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2016, Vol., No.61

  • 1.

    Re - Historicization of Colonial Historical Writings - A Study on Diop’s View of African History -

    Hyun-Back Chung | 2016, (61) | pp.5~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Cheikh Anta Diop is a historian who first attempted to establish new writings of African history and view of history, in Africa, beginning with criticism for the existing African historiography that was written from a Europe-centered perspective. Diop was a maverick historian, to such an extent as to get a professorship from the University of Dakar, even after twenty years since he came back from study in Paris, but his influence is immense in Africa, to the extent that the University of Dakar, a national university in Senegal, was named the University of Cheikh Anta Diop, since his death. This paper analyzed Diop’s historical writings and thoughts, who attempted to re-write African history. First, Diop argued that Egyptian civilization originated from Sub-Saharan ‘Black Africa’, and this initial black civilization was the first world civilization. Since then, Egyptian ideology and scientific technology had an influence upon European culture, ancient Greek culture in particular. Second, Diop stood against the western historical descriptions that there was just diversified and split tribal culture in Africa where huge power did not exist, claiming cultural unity of Black Africa and trying to excavate and recompose its contents. Third, Diop participated in political activities, and argued an establishment of African Federation based on pan-Africanism. While opposing an imperialistic threat, he stressed unity beyond national interest or political frame, for Africa to reach absolute industrialization. Absolutely there is a critical view against Diop’s claim. Some criticized that Diop’s historical descriptions and view of history are also another ‘Afrocentrism’, and others pointed that Diop disregarded Cultural Hybridity, or many Diop’s writings revealed unverified logical leap. In spite of such criticism, it is undeniable that Diop’s new attempt became an epoch-making motive for ‘re-making history’ or composing new historical identity of Africa. The western historians hardly accepted Diop’s historical descriptions and view of history, or had no interest in it. But, Diop’s thoughts attracted newly some African intellectuals who studied in France, and African-American intellectuals since the Student Movement of 1968. Recently, as a debate on global history has flourished, and Martin Bernal’s Black Athena is stirring up interest, Diop’s historical descriptions newly receive attention.
  • 2.

    Theorizing the Intellectual Class by the Anti-colonial Movement in the Period of the Great Depression

    Choi Kyu-Jin | 2016, (61) | pp.45~75 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The 1920s was a turning point in the dimension of ideological history, in that socialism as ideology and movement began to exert a huge influence. Especially, interest in socialist ideology led to fresh emergence of class theory. The socialists attempted to theorize freshly the role and the task of the intellectuals in the course of constituting the theory of the anti-colonial revolution on the basis of the class axis of the working class and the peasantry. This dissertation deals with the issue of the intellectuals in the terrain of the class theory. However, we must keep in mind the effect of the political situation on the class theory, and the tension between the class structure and class consciousness. In order to clarify how the intellectuals were understood in the dimension of the class theory in the colonial Korea, the focus should be on the way the newly-imported concept of the intelligentsia was understood. This paper shows how the anti-colonial movement, especially the socialist intellectuals defined themselves and their status as intelligentsia within the national liberation movement in the period of the Great Depression. Not only did the Depression of the 1930s give huge economic damages to all the social strata of Korea during the Japanese colonial period, but also exerted enormous impacts on the emotional and psychological dimensions. The intellectuals were very sensitive, and the Depression drove forth the rapid process of differentiation amongst intellectuals. In the Depression era, the intellectuals were divided into subgroups, such as modernists, nihilists, and fellow companions of working class. These radical intellectuals as fellow travelers were forced to have their own identity adjusted to the new context which were different from the 1920s. They tried to be workerist intellectuals, not intellectuals with white hands. In the course of this differentiation, the ideological struggle was waged against the reformist petit-bourgeois intellectuals. However, with harsh ideological repression by the Japanese imperial authority and the changing circumstances, the intellectuals had to cope with another round of ordeals.
  • 3.

