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pISSN : 1598-8457 / eISSN : 2508-4550
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2015, Vol., No.57

  • 1.

    The Catastrophic Imagination of American Post-Apocalyptic Novel and Korean Disaster Novel

    Dauk-Suhn Hong | 2015, (57) | pp.5~39 | number of Cited : 18
    The purpose of this study is to explore the differences of literary sensibility and worldview in two genres of American post-apocalyptic novel and Korean disaster novel, specifically by comparing two novels--Cormac McCarthy’s The Road and Haeyong Pyun’s Ash and Red. Those two works are fundamentally constructed in the same roots of the post-apocalyptic thinking and catastrophic imagination, but revealing some remarkable differences on the social and existential landscapes of the disaster and the ethical perspectives for redemption. While the framework of the religious quest romance in The Road constitutes a possibility of survival and hope, its unrelenting picture of doom also questions a traditional redemptive ending. In spite of the redemptive narrative employed by the father, McCarthy repeatedly reminds the reader of the catastrophic remnant of an irrecoverable world, interrogating American identity and its redemptive mythology based on American exceptionalism. In Ash and Red, the catastrophic disaster of an epidemic is happening in the present progressive form in contrast to the post-apocalyptic setting of The Road. The main narrative of Ash and Red is a testimony of an apocalypse: a loss of humanity of the nameless protagonist from his common everyday life to a homeless outcast. His chaotic situation of fall can symbolically be interpreted as an abjection—a degradation, baseness, and meanness of humanity which inherently disturbs conventional identity. The account of an existential liminality between death and life, the victim and the victimizer, and the subject and the other, disrupts a redemption narrative, offering, in its place, a nihilistic recognition of his lost humanity.
  • 2.

    A Disaster Resulted from Anti-Semitism Dotted with Prejudices: With Emphasis on the Memoirs by Rolf Kralovitz, a Survior of the Nazis Concentration Camp

    SHIN JONG RAK | 2015, (57) | pp.41~65 | number of Cited : 0
    During the period of Nazi Germany, Rolf Kralovitz was deported with his family to a ghetto in Leipzig by the secret police. He then was sent to the Buchenwald concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Buchenwald), one of the major German Nazi concentration camps, in Weimar. With the defeat Nazi Germany in World War II, he barely escaped death and later published his memoirs in order tell the youth of today the reality of his own experience in the concentration camp.Many of the Jews like Kralovitz were forced to be sent to the concentration camp without knowing the reason and ended their lives there. The massacre of the Jews, however, was by no means the accidental brutality of the Nazis. It only manifested the climax of the prejudices against the Jews among the Europeans, which had been accumulated in their ethos since the Jewish diaspora-or the exile of the Jews. The holocaust was a drastic manifestation of antagonism against "the others." The people of Europe had long harbored prejudices against the Jews. Therefore, it was not easy for the Jews who believe in Judaism and maintain their own way of life to enter into the existing order of Europe. Since the Middle Ages, the Jews had been defined as misers who were engaged in trade and loan-sharking. The prejudices that the Jew would govern the world with their accumulated wealth had been incessantly reproduced and were later been established as a firm ideology - not easily persuaded by any other ideas or ideologies - after the Europeans experienced racism and the 19th century imperialism in the modern period. As part of their schemes to make the best use of the European antagonism against the Jews, the Nazis instigated racism and began to oppress the Jews. The Jews, however, neither raised objections to nor resisted the move; it was closely related to their own history. As a result, the Europeans' economic and racial prejudice made the Jews in "the others" and laid a foundation for the oppression of the Jewish people. The holocaust in the period of the Nazis shows that the systems and the technological development of the contemporary society - when accompanied by a disregard for other people and interspersed with prejudices and misunderstanding - can destroy human beings more easily.
  • 3.

