese literature in Korea. Recently, research is being conducted actively on the relation between Chinese literature in the late Chosun Dynasty and the Gongan School in the late Ming Dynasty. Expanding the viewpoint further, this study examined how the thoughts in the late Ming Dynasty were understood and received in Korean arts and sciences during the 19th century. Shishuoshinyu appeared in the period of Wei-Jin, but was spotlighted and reinterpreted during the late Ming Dynasty, and is considered the prelude of thoughts in the late Ming Dynasty. Along with Lee Tak-oh, Won Goeing-do,Tang Hyeon-jo, Seo Wi, Pung Mong-ryong, etc., Jin Gye-yu is a literary man representing the thoughts of the late Ming Dynasty. From the results of search using two keywords ‘Shishuoshinyu’ and ‘Jin Gye-yu’s writings,’ we found that noble families in Seoul in the 19th century such as Hong Seok-ju, Hong Gil-ju,Lee Yu-won and Jeong Won-yong, and literati like Jang Hon, Jo Hee-ryong and Lee Gyu-gyeong who associated with such families digested the thoughts of the late Ming Dynasty from a large variety of angles. The thoughts of the late Ming Dynasty penetrated through the late Chosun Dynasty from Heo Gyun and Shin Heum to Park Ji-won and Lee Ok in the 18th century, Hong Gil-ju and Jo Hee-ryong in the 19th century, and Hwang Hyeon in the early 20th century, and influenced their arts and sciences. In the arts and sciences of the late Chosun Dynasty, the thoughts of the late Ming Dynasty were important elements comparable with evidential studies and Western learning in the Qing Dynasty. During the 19th century characterized by the death of King Jeongjo who opposed So-pum-mun(miscellaneous writings)and the suppression of Western learning under Sedo politics (politics dominated by a few influential clans), noble families in Seoul received and enjoyed the thoughts of the late Ming Dynasty like Jin Gye-yu’s very deeply.
  • 12.