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2015, Vol., No.58

  • 1.

    Succession and Popularity - A Study on the Mode of Existence of Printed Ancient Fiction -

    Jang, You Jeong | 2015, (58) | pp.5~45 | number of Cited : 1
    This study aims at comprehending the framework of the history of research on printed ancient fiction so that it could come up with an approach different from the conventional ones and open a window for diverse possibilities for research into printed ancient fiction. It was assumed that ancient fiction developed from the late Joseon Dynasty, which deserves to be called the “novel,” and eventually made it possible for Korea to have modern novel. And under this framework, printed ancient fiction worked as a bridge so that it was established as a focal point of continuity and succession of ancient fiction. However, if the studies of the printed ancient fiction is only understood as a process of “proving both the succession of ancient fiction and its characteristic as novel,” the intrinsic identity of the literary genre can hardly be elucidated. Hence, the present study has attempted to analyze the cause of popularity of printed ancient fiction in order to find a way to grasp the intrinsic features of printed ancient fiction apart from its value as novel, and found out that ancient fiction gained currency at the juncture when the new novel lost its power as a new literary genre. This currency results from the “popular nature” of printed ancient fiction that enabled many people to get access to easy and entertaining stories. From the 1910s, printed ancient fiction came to play the role of a “storybook” and produced “stories centering on events” that could attract a great number of readers. With its stories mainly intended to arouse interest among many people, printed ancient fiction showed more diverse ways to help readers understand human nature and sought a sense of affinity from them. Another factor for its popularity was that it was translated into the contemporary language. Translation of old stories into the new vernacular language contributed to attracting readers from more diverse backgrounds.
  • 2.

    Examination of the Significance of Gajeonche Novels - Centering around Hwawangjeon and Hwasa -

    parkhyemin | 2015, (58) | pp.47~77 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper is aimed at examining the meaning of the so-called gajeonche novels (personified biographical novels) and figuring out its characteristics based on a critical perspective that the term “gajeonche novels” had been established in the process of describing the history of literature rather than as the outcome of a close and precise analysis of the works. Gajeonche novels have largely been understood as a fictionalized genre that had inherited the pattern of personification and biography. The original pattern of a biography form in the genre was modelled after that of the Records of History (Shǐjì; 史記) by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian and the novel form followed the style of the Book of Documents (Shujing; 書經) and the Spring and Autumn Annals (Chunqiu; 春秋). It shows that there existed a clear and fundamental distinction between a personified biography as the record of individuals and a personified biographical novel as the record of a period or big events. This paper, therefore, has analyzed Hwasa (A History of Flowers) known as the first gajeonche novel and Hwawang-jeon (A Story of Flower King) written in a biography form, and examined their differences in terms of style. In terms of patterns, Hwasa freed from the conventional pattern of “narration,” “tracks” and “Concluding” and followed the mode of “narration,” “tracks and Historical criticism” and “Concluding” In terms of contents, Hwawang-jeon depicts a story that the life and death of Flower King corresponds to the rise and fall of the Flower Kingdom. In Hwasa, however, the death of Flower King is followed by the appearance of another King and the birth of a new dynasty, thus following the pattern of “rise,” “fall” and “rise” Such differences were derived from the difference of the awareness of time. In other words, a biography is based on the finitude of time, while a gajeonche novel presupposes the continuity of time. Accordingly, this paper suggests the use of a new term bongiche novel rather than the time-honored gajeonche novel. The bongiche novel is fully based on the continuity of time and the syntactic awareness of history as its inner principle. In terms of pattern, the bongiche novel utilizes the personification and the technics of narrating history, and authentic precedents. In terms of contents, it deals with a country’s civilization and institutions with focus on the achievements of kings and explains the issue of the maintenance or the change of a dynasty.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Dramatic Elements of Theatrical Entertainments Performed during the Reign of King Chungnyeol in the Goryeo Dynasty - With Emphasis on the Records of A History of Goryeo -