    End-of-the-Planet-Earth Science Fiction Films in Hollywood: Dystopian Spatio-Temporality in Blade Runner and Interstellar

    Yun-Jong Lee | 2015, (57) | pp.67~99 | number of Cited : 4
    Hollywood Science Fiction (SF) films dealing with the end of the world tended to focus on showing "pure spectacles of disaster" by moralizing human victory in the confrontations between humans and the extraterrestrial/robots in the twentieth century. Turning to the twenty first century and viscerally realizing the environmental disasters brought from technological developments and concomitant environmental contamination that have destroyed the planet Earth, Hollywood came to recognize that the end of the world introduced in the SF films is no longer an imaginary situation but an upcoming reality. Accordingly, Hollywood SF films in this century come into the liminal period wherein spectators’ conception of time and space, namely their understanding of the future in the Earth has been converted to cope with the ever-approaching crisis of the end of the Earth. In this paper, I will examine what I call "end-of-the-planet-earth films" made in Hollywood at the turn of the twentieth and twenty fist centuries by tracing the changing trajectory of the spectacles of disasters in Hollywood SF films and their worldviews before and after the year 2000. Therefore, this study not only inquires into the epistemological shift of time, which used to be categorized thrice into the past, present, and future, but it also explores the space called the Earth as a human condition. To look into the changing details of the narratives and spectacles representing utopia or dystopia in the future of the Earth, I take textual analyses of Blade Runner (1982) as an end-of-the-world film of the twentieth century and Interstellar (2014) as an end-of-the-planet-earth film of the twenty first century.
  • 4.

    A Study of Jagyeongnok(自警錄) by Uidang(毅堂) Bak Se-hwa(朴世和)

    Kim, Jong-soo | 2015, (57) | pp.101~135 | number of Cited : 5
    One of the leading Neo-Confucian scholars in the late Joseon dynasty, Bak Se-hwa, whose pen-name is Uidang created the Uidang Studies(毅堂學) and developed the School of Uidang(毅堂學派) into one with historical significance. This paper examines Jagyeongnok( A Record of Self-reflection), one of Uidang's two major books along with Gyesan mundae(溪山問對)(Questions and Answers of Master Gye and Master San) written when he was 71. The two books deal with the philosophy of Uidang who had focused much on moral practice rather than writing books. Written when he was 48, Jagyeongnok outlines the cosmological paradigm and system of learning in Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism(朱子學) and the author's own methodology of study. The book has a significant meaning in that it introduced the three major ideas of Uidang: geosa (去私), jugyeong (主敬), and guin (求仁). Jagyeongnok also shows the traces of Uidang's pursuit of learning. It is meaningful that Bak Se-hwa's intense enthusiasm about the academic studies aimed at learning from the sages - accompanied by his actual study - was materialized in a book.
  • 5.

    A Study on the No-confidence Motion against President Syngman Rhee in the Korean Provisional Government in 1920

    Lee Hyerin | 2015, (57) | pp.137~173 | number of Cited : 2
    This study examines the no-confidence motion against President Syngman Rhee from the beginning of 1920 to August the same year, which aimed to oust him from the Korean Provisional Government. The no-confidence against Syngman Rhee resulted from the criticism of the President’s approach to Korean independence movement. Rhee took a negative view on the resistance movement, insisting that independence should be achieved through diplomacy and the sympathy from other countries. Criticizing Rhee’s strategy, the Sindaehan Allied Association and the Korean Socialist Party members intended to oust Rhee from the Korean Provisional Government. In February 1920, Yun Hyeonjin, the vice-minister of finance and a member of the Sindaehan Allied Association, contended that Rhee has to be ousted from the Korean Provisional Government and that Yi Donghwi and Ahn Changho should become the President and the prime minister respectively. Yi Donghwi, the prime minister who was leading the Korean Socialist Party, also intended to oust Rhee by establishing an alliance with Ahn Changho. However, Ahn Changho opposed this proposal, claiming that the provisional government should not weaken its solidarity. In May 1920, the Sindaehan Allied Association and the Korean Socialist Party posted a no-confidence motion against the President at the Cabinet meeting, attempting to publicize the issue. The scheme was withdrawn, however, due to Ahn Changho’s strong opposition and the Cheolhyeoldan’s (Union of Iron Blood) physical attack on the provisional government. At the time, Syngman Rhee came into conflict with the provisional government over the issue of dispatching a diplomat to Moscow, which caused Prime Minister Yi Donghwi to resign and leave for Weihai. Subsequently, the alliance between the Sindaehan Allied Association and the Korean Socialist Party broke up when Kim Rip, whom Yi had been corresponding after moving to Weihai, was found to have kept writing secret letters on political issues. After Yi’s return, the motion of no-confidence against Syngman Rhee, which had been in progress from the early 1920, was discouraged.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Korean Group of KUTV, 1924~25

