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2016, Vol., No.63

  • 1.

    Landmark and the Twentieth Century Urban Planning - Landmark’s Symbolic Transformations and its Implications for Urban Planning -

    JongMan Moon | 2016, (63) | pp.5~34 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the basis of philosophical interpretation of a landmark’s symbolic meaning as well as its transformation in modern urban planning. Literally “landmark” is formed from the words ‘land’ and ‘mark’. In a modern sense, landmarks are usually referred to as recognizable natural objects and artefacts used for navigation. It can also be applied to smaller structures or features that have become local symbols. Differing from this modern perspective, landmarks were originally symbolic: a place where since the advent of society the sky, land and humans were connected as one. From then on, the landmark effectively functioned on the one hand as a site for patterns of collective action, periodically through rituals, worship, and the use of language; the landmark helped to strengthen social integrity. On the other hand people reinterpreted the landmark as a means to solve social problems in times of social duress. Landmarks functioned not only as the symbolic from of societies, but also as a centre that produced and reinterpreted social meanings. In this study, I concentrate more on the latter role of a landmark rather than the former in order to emphasize the meaning of philosophical interpretation of the landmark. Departing from this definition of the landmark, I then focus on the implication of the landmark on urban planning by exploring a 20th century dispute concerning urban planning. When it comes to urban planning, I analyze the viewpoints of three urban planners: Le Corbusier, Lewis Mumford, and Jane Jacobs; all of who still influence contemporary urban planning field. In modern times, the landmark has broadened to include a variety of cultural objects, becoming blurred. The landmark has become an object of focus involved in the dispute between ‘city’ and ‘cityness’ or ‘urban planning’ and ‘good life of the urban community’. In order to explain the strained relationship between landmark and urban planning, I use Claude Lefort’s concept of ‘empty place’; impossible to occupy, to the extent that those who exercise public authority cannot claim to appropriate it. By ‘empty space’, I refer to the indeterminism of the social, so opens the possibilities for various interpretations. As a result, I show that Le Corbusier thinks of ‘empty space’ as a transcendental geometry, Mumford regards it as a source of new imagination and possibility to realize the purpose of urban planning, and Jacobs thinks of it as a social flag by extending the meaning of the ‘cityness’. Lastly, the results of these studies shed light on the present state of our urban planning, which is related to the landmark.
  • 2.

    The Philosophical Consideration on the Placeness of Alley - A Suggestion for the Future of the City -

    Kim, Jong-Gyu | 2016, (63) | pp.35~65 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper seeks to preserve and rehabilitate ‘alleys’ within cities from the standpoint of cultural philosophy. The place of ‘alleys’ does not have functional significance as mere pathways, but have significance as related to the home. The home is profoundly related to our life; so are the ‘alleys.’ However, in the process of city development, ‘alleys’ are detached from our intimate life and replaced by ‘roads.’ ‘Alleys’ turn into naught. We detect a power relation in this process in the history of city development. City development involves incessant nullification of ‘place,’ and the latter involves unstopping demolition of civil rights. This reflects none other than a power relation. Gentrification, a repeatedly reappearing phenomenon in the history of space formation, corroborates that the deterioration of civil rights is related to the nullification of ‘place.’ After all, this implies that the ‘place’ of ‘alleys’ should be preserved as the right to the city due to citizens, that is, the living, abiding subjects.
  • 3.

    An Existential Analysis on the City Park as a Base of Rest - On the Possibility of Philosophical Research on the City Park -

    Min kyu hong | 2016, (63) | pp.67~99 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper is aimed at making an attempt to research on the philosophical meanings of the city park. The reason why this topic must be dealt with philosophically is, first of all, that we could examine how the philosophical theories of space is applied to the real space of our life. In this process, we would clearly find such a limitation of existing philosophical works of space. Second, we could illuminate a diversity of life spaces through a philosophical work. We have tended to interpret spaces in a specific point of view. In modern times, we have had a very powerful tendency to interpret a space through such physical and economic aspects. But, in the area of human culture, this aspect is just one of the diverse cultural symbols of humans. If we could accept this position, it is natural that our living spaces have to be translated into a broad variety of meanings. Therefore, from this point of view, I intend to demonstrate how the meaning of our concrete living spaces is reilluminated from the perspective of philosophical theories. For this work, I will attempt to examine a distinctive spatiality of a park on the basis of M. Heidegger’s analysis of Dasein and C. Norberg-Schulz’s theory of space and trace a meaning of a park. I will seek for the possibility of how a park affects the existential living of humans in this paper.
  • 4.

