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2016, Vol., No.62

  • 1.

    Recognize the independence movement of Central Asian Koreans through “Lenin Gichi” - Focusing on the change of the awareness of the March 1st movement and August 15 liberation -

    Hong Woong Ho | 2016, (62) | pp.5~37 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to identify how the ethnic Koreans living in Central Asia have been aware of the independence movement through the "Lenin Gichi" articles from 1938 to the present day. “Lenin Gichi” didn’t deal with the issue of the anti-Japanese movement independently, but partly introduced Koreans in the process of featuring the anti-Japanese movements in Manchuria and China. With reagrd to Korea’s independence movement, partisans were in line with China’s national liberation war and the Korean partisans were depicted as participating in resistance against the national liberation war and Japanese imperialism in China. Recognition of the March 1st movement among the ethnic Koreans living in Central Asia in the socialist period was similar to the general recognition of the Soviet national liberation movement. The March 1st movement, a revolution of the Korean people as a protest to the Japanese imperialists, was a national liberation movement that, being influenced by the Russian Revolution in 1917, called for freedom and independence. But the absence of party leaders like the case of the Bolsheviks and the peaceful nature of this movement with regard to the characteristics of the members, mostly composed of religious leaders, were evaluated to have resulted in its failure. However, since 1991 when ethnic Koreans formed closed relations with South Korea, their recogniztion of the March 1st movement becan to change. They rated the March 1st movement as Korea’s independence movement. Meanwhile, they came to emphasize the unity of national reunification and national cooperation. Awareness of the ethnic Koreans and the change for the awareness of the August 15 liberation can be evaluated to have been more clearly influenced by history and systems. Previous recognition of Korea’s liberation on August 15, 1945 was that the Soviet Army liberated Korea by force as a gift to the nation. "Lenin Gichi" shared the same view as that of the ethnic Koreans. But since 1991, the awareness of the liberation of Korea on August 15 in 1945 has completely changed. Stalin and the Soviet Union, having been glorified, have become the target of criticism and denial as the main culprits that resulted in division of the Korean peninsula. And they tended to overcome the tragedy of the division of the Korean Peninsula and to emphasize the unity of the fatherland.
  • 2.

    1991∼2014, Incremental changes and expertise of Russia and the CIS Koreans community

    Song Zanna | 2016, (62) | pp.39~68 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This paper has examined the reason why the ethnic Koreans of today have emerged as experts in diverse fields in Russia and Central Asia and figured out that the reason could be attributed to the sustenance and the changes of the ethnic Korean communities. This study, therefore, has analyzed the residences of the ethnic Koreans in order to analyze how they have successfully adapted to Russian culture. Before 1937 when they were forcefully migrated to the region, the majority of the ethnic Koreans lived in the Primorsky region. But population statistics showed that they had already lived across the whole regions of the former Soviet Union in the 1920s. After they were forced to live in Central Asia, they not only resided in the region but across the whole areas of the former Soviet Union. And in each region, they worked diligently and kept in harmony with the surroundings in order to adapt to the living conditions. In the process, the ethnic Koreans have focused on two aspects ― labor and education ― in order to survive in the former Soviet Union. With regard to labor, they tried to preserve their national culture by working at Kolkhoz, a form of collective farm. But in order to survive in the former Soviet Union as a minority, they paid interest to the aspects of education. As of today, more than 70% of Koreans have forgotten how to speak Korean language and consider Russian as their first language. As a result, the ethnic Korean people could have emerged as experts in various fields while still maintaining a unique culture of their own as the ethnic Korean people.
  • 3.

    Relationships between families and generations of Kazakhstan Koreans

    Dmitry V. Myong | 2016, (62) | pp.69~102 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This article sought to clarify the conflicts that occur among the familiues and the generations of the ethnic Koreans society overseas, with much focus on maintenance of ethnic identity and role as a member of the country they live. The collapse of the Soviet Union has changed the customs, traditions, norms of family life of Koreans living in CIS and Kazakhstan. However, this phenomenon can provide a new clue to the revival of ethnic Koreans. Residents of multi-ethnic countries were not only required to possess a certain culture of the ethnic parties but also to have the basic qualifications, virtue and competence to live as the citizens of a multi-ethnic country. This sense of shared commitment underlies the basis of the Kazakhstan community today. Ethnic Koreans living in Kazakhstan are finding in the family a form to preserve their traditions and maintain national self-consciousness. I regarded the family as an important parameter. So in order to maintain the extended family system, they wanted to hold a hierarchy of families and family members. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, however, there appeared diverse problems: weakening of traditional families, nuclearization of families and the conflicts among the generations, between husband and wife, and between men and women in the wake of women’s advance into society or the job market. Today, the rise in the cases of mixed marriages in the ethnic Korean families results in new conflicts among generations and families. However, according to family members, especially the role of mother sometimes acts as a positive instrument to accommodate the cultures of various people and communication. Mixed marriage-tied Korean families need to forge a culture of positive, integration and communication, rather than focusing on conflictual elements of the national culture. This entirely starts from the family. With the collapse of socialism, there are aspects that strengthen the nationalist policy of Kazakhstan. However, this effort succeeded and a new awareness of national consciousness and a need to elevate the tradition of ethnic minorities may appear. With the expansion of relations with South Korea, ethnic Koreans, especially the younger generations, are increasingly making efforts to share and learn the language and culture of Korea.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Soundscape of The Human Beast of Emile Zola