    European Geopolitical Perceptions for East Asia between Two World Wars

    jinil LEE | 2016, (61) | pp.77~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Unlike the general prejudice, geopolitics is a phenomenon confined neither to Nazi Germany nor to Japanese militarism. In its beginning geopolitics was closely related with Friedrich Ratzel, a German geographer in the 19th century. He devides the earth with continental power and ocean power, and stressed the importance of geographical factors, that they have. Halford Mackinder, (1861-1947) and Alfred Mahan (1840-1914) took over the geographical theory of Ratzels. Paradoxically, after the Cold War ended, geopolitics faced a new renaissance than ever before. Ultimately, the Western geopolitics of the early 20th century focused on how to control the Soviet Russia across Europe and Asia. Haushofer published a book Kontinentalblock. Mitteleuropa-Eurasien-Japan (München, 1941) with the idea to tie the Eurasian continent between Germany and Japan in the year that Second World War begins. Geopolitics was used as an academic tool to explain the reality of political relations on the one hand and as an aggressive tools to lead this political action on the other hand. Nevertheless, geopolitics as a new discipline does not take into account the factors like economy, population, and culture in a country, which shows its scantiness as an analytical tools.
  • 4.

    A Study of the Aspects of Communications between Chinese and Korean Intellectuals in Jehol Diary

    Chen Bingbing | 2016, (61) | pp.115~162 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The paper is aimed at studying the aspects of communications between Chinese and Korean literary intellectuals through the examination of Jehol Diary by Park Ji-won, In the 1780s, Park Ji-won went to China as a military officer on a diplomatic mission and spent more than two years in travelling. After returning to Korea, Park Ji-won compiled his diary written in China and the observations into the well-known Jehol Diary. The book records Chinese politics, economy, culture and customs in detail as well as the cultural exchanges between Korean and Chinese literary intellectuals. Jehol Diary introduces two types of literary intellectuals. One is the major outstanding figures in the earlier times of Korean-Chinese literary exchanges, and the other is Chinese intellectuals Park Ji-won met during his travel to China. Their amiable communication promoted the cultural exchanges between Korea and China, acquainted Park Ji-won with Chinese culture and contributed to his literary creation. The paper aims to examine the communications between Korean and Chinese intellectuals in the 18th century based on the records in Park Ji-won’s works, further comprehend the philosophical trends of Chinese intellectuals and have a better understanding of the society.
  • 5.

    Labor in Modern East Asia from the Perspective of the Representation ofBody Language

    yuk, hyun-seung | Kiil Kim | 2016, (61) | pp.163~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The space of labor in modern times at first engaged with social changes caused by the influx of Western capitalism and materialism. This study has focused on the period of more than 100 years between 1850 and 1960, which is assumed as an epoch-making era of not only the transition into division of labor and mass production but also a sea change of the labor sector in the wake of industrialization. Differences lie in the conditions under which three East Asian nations imported industrialization as well as in the timing and patterns of the characters – voluntary or involuntary. However, it can be said that, despite the differences of periods, the course of changes in the labor space proceeded in the same and linear direction. This research has extracted a total of 3,941 labor-related Images among 30,001 body languagerelated video data on the labor space of modern East Asia and aims to draw the trend, relationships, and differences as well as the particular problems of the transition of the labor space in the respective nations. Prior to this process, the meaning of the recorded data quantity of the materials will be recorded and interpreted through a quantitative analysis. This study will then collect the materials that show the specialty or the representativeness of the data on labor space and interpret them before getting access to a qualitative analysis.
  • 6.

    Narrative Value in the Later Half of Folk Tale Kongji and Patji

    Jaiin Park | 2016, (61) | pp.193~222 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    As for the reason why the unique characteristics of Kongji and Patji have not been properly recognized beyond the semantic category of the common notion that global Cinderella-type stories normally have, this study ascribed to the fact that a phenomenon of remembering the tale of Kongji and Patji only as ‘salvation of a nobleman from the persecution of a stepmother’ has prevailed. Accordingly, with some critics on neglecting the later half of Kongji and Patji, a literary therapeutic method to preserve the narrative value that Kongji and Patji contains in a complete form has been conceived. Through this study, it is desired not to be regarded as a story reflecting the Cinderella complex but to have a result to be aware of the fact that competition and war would be the issues we have to inevitably encounter in our life, reveal the unique characteristics of Kongji and Patji that contains the power to face war and win a victory and preserve entirely the process of reasonable and meticulous success provided by Korea’s cultural heritage of Kongji and Patji which could have nearly disappeared.
  • 7.