    Kim KuKhwa | 2015, (57) | pp.175~207 | number of Cited : 3
    KUTV (Kommunisticheskii Universitet Trudiashchikhsia Vostoka), an institution founded by Communist International in April 1921, had been taking charge of propagating communism to the young people, not only in colonial, but in semi - colonial states. In this collage, students in the Korean Group, who represented a party, had insisted on the creation of the Korean communist party because that was related with the movement for Joseon. The Korean Group at KUTV had been able to set up policies by creating an integrated communist party. In KUTV, there were many students recommended by various parties, and students had been included in different parties as well. On the other hand, some people could matriculate at KUTV if they were the members of the communist party or received recommendation from it. Due to this privilege, it caused conflicts among students which lead to excommunication on the Korean Group. The Korean Group at KUTV became a space of intense conflicts in the process of determining a policy for the unified communist party. It led to excommunication, and finally, Tuesday communist group(화요파) came to seize power in the Korean Group.
  • 7.

    Development of Storytelling for Contents of Tourism and Culture to Make Use of Local Folk Resources: Reinterpretation of the Storytelling of "Dreams" in Gugok Waterfalls

    Lee Hak Ju | 2015, (57) | pp.209~237 | number of Cited : 14
    This is a study for the storytelling of Contents of Tourism and Culture to take advantage of local folk resources. I have re-interpreted the storytelling of "Dreams" in Gugok (Nive Valleys) Waterfalls case. There are nine spirits mentioned on each sign post along the way to the Waterfalls: dream, ability, wisdom, heart, professional, networking, shape, color, and an end. Here I have studied how Chuncheon had made the storytelling of Dreams by using Gugok Waterfalls and what characteristics should an efficient storytelling of local folk resources have. A storytelling should be made in the process of finding an archetype, adding some concepts of it, and imagining & associating. A storytelling should give consumers "some feelings" in order to be successful. In addition, it should be a "brand item" equipped with features and energy, and should synchronize with the needs of the contemporary times. The feature, here, should be local and traditional, by using the energy on economic wealth, and synchronization with dynamic changes. Nowadays, local governments are required to make more efforts to utilize local folk resources.
  • 8.

    The Meaning of the Respect for Learners in the Analects of Confucius

    MooGil Kim | 2015, (57) | pp.239~274 | number of Cited : 1
    These days, educational slogans such as learner-respect education or child-centered education in modern educative discourses are discussed every now and then. Using the slogan without closely analyzing its meaning, however, will create an unnecessary confusion of thinking in schooling because it is unclear what it means to hold learners in reverence and what it means to center on children. With regard to this issue, H. Entwistle's analysis provides us with useful implications. According to Entwistle, we can distinguish normative meaning from technical meaning in the respect for learners. Normative meaning means that teachers have to treat a child as a 'person.' In this aspect, holding a child in reverence means to pay attention to the sameness between child and adult. In contrast, technical meaning means that teachers have to make allowance for the difference between child and adult, considering child's developmental trait and cognitive level. We can find the respect of the two for learners in the Analects of Confucius. Confucius did not discriminate among the objects of teaching, and tried to guide learners' growth. And Confucius answered differently to the same question by his disciples, according to their traits. In this aspect, it can be said that he practiced the two's principles of respect for learners. Therefore, we can say that the relations between traditional education and modern education are not separated, but are interconnected with each other. In this context, this paper aims to focus on the way of conversation between Confucius and his disciples, and to re-examine Confucius's idea of the respect for learners, and to illuminate its implications for contemporary education.
  • 9.