    Chan-Kyu Lee | 2016, (62) | pp.103~129 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study is aimed at examining the semantic possibilities of the sound in a work of Emile Zola. It is a study that newly finds out a literary value and prospect in Human Beast of Zola through Soundscape which is revealed by not a ‘visible’ object, but an ‘audible phenomenon.’ Firstly, we trace how the auditory image of a train which represents the mechanic civilization is realistically or symbolically involved in the narration. On the one hand, it could be a clue to understand his ambivalent thinking about the mechanic civilization. Secondly, this study interprets the ways that the psychological situation of characters are reflected in various sounds. Thirdly, we analyze the ironical aspect and inner meaning of Soundscape showing the unusual writing strategy of Zola. It is connected to a study on how the motive, ‘the stranger in myself’ which is functioned as metonymy in Human Beast, appears. The ‘stranger’ doesn’t lose the dialectical tension of an ambivalent existence which cannot be defined by presentation all the time through the sounds in a body.
  • 5.

    Causes of Occurrence and Categorization of Research Cheating - For Foundation of Research Ethics Education -

    Jang Dong-ik | 2016, (62) | pp.131~163 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This paper, first of all, has examined the various causes of research cheating. Apprenticeship education and performance-oriented research environment are usually recognized as the major causes of research cheating, but I will present another one: differences in the methods of inference or hypothetical deductive inference. Then, the characteristics of the types of research cheating will be explained in analyzing research cheating: 1) analysis according to the characteristics in research cheating, 2) analysis according to the research courses, and 3) analysis according to the research issues. Here, the main purpose of analyzing research cheating is to clarity the characteristics and contents of research cheating. For the education of research ethics to make a success, we need to explain the characteristics and contents of research cheating, and then we can get a proper guideline for research ethics education. But there is confusion among the fields of discussions in research ethics and research ethics education. I hope this paper can help reduce their confusion without failure.
  • 6.

    A Fantasy of Femininity and Masquerade in Mary Elizabeth Braddon’s Lady Audley’s Secret

    Kim, Jungyoun | 2016, (62) | pp.165~208 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Femininity in Lady Audley’s Secret is a construction of fantasy that is enabled by masquerade. In the Victorian Era, the definition of femininity was morally strict, and women who transgressed the boundary of proper womanhood were considered unnatural and ungenuine. The 19th century’s ever-popular sensation novel foregrounds and problematizes this conventional sexual role and its ideology that supports patriarchal society. Lucy in Lady Auldey’s Secret constructs the Victorian fantasy of “angel in the house” through her masquerade, thereby discloses the structural inconsistency and fallacy of the patriarchal society. Psychoanalyst Joan Riviere, in her article "Womanliness as Masquerade", argues that a feminine mask is worn by women who wish to pursue her ambition, yet circumvent the anxiety and reproach from men. In a similar vein, Jacques Lacan stresses that femininity itself is a masquerade. His statement, "there is no such thing as sexual relationship," renders the impossibility of establishing any sexual relationship that is based on a fantasy of the other. This impossible relationship is thoroughly appropriated by Lucy whose social survival is granted by her masquerade, which is carried by a fantasy of herself. Her masquerade of the ideal femininity conceals her strong inner self, passion, and aspiration, but the falsehood of her idealized imagery was soon discovered by Robert. As a rising new order of patriarchy and law, Robert becomes the authoritative figure who can define what the proper femininity is. He banishes her and ‘buries her alive’ to cleanse the peaceful Victorian upper-class home from the evil adventuress. The seeming happy ending of the patriarchal domesticity, however, is never completely achieved as Lucy’s remaining portrait in the Audley court, which expresses her frustration and rage, disturbs the peace. The nature of femininity in Lady Audley’s Secret can be recognized as a representation that is grounded on the socially coerced fantasy and masquerade.
  • 7.

    The War Footing and the Martial Law of North Korea during the Korean War

    Yun, Kyung-Seop | 2016, (62) | pp.210~238 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This paper focuses on illuminating the emergence of the “state of siege,” or the martial law, in North Korea and its implications during the Korean War. In the initial stage of the Korean War, the “state of siege” was proclaimed only in Hwanghae-do and Gangwon-do in the name of “wartime state,” which had been wrongfully understood as a “state of war.” This study has examined the legal meaning of the “wartime state” which was proclaimed in a regional boundary. The wartime state was a low-level state of siege or the martial law but soon developed into a nation-wide and radical state. This paper has analyzed the cause, the process, and the aftermath of the emergence and transition of the state of siege in North Korea.
  • 8.