    Ideological Fantasy and the Real in Cormac McCarthy’s The Road - A Zizekian Approach -

    SANGYOUN AN | 2016, (61) | pp.223~257 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The Road by Cormac McCarthy is frequently associated with the tradition of post-apocalyptic novel as well as the sense of the ending in the aftermath of the world’s collapse. Most scholars regard the barren and devastated space represented in The Road as a geographical as well as physical one destructed by natural disasters or any tangible attack such as a nuclear war or an alien invasion. From the contemporary point of view, however, where the boundaries between reality and the Real become blurred, the space of The Road is the space of the Real, void of symbolic order and ideological fantasy. With regard to the protagonists, an unnamed man and his son traveling in the disparate world - in Zizekian terms “the desert of the Real” - The Road fits best in the genre of journey literature. Along the journey of the road, they begin to fight for survival and learn how to survive in order to enter the symbolic and to escape from the Real. The father, unlike other survivors in the road, begins to function as a Lacanian “(Name of the) Father” to his son. After the suicide of his wife, feeling keenly the necessity of the ideological fantasy, he tries to inculcate the ideological fantasy and symbolic order such as “carrying the fire” and the ethics of “a good guy” in his son’s mind. According to his Father’s words, the boy tries to “carry the fire” and to be “a good guy”. At the end of the novel, after his father’s death, the boy finally becomes a member of the family who he thinks carries the fire and continues his journey in search of hope. Becoming a new family member symbolizes that the boy becomes a symbolic subject who keeps the ideological fantasy and adds absolute value to his Father’s words, which control the boy’s unconsciousness. This fact can be explained in the Lacanian “alienation” which the symbolic subjects are to undergo in order to enter the symbolic, since the birth of a symbolic subject dominated by the Father’s words and ideological fantasy is accompanied by the death of a “being”. Consequently, the symbolization of “maps and maze” presented in the last page secretly reveals the truth of the Real hidden behind the ideological fantasy.
  • 8.

    A Study on Educational Exchange between South Korea and China - Facilitation Plans of Public Educational Exchange through Using Private Educational Exchange -

    lee kyung ja | Kim Dug-Sam | 2016, (61) | pp.259~285 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study starts with an intention to seek ways for facilitating public educational exchanges between Korea and China through promoting private educational exchanges. Since South Korea established diplomatic ties with China in 1992, South Korea and China have recorded the highest percentage of students sent abroad each other. Facilitation of public educational exchanges through promoting private educational exchanges initiated by personal motivation will be helpful in laying a strong foundation to achieve mutual development and prosperity resulting in opening a new chapter in term of bilateral exchanges. To achieve this, this paper has investigated the characteristics of the current status and educational exchanges between South Korea and China. First, South Korea and China had the highest percentage of students sent abroad each other. The percent of Chinese students shows the continuous and stable increase and the share of South Korean students also look stable. With China’s development, the number of Chinese students going abroad for academic purposes will increase and the activities for attracting Chinese students to South Korea will also be revitalized. The number of South Korean students studying in China will also increase. Under these circumstances, facilitation of public educational exchanges through promoting private educational exchanges will be needed to be prepared more sincerely. Private exchanges between China and South Korea are likely to develop further since the two countries have much of mutual trust, bilateral support and attention. This paper proposes the plan to develop private exchanges in two ways. First, the investment and management in the public sector for the development of private exchanges is required. Second, cooperation and management in public administration for the students who have completed these private educational exchanges is needed. Digging into the future plans continuously expand the two countries’ private exchanges and using the particularity in the private sector to advance the development of bilateral exchanges is necessary. It is because the expansion of private educational exchanges can be revitalized as another policy, including public diplomacy. In this respect, the preparation for related studies in South Korea should be made more systematically.