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2017, Vol., No.65

  • 1.

    Automation and Autonomy of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Yun-Sun Kim | Jong Kwan Lee | 2017, (65) | pp.5~25 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Decentralization, autonomy, and networking are the key concepts of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Among these, we focus on the autonomy. Industry 4.0 is a future-oriented production program that relocates machinery to the industrial field, and fully digitalizes the mechanized equipment which has evolved steadily. The ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’, which started from Industry 4.0, is a huge project that makes a revolutional change of the living world as the field of consumption. Furthermore, machine may replace most of human work someday. In this sense, it is the important to understand self-optimization and adaptive automation in the forth industrial revolution. The Fourth Industrial Revolution will constitute an autonomous system based on automation. In this system, human workers would be dismissed from the shop floor, and their lives would rapidly wither. To solve this problem, we should consider how we can cooperate with machines. Adaptive automation is the main suggestion of this paper.
  • 2.

    The 4th Industrial Revolution and the Public Income

    Kim, Jong-Gyu | 2017, (65) | pp.27~59 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The present paper aims to claim the necessity of the public income along with the basic income. There are worries about the future of the 4th industrial revolution. Although the definition of the 4th industrial revolution is still not clear, it is certain that it shows a huge technological change like other industrial revolutions. The report of the Executive Office of the President of the US (Artificial Intelligence, Automation, and the Economy, 2016) deals with the changes. It develops strategies and policies to respond to those changes. To establish our effective countermeasure against the future of the change, this paper pays attention to the contents of the report. In this report, the most important thing to do for the future is to empower workers to ensure broadly shared growth. Strengthening unemployment insurance, labor unions, and increasing worker’s bargaining power are the key policies. However, compared with past similar policy cases, the effectiveness of these policies should be reconsidered to a certain extent, and it seems necessary to change the position on the basic income that is excluded from these policies. In addition, it should be considered that the basic income is only supplementary policy, and it is necessary to take measures against the change of future society more fundamentally. In this sense, this paper suggests the public income as the cooperative income.
  • 3.

    AR as O2O Platform in the Fourth Industrial Revolution - The Ontological Feature of AR as a Field of Interaction -

    Kim Hwa Ja | 2017, (65) | pp.61~94 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of the fourth industrial revolution is to produce and give services on the spot by utilizing O2O (Online To Offline) regardless of time and space that combine production, consumers’ demand and virtual information online and offline. This study has examined why the 020 Platform in the fourth industrial revolution should be based on AR rather than VR that is disconnected from real space. This study investigated the ontological feature of AR based on two: Gilbert Simondon’s idea of imagination and images that emphasized the cooperative ensembles between human beings and machine and Jean-Luc Nancy’s concept of the community of Ectopie and corpus that concentrated on the social and existential feature of humans based on the spirit of community. As a result, AR has turned out to be mediational reality through which the users can maintain reality in the process of their experience as they are maintaining the relations of mutual recognition and imagination between the real objects and virtual information. AR Platform, therefore, is superior to VR in that it can help recover the value of existential and analogue life with which the users can commune with human skills and emotions. Through its revolutionary changes, AR Platform in the fourth industrial revolution can help the main agent to make a progressive interaction with virtual information — when confronted by the catastrophe of the technological self-organization — and can advance into the new realms of education and careers and provide a new opportunity to create effective, sustainable, and emotional communities.
  • 4.

    A Study of ‘Wit’ in Comedy of Manners During the English Restoration Age - Emphasis on William Congreve’s The Way of the World -

    KIM, DONGWOOK | 2017, (65) | pp.95~134 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Restoration Age was the most interesting period in English dramatic art. When Charles II restored the throne in 1660, he ordered to re-open the London theatres which had been closed for 18 years by the puritans, issuing letters patent to Thomas Killigrew and Sir William D’Avenant for the incorporation of two companies of players. New theatre buildings in continental style were introduced in London, and more sophisticated audiences were gathered for enjoying European neo-classic dramas. For them, John Dryden’s heroic tragedies or comedies of manners were more popular than Shakespeare’s tragedies or pastoral comedies. About the comedy of manners, however, there were two different reviews and judgements; some criticised them bitterly according to the religious standard, and the others advocated them. Among them ‘The Collier Controversy’(1698) was most famous. While Rev. Jeremy Collier attacked on the indecency and profaneness of the stage, the major playwrights including William Congreve defended them explaining specific passages by placing them in the context from which Collier had sometimes wrenched them. Congreve argues that