    Jew and the Ritual Murder - An Italian Case in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century -

    Byung-Chul Lim | 2016, (63) | pp.101~129 | number of Cited : 4
    Ever since the Middle Ages, anti-semitism of the European Christians had been expanded by the myth of ritual murder. Throughout medieval and early modern Christendom, the belief in ritual murder was one of the universally deep-rooted phenomena that had begun with the rise of Christianity. But, despite the similarity, the historical variations in ritual murder cases were various from the individual social contexts and periodical backgrounds. By micro-historically analyzing a case that took place in a small city of Bevagna against the Jewish family named Daniele in 1485, this study aims to figure out the regional uniqueness by which the belief in ritual murder had been appropriated in the Italian terrain during the Renaissance. The conclusions are as follows: first, the so-called Bevagna case occurred in the contexts of the double status that Italian Jews enjoyed along with the growth of city and the economic interests of the citizens accompanying it; second, it were the economic ideology and religious sensitivity of the Franciscan mendicants that ran underneath the ritual murder case of Bevanga and even the Italian anti-semitic movement of the age.
  • 5.

    A Study of the Historical Flow and the Operating Systems of Dongyanggeukjang in the 1940s

    Kim Namseok | 2016, (63) | pp.131~163 | number of Cited : 1
    Between 1939 and 1940, Cheongchunjwa (Theater Group) of Dongyanggeukjang underwent a process of crisis and recovery. During the period from 1940 to 1941, Hohwaseon (‘Seonggun’, Theater Group) experienced a decline in terms of popularity and difficulties in restructuring the system at the same time. The two theater groups suffered a crisis, but soon successfully recovered. Because the two theater groups performed programs alternately, Dongyanggeukjang was able to continue to produce repertory theater works. These countermeasures were the driving force of supporting the activities of Dongyanggeukjang in the 1940s. In fact, during the Japanese colonial period, many theaters hoped to make an exclusive contract with theater groups and to achieve the development and self-production of repertoires. However, exclusive contracts often caused risks. Despite such risks, the way of exchanging performances by the two theater groups helped sustain Dongyanggeukjang and led to success in the theatrical performance of Joseon in the 1940s.
  • 6.

    Posthuman Dilemma - A critical Analysis of the Post-Human Enhancement and the Post-Body -

    Eung Jun Kim | 2016, (63) | pp.165~194 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study critically analyzes the modern discussion about body and the posthuman. The discussion about posthuman suggests, on the one hand, the possibility to overcome the natural limit of the human with body and mind. On the other hand, it suggests the appearance of a new type of human. From this point of view, posthuman pursues a disembodied human; a man with body composed of new meanings but not traditional meanings. In this new thinking, science and technology (especially human enhancement and the following appearance of pot-body) are very important. In this study the present writer takes the novel L’Ultime Secret (B. Werber, 2001) and Kopflos (Ch. Kerner, 2008) as examples. The former suggests the formation of the Post-Body through brain-enhancement that strengthens the function of the brain by connecting the brain to electronic network, while the latter describes the meaning of brain-transplant that restructures a new man by connecting a head from a man who has only living brain to a body from a man with only living body. These are two types of transformable post-bodies. This study considers and critically surveys the meaning of human enhancement and the following post-body.
  • 7.

    The Philosophical Therapy Approach to the Investigation of Things and Extension of Knowledge - Introspection for the Understanding of the World, Myself, and Others -

    lee giwon | 2016, (63) | pp.195~224 | number of Cited : 2
    The philosophical therapy helps clients have a abilities to maintain the balance of thinking by themselves. In order to maintain the balanced condition of thinking, the reason and emotion should be balanced. The balanced condition of thinking is important because it is the matter of how to understand, cognize, and accept oneself, others, and the surrounding world. When judging or deciding something, it would be necessary to consider diverse variables like the meaning of the judgment or decision and its influence on oneself, others, and social community. Here, it is related with the world view on identity, life, daily life, others, and society. The Investigation of Things and Extension of Knowledge provides a method to reveal the fundamental reasons why such fixed & conceptualized behaviors create pathological problems, and then to seek for the possibility of healing. The Investigation of Things and Extension of Knowledge is associated with the relation, transformation, continuance, and solution such as how to understand/accept the surrounding world and others in daily life, and also how to live. The Investigation of Things and Extension of Knowledge is to form the direction and order of life by thinking about everything composing the world like world, essence of being, morality, and ethics. As self-awareness and discernment can be done while observing oneself through the Investigation of Things and Extension of Knowledge, it could work as a method of philosophical therapy.
  • 8.

    Nietzsche’s Thought of Science and Culture

    Kwang-Yul Seo | 2016, (63) | pp.225~248 | number of Cited : 1
    Nietzsche’s resistance against his times was, without exception, manifested in his attitude toward science. He was born, lived and died in the 19th century when men could not deny the outcome of science any more. Young Nietzsche in the 1870s had an interest in science and read science books devoutly. But he was not hooked on science, but understood science from the viewpoint of a critical thinker. On the one hand, he admired the realistic fact and knowledge of science. On the other hand, he rejected absolutization of science like traditional metaphysics. In short, he rejected not science but scientism. He admitted the fact that science was civilization. However, he would not think that natural science was a kind of culture. In the 1880s, Nietzsche wrote many books, and purchased a lesser amount of science books. But his interest and adaptation of scientific ideas increased. His idea of ‘Overman’, ‘Will-to-Power’ and ‘eternal recurrence’ were influenced by the contemporary science of biology, chemistry and physics. He embraced his own readings of natural science books and reflected them in his later philosophy. As s result, the task of Nietzsche was translated into a creation of ‘science as culture’. According to Nietzsche, this task can be accomplished only through the union of science and art. His Gay Science was not science in a narrow sense. For Nietzsche, science is an interpretation of the world and the freedom of interpretation was the gaiety of science. This gaiety is a necessary condition of science as culture.
  • 9.