    Kyungjin Lee | 2015, (58) | pp.79~107 | number of Cited : 0
    Since Korea imported the style of Western dramas, the history of Korean theater has been described with much focus on the plays produced in the modern period. Korea’s theatrical entertainments before the modern period had not been properly evaluated in the history of Korean dramas due to their differences from the Western-style dramas and to the dearth of drama scripts. It is generally known that the popular theatrical entertainments before the creation of the hangeul (Korean alphabet) had been orally transmitted without any reliance on play scripts. According to the record of the “Akji (A Record of Music)” section in A History of Goryeo (Goryeo-sa), “Samjang (三藏)” was performed at court for King Chungnyeol. Although “Samjang” didn’t have a theatrical script that corresponded to the concept of modern drama, the work can be recognized as a text for theatrical entertainments. From other records of A History of Goryeo related to King Chungnyeol, we can see that a stage was established for performance and there existed a professional troupe devoted to performing “Samjang”. This paper is aimed at reilluminating the three elements of earlier period theatrical performance – Jangjeon (帳殿) established during the reign of King Chungnyeol, “Samjang” recorded in “Akji” of A History of Goryeo, and the theatrical troupe Namjang (男糚) which performed “Samjang” – in terms of space for performance, texts and actresses, respectively. This paper also aims to reaffirm from the perspective of the contemporary East Asian cultural bloc that the theatrical elements of a stage, a text, and actors existed in the Goryeo dynasty and the text helped create the theatrical production. This study is expected to shed a new light on reconfirming the origin and creation of Korea’s dramas from the perspective of the East Asian cultural bloc.
  • 4.

    After Neo-evolutionism and Processual Archaeology: Establishment and Development of the Political Economy Approach in Evolutionary Archaeology

    Park, Hae-Woon | 2015, (58) | pp.109~152 | number of Cited : 1
    North American and Western European archaeology underwent rapid paradigm shift from the mid-1970s. Post-processual archaeologists who refuted the uniformity and scientific rationality of human behaviours bitterly criticised the theoretical bases of processual archaeology based on neo-evolutionism in anthropology, which was the main theoretical framework of Western archaeology from the 1960s. Under this circumstance, a group archaeologists have insisted the multi-linear evolutionary processes of human societies by rejecting the general evolutionary perspective that human culture has unilinearly evolved. Neo-Marxism, which combines the class struggle theory of Marx with the Weberian conflict approach, provided the theoretical base of evolutionary archaeology based on the political economy perspective. In order to overcome the weakness point of traditional Marxism that social structure is only determined by economic substructure, they thought that the historical event occurred by political relations among various groups, which include status, sex, ethnic and age groups as well as classes is the most important factor to decide the direction of human evolution. Studies on the appearance and development of complex societies in Mesoamerica conducted by them well show the political economy perspective in archaeology. Firstly, political conflict between groups is one of the important causes to trigger social evolution. Secondly, social groups act for their interests. Thirdly, the execution of power is not an one-way street. Therefore, the dominant group has to make the ideological apparatus for legitimating their interests. Fourthly, the society is not maintained by only one managing principle. To summarise, archaeologists based on the political economy approach have recognised that the human itself is not a passive being who adapt environment and social system, but a active being who can change social structure dynamically. The key concept of the neo-Marxist archaeology is that human societies have evolved different directions by the political behaviours of the human being.
  • 5.

    A Study on The Story of Janghwa and Hongnyeon (1924) - With Focus on Its Relationship to Original Old Classic Novels -

    Huh, Chan | 2015, (58) | pp.153~180 | number of Cited : 4
    The movie The Story of Janghwa and Hongnyeon (薔花紅蓮傳) was a silent film that was produced in 1924 by Dansung Film Corporation; it was overshadowed by another film The Story of Chunhyang (春香傳) in term of box-office hit and did not receive much attention. The Story of Chunhyang was the first Korean film and the popularity of the original novel was too enormous that The Story of Janghwa and Hongnyeon, the second silent film, never received the due appraisal and significance it deserved. The significance of this film lies in thorough planning that went in as to how to package the film effectively. The Story of Janghwa and Hongnyeon was made by the staff that consisted purely of Koreans, including a Korean cinematography director. Besides, the film promoted such a fact and used “pure Korean film” as the film’s identity and a promotional strategy to respond to the popularity of The Story of Chunhyang. As a result, the film not only ended up gaining more success at the box office than The Story of Chunhyang but also even helped The Story of Chunhyang to promote its commercial success, which is proven by related resources and data. Moreover, in terms of methodology as to how to best utilize the original old classic novel, there is a need to pay attention to the differences between the two works. If The Story of Chunhyang aimed to faithfully reconstruct the original novel without many changes, The Story of Janghwa and Hongnyeon was created under a clear direction and planning as to what to delete and what to embrace from the original novel. In this sense, it followed the progress of The Story of Chunhyang. Contrary to the original classic novel of The Story of Janghwa and Hongnyeon, revolving around a step-mother figure and the two sisters who are resurrected from death, the film version omitted the resurrection story in order to transform the original work into a more modern story and remade it a tragedy in purer form.
  • 6.