    The Post-war Literature of Japan and the Korean War: With Focus of The Solitude of the City Square by Hotta Yoshie

    KIM HYUN HEE | 2015, (57) | pp.275~306 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is aimed at tracing the history of the post-war literature of Japan in the modern and contemporary period of East Asia and examining the Korean War and the situations during and after the war with much focus on The Solitude of the City Square (1951) by Hotta Yoshie. As the background of the novel, it presents the history of Japan’s invasion of Asia, which was the modern history of not only Japan but also Asian countries including Korea and China. This novel sharply portrays both the international affairs surrounding Japan during the Korean Korea and the situation of the people who were agonizing in society at that time. The word "commit" appears frequently in this novel in relation to two other major concepts: a "city square" symbolizing the state, society, and international relations and "solitude" denoting individuals, families, and human relations. From the perspective of the two concepts, we can understand that there exists a parallel composition between the main character who works at a newspaper office as a temp and the ongoing Korean War as the background. On a closer look, we can understand: 1) the issue of an individual ("I") through the action of the main character working at a newspaper office; 2)the problem of family (wife and children) and state (society); and 3) the stranger and the "post-war"society linked to the aforementioned elements. Therefore, the issue of the Korean War clearly shows the complexity of the post-war society in Japan including Japan’s awareness of Asia and its relations with the United States, which is one of the major themes of Hotta Yoshie’s world of literature. In this respect, this novel poses a deep meaning for not only the Japanese but also the Koreans living in the present times in that it depicted the self-contradiction of the U.S. Forces-occupied Japanese society as well as the criticism of Japan which is taking the reverse course of post-war rearmament. We can understand the value of this novel in that the situation of Japan during and after the Korean War some 70 years ago is depicted in parallel with Japan of today.
  • 10.

    Conditions for Politics in Plato's Statesman

    Kim Tae Kyung | 2015, (57) | pp.307~336 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper analyzes Plato's Statesman291a-303c in order to explore "law (Nomos)" and "wisdom (Phronesis)" as a condition for politics. This paper epecially understands the characters of law and wisdom in relation to humans and human affairs as objects of politics and argues the importance of wisdom because of variability of human affairs and the complexity of human eidos. Thus this paper intends to illuminate the flexibility of wisdom and the distinguished obstinacy of law. It is necessary to examine wisdom in consideration of the complexity of human eidos and disorderliness of the world. Wisdom can be a necessary condition for politics because of the capability to participate in the nature of diverse and variable human affairs. Law also is a condition for politics which is necessary to meet with the complexity of human eidos and the variability of human beings. In the face of the difference with respect to human intelligence, wisdom again requires law. Therefore, both law and wisdom are the conditions for politics. Law is a condition for politics which is necessary to wisdom because it does not consider the complexity of human eidos and the variability of human things. Wisdom is a condition for politics which is necessary to law because of the difference of human intelligence.
  • 11.

    Husserl's Phenomenology and the Convergence of Sciences

    Seung Ug Park | 2015, (57) | pp.337~360 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, the concept of convergence has been a hot issue in the academic community. It was sometimes called a new paradigm of scientific research. This means our sciences (Wissenschaften) face big changes. These changes reflect a crisis of traditional sciences and, at the same time, a chance for new areas of science. In this paper, I have tried to explicate the meaning and the possibility of the convergence of sciences from the perspective of Husserl's phenomenology. Husserl, just like us, lived in the era of big changes of science, and wanted to give a foundation for the system of science through his project of phenomenology. According to his phenomenological project, the convergence of sciences is both possible and meaningful. I have tried to show how it is possible and to suggest a new implication of Husserl's phenomenology in the era of convergence.
  • 12.

    Biology of Love: Why Do Men Have Sex?

    Eul-Sang Lee | 2015, (57) | pp.361~397 | number of Cited : 1
    Why do we fall in love? The reason for our falling in love is attributed to a biological factor. Nowadays, the theory of evolution confirms to us that it is true. Especially the feelings of passion and intimacy create our romantic love, whose origin is rooted in the strategy of mating or reproducing animals. From this strategy was the mind of men (as well as of animals) made and its program was also carved in the brain. Nature has just evolved the brain of men from that of animals. But in the community of men, passion and intimacy worked contradictorily, and so illicit loves and divorces, even sexual violence, have been rampant. This is surely an absurdity of love, and in the past have we tried to resolve this absurdity through promoting a social system and establishing a norm. But a traditional system or norm has a limit in terms of overcoming human nature, which has taken place within human beings biologically. From such an insoluble problem, some questions can be asked like the following: 1) Why has nature evolved for men to create such contradictory desires?; 2) What (evolutional) interests has such evolution of desires bring men?; and 3) Why have we fallen in love and how has love been developed? By answering to these questions, we will be able to construct a control system of our romantic love. From this solution can we also look forward to clarifying the biological substrate of our normative life.