    The Double Meaning of Gold in German Tales

    Lee, Hye Jeong | 2016, (63) | pp.249~280 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Gold is a piece of metal representing treasure throughout the ages, but is also understood as a material representing human greed as the word ‘gold almighty’ suggests. Gold mainly performs a function of leading human beings to ruin in myths and legends. However, gold in folk tales entirely does different functions. The meaning of gold in folk tales is very positive, and characteristic. It is associated with a heroine in particular, and gold in folk tales appears as a symbol which shows the maturity of a heroine who grows into a main and genuine character. It is because the view of the world in myths and legends are different from that of folk tales. Earth can be put into the same category as women and night. Gold, too, functions as a symbol representing the productivity of women and earth. In Frau Holle, for example, a girl goes deep into the well to take out a bloodstained reel and, in reward for her efforts to help a grandmother, comes back soaked by golden rain. It means that she has matured like gold under the ground. When a girl bleeds in folk tales, it means that she experiences menstruation or has reached a mature, marriageable age. It also means that she came to have production capacity. Therefore, gold in folk tales is used as a motif meaning maturity and the truth of a girl. In a myth in particular and a legend in general, gold is considered to have developed into an icon of ruin that a human being should not possess. In a German myth Edda, Andvari casts a spell, saying, “All the people owning gold will be ruined” and the whole world, including that of gods, is wrapped in flames. Like the case of Heldenlieder, the latter part of Edda, the extraordinary heroes in Das Niebelungenlied, die after being embroiled in fights over gold amid strifes and betrayal. Nevertheless, gold in Edda is not a decisive factor that brings the world of gods to the end. Although gold in German myths was a detestable matter that cheats people and brings about disaster, gold in Edda is utilized as a spiritual existence. Because many gods including Odin have the golden magic tools (weapons) that could help redouble their strength and capability. It is a legendary situation that gold was recognized as treasure which make human beings covetous of property. Gold also functions as the possession of a legendary hero. In Siegfried, gold symbolizes the absolute treasure which a hero must have with a sense of heroism and absolute power. However, the legendary hero can never own the treasure. Although gold is categorized as metal, it functions differently according to German folk tales, myths, and legends in terms of meaning and aspects. Whereas folk tales focused on the productivity of earth and the moon, myths and legends were mostly based on the world view of the sun and therefore disparaged the elements worshiped in folk tales and transformed them into the image of devils. Therefore, gold is one of the most important motifs that could explain the changes of the solar and the lunar views of the world and the characteristics of folk tales.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Psychological Mechanism and Aesthetic Modernity in Kim, Seung ok’s Novel - Chapter 0 under the moonlight of Seoul - Centering around the Interrelation between the Formal Structure of the Novel and the Social Framework -

    Kim Jung Kwan | 2016, (63) | pp.281~320 | number of Cited : 5
    This thesis is going along with the purpose of illuminating the social meaning which is expressed as the immanent aspect in the text and the novelistic value through the consideration of the aesthetic form in Kim, Seung ok’s novel Chapter 0 under the moonlight of Seoul. ‘Imitation of another’s desire’, ‘melancholy’ and ‘allegory’ become the important aesthetic forms which the novelist uses for expressing the social structure of the 1970s with the deepened materialistic phenomenon. The psychological mechanism of the imitative desire which constitutes Chapter 0 under the moonlight of Seoul replaces the intermediate Phenomenon by the exchange value which the society of the 1970s generates with the indirect pursuit method of the desire in the novel. In the novel, the thing which damages the hero’s desire and leads into heteronomous and indirect direction is the influence of the sign of the exchange value which is rampant in those fetishistic days. Meanwhile, the narrative structure of Chapter 0 under the moonlight of Seoul unfolds the picture of the society of the 1970s which the consume of the desire and pleasure feeds back and becomes corrupt in the commutation relationship catching the allegorical thought and image through hero’s melancholic symptom. All the hero’s interior monolog which spread out in the novel being crossed by desire and hatred of his divorced wife are the groomy allegory for the fetishistic phenomenon and the erosion of the value in the Korean society in the 1970s. Chapter 0 under the moonlight of Seoul skims off the romantic illusion which the existing novel looks forward to the main character, and gets the social meaning and novelistic value by pointing out the author, reader and the novel’s hero with the era and society as one through the psychological mechanism of the imitative desire and the ‘allegory’ form.