    The Necessity of Managing a Writing Center as Part of the Advanced Writing Education Program - Based on a Survey of Sungkyunkwan University Students -

    Kim, Jong-Gyu , Won, Man- Hee | 2015, (58) | pp.181~209 | number of Cited : 15
    This paper suggests that a writing center is needed for advanced writing education and it must be based on the professional tutor in each department. Under the current writing education system, teaching of writing is regarded as part of general education curriculums. It is a systematic problem that the current writing education does not lead to promoting the level of advanced writing. Students cannot acquire high-level writing skills, because the current writing education system cannot provide students with advanced writing programs. The current writing program does not measure up to the level of catering to students” demands. For the education catering to demands, the WAC should be introduced to the writing education system. However, it is hard to serve as a feasible alternative to introduce the WAC into the system of writing education. In this situation, a writing center can be an alternative to realize the idea and the principle of the WAC. The center should be managed by the professional tutors in each department.
  • 7.

    A Proposal for Improving Korean Medical Culture in Virtue of Reinterpretation of the Concept of Passivity

    Daeseok Jeon , Ahn, Duck-Sun | 2015, (58) | pp.211~248 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The main purpose of this paper is to explain and reveal the peculiar aspect and property of passivity in Korean environment for medical education, and to make a proposal for improving Korean medical culture in virtue of reinterpretation of the concept of Levinas’ passive-passivity. And if the purpose is fully fulfilled, then it will try to seek for the possibility of explaining human behavior based on the biological species-specific sense and emotion. Medical education in East Asian countries was originated from colonialism. Therefore, medical education in each East Asian country has different aspects through ways that depend on each colonial acculturation agency. East Asian nations succumbed to colonialism without much resistance. In this historical context, we can grasp the trait of Korean medical culture and education. A recent discovery of the new meaning of passivity and heteronomy by Levinas opened a new realm of ethical views, which support noble refinement of the problematic passivity in Korean medical culture. The problematic medical culture of Korea could be enhanced in terms of a conception of “passivity” whose concept was sublimated by Levinas. The aptness of this direction of improvement will be shown in a discourse of relationship between the thoughts of Levinas and traditional Confucianism. And if the new concept of passive-passivity (passivity for other-ness) in terms of Levinas is reasonable, we must seek the conceptual and practical theory which is applied to the real Korean medical educational environment. The sympathetic ethical theory based on biological and species-specific sensational ground have a merit of explaining the phenomenon of human action since that approach well accounts for human behaviors in terms of sense, perception and emotion. If it is plausible, then this attempt may be a meaningful challenge which tries to offer a new moral foundation of ethical passivity and heteronomy.
  • 8.

    The Concept of Teleonomy in Immanuel Kant’s Idea of Teleology - A Study of the Pattern of Organism and the Whole Nature -

    Park, Phil-Bae | 2015, (58) | pp.249~269 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Kant's views on organisms are at the heart of his philosophical system that pursued the harmonization and the unity of nature and freedom. We can find a clue from Kant’s concept of teleonomy (Zweckmäßigkeit) – a key Kantian concept for the study of organism and nature. Kant’s concept of teleonomy mediates “principality” of the intellect that constitutes nature and “ultimate purposiveness” of reason that ideologizes nature and thus performs an important role of systematically figuring out the whole nature. The idea of the relation between inner teleonomy and outer teleonomy are well manifested in the context of the systematic issues of the Critique of Judgment. The issues of the system can find their clues in the process from the concept of freedom to that of nature or from the concept of nature to that of freedom. For Kant, these processes are the necessary steps because the question of a system is not made arbitrarily but is a fundamental one that is based on the contemplation of the existence of natural outcome and on the special characters of our intellect. The structure of teleological debates is based on the reciprocality between the outer contemplation on nature and the inner reflection on morality. Nevertheless, in carrying out the critique of teleological judgment, Kant deduces the principle of objective teleonomy from his own critical theory of behavior, i.e., practical philosophy, and applies to his philosophy of nature. The evaluation of the special principles in nature is closely related to moral teleology accompanied by the reflection on the outer teleonomy. It is because the ground for the judgement of reflection in the realm of outer teleonomy lies in the theoretical and, ultimately, technological-practical reason and could become the motive for the imposing moral- practical laws.
  • 9.