    Self-Regulation in Professionalism & Concept of Loyalty

    JEON Daeseok | Kim Tae Kyung | 2016, (62) | pp.239~272 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Professionals or professional organizations understand self-regulation as a conjunction of autonomy and regulation. The public, however, view selfregulation as regulation which focuses on surveillance and punishment. Such a gap between professional organizations and the general public results in unsatisfactory effects which warrant neither efficacy nor the public character of self-regulation. Indeed, it is an unavoidable result when we account for self-regulation only in terms of social contract theory. So, this article aims to explain and analyze the concept of self-regulation in professionalism and the moral foundation of self-regulation in virtue of the concept of loyalty. In order to complete this work, we, firstly, explicate the concept of selfregulation and then complement its concept in terms of loyalty. The concept of loyalty helps to combine and band the members of organizations and communities which form interdependant relationships. Besides, it prevents external threats and misunderstandings. Thus, we should study the specific contents of professional loyalty and its relationship to other virtues. If it is completed, then we can take professional loyalty as a practical principle for self-regulation.
  • 9.

    The Petit Bourgeois-ship of Dailytoon and the Beyond-the-Border Narrative of Cripple Taste [Byeongmat] Comics

    KWON KYONG MI | 2016, (62) | pp.273~300 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Korean webtoons have made a remarkable growth during the past 10 years. And in recent years, Korean webtoons have attracted special attention because of their role of covering the story of the visual contents industry. Research related to the trend of Korean webtoons is largely divided into social and cultural analysis and Korean webtoons related to the type of narrative analysis of the media dimension. This study is significant because it tends to provide clues that can significantly examine the present situations of Korean webtoons. The daily-toons reflect the day-to-day self-narratives of the author and has the characteristics of a growth narrative. In the early period daily-toons, the authors confessed shyly their surplus lives but now they tell their love, marriage, and parenting to readers. For 10 years the authors have changed their life style from that of surplus in their 20s to that of petit bourgeois in their 30s. And it’s true that the author’s narrative is the ‘growth narrative’. But the reader’s daily life was not that of the ‘growth narrative’ unlike the author. Rather, reader’s life has regressed for 10 years. Meanwhile the cripple taste [byeongmat] comics were very interesting. Usual narrative has the order of “introduction, development, turn, and conclusion,” but the cripple taste [byeongmat] comics are equipped with the structure of ‘introduction, development, turn, and cripple taste [byeongmat]’. Current trends in research related to the cripple taste [byeongmat] comics is to define the characteristics of the particular structural form. These studies are based on the premise that the cripple taste [byeongmat] comics are endowed with stocked distinctive structure and format. However, this paper attempts to analyze that the idea of its specific structure and format of the cripple taste [byeongmat] is just re-territorialization of previous narratives.
  • 10.

    A study on the Tombstones for Monks at Early Goryo Dynasty

    Jaebum Lee | 2016, (62) | pp.301~340 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This study has examined the epitaphs of 18 tombstones of Buddhist monks from the reign of King Taejo to King Gwangjong of the Goryeo dynasty with regard to the period of their creation and erection and the estimated social status of the monks based on their contents. It found that the tombstones of the senior Buddhist monks were usually built within 10 years after their death but some were erected 30 years after they passed away. All of the tombstones of the Buddhist monks that have been handed down today are those erected after 937 when the Goryeo dynasty unified the Later Three Kingdoms period. Most of the priests were known to have been closely related to Wanggeon, the founder of Goryeo. Some of them had closely served Gyeonhwon and Gungye but came to stand by Wanggeon later. Those figures met the unification of the Later Three Kingdoms on the side of Wanggeon. The epitaphs of the tombstones erected during the reign of Wanggeon, or King Taejo, show that the two priests had already passed away before the reunification of the Later Three Kingdoms. Because the epitaphs of the tombstones had been written totally in favor of Wanggeon by using lots of symbols and metaphors, the contents should be analyzed carefully. The social status of the monks was estimated to be the middle class or of the lesser position. Their ancestors did not seem to have been influential and those in the maternal line had not exerted influence on them. It was estimated that there had been no student in their families. Meanwhile, their motive of becoming a Buddhist monk was mostly attributed to the financial problems of the families, and, considering that the average age to became a buddhist monk was fifteen, to their wish to avoid the duty of national defense or forced labor. They succeeded on their own, rather than making use of their forefathers’ influences. Interestingly, political aspirations, rather than the aspects of religion or faith, stood out prominently in the process of their rise to become highranking Buddhist priests. The monks had never been one-sided in favor of a particular faction constantly during the fluctuating period of the Later Three Kingdoms period. The monks preserved their temples and adhered to their religious doctrines on the side of the stronger factions. The currently remaining tombstones of the monks are mostly situated on the border areas of the Later Three Kingdoms. In other words, those monks whose activities were written in the epitaphs of the tombstones, were marginal men or peripheral figures.