    Families with Migrant Background: A Historical Study on the “Turkish Families” in Germany from the 1970s to the 1990s

    Jung Yong Suk | 2015, (58) | pp.271~303 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study deals with the immigrant families in Germany. Since the 1970s, families of foreign origins have represented a not-insignificant force in reproductive behavioral changes in West Germany. The Sixth Family Report (2000) defined the Federal Republic of Germany as a de facto modern country of immigration from a social and cultural perspective. The report focused especially on families of Turkish origin because of their large number and their uniqueness. They were known to preserve traditional ideas about the community life, gender roles, and specific ethnic or religious orientation, passing them onto their children. There are strict customs among this cultural minority, especially directed at Turkish women. In a migrant family, the order of migration influences a balance of power among family members – especially between spouses. A large proportion of Turkish women came to Germany first in order to marry and had problems in terms of adaptation. This is due not only to their traditional values or the lack of language skills, but also to their isolated way of life in the so-called “Turkey town,” where there is limited opportunity for interaction with the neighboring German society. These women have fixed roles as housewives with a large number of children. The employment rate of Turkish women as a whole in the Federal Republic was very low. Young Turkish women are grossly under-represented in the apprenticeship market. By the early 1990s, this ratio had “normalized,” but a mismatch still existed.
  • 10.

    The Book as a Passage between Reality and Fantasy World -A Study on the Fantasy Novels of M. Ende and C. Funke-

    Sangwon Ahn | 2015, (58) | pp.305~335 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to analyze and compare two German fantasy novels: Michael Ende's The Neverending Story and Cornelia Funke's Inkheart. In both narratives, the ‘book’ plays a very important role. In the novels, the fantasy world and the real world are mixed by overlapping or clashing. It is the book that serves as a passage connecting the two worlds. The protagonists of the novels are book readers. While reading, they experience a peculiar fantasy world from the book. However, in both novels the fantasy world and the real world are related to each other in different ways. In the Ende's work, Bastian, a boy, goes into the story of the book. The reader becomes a hero in the fantastic story. It means that in the reader's imagination a fantasy world turns into a vivid reality. Bastian discovered “the true will” of love through a fantasy world tour. Then he returns to reality. In contrast, in the Funke’s novel, the fictive characters in the stories are called to the real world. Through the existences that came from the fantasy world, the order of the real world is interrupted, and the world falls into chaos and crisis. Maggie and her father must restore the order of the real world through a series of adventures. It is confirmed in these novels that the fantasy elements are caused by the blending of reality and the fictional world. In order to communicate lively with the fictional world in the book, the imaginative absorbed reading is required. In this sense, the protagonists of The Neverending Story and Inkheart are excellent readers. Therefore, these novels could be also a kind of homage to the reading culture which gradually disappears in the digital video era today.
  • 11.

    Posthuman Utopia? - Posthuman Mankind between Coevolution and Postevolution -

    Eung Jun Kim | 2015, (58) | pp.337~363 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The paper takes a critical approach of examining a correlation between natural evolution and scientific-technological evolution in in the posthuman era. Posthumanists claim that mankind will find it no more possible to maintain the process of natural evolution. They add that natural evolution of mankind will be governed by the scientific-technological utility and efficiency and therefore cannot be free from their control power, suggesting that utopian optimism will prevail in the scientific-technological post-human era. However, Ich werde hier sein im Sonnenschein und im Schatten by Christian Kracht and Blueprint by Charlotte Kerner criticize both the possibilities of coevolution with machines and the possibilities of postevolution of overcoming finality of creatures through reproduction. The two books also maintain that the acquisition of reciprocal identity through coevolution of manhkind and science-technology and the attempt to overcome naturalness and finality through postevolution will ultimately be faced with limitation. This paper examines that the scientific-technological development will not offer posthumanistic optimism and utopia but bring about the future of dystopia where the reason for the existence of human being will lose its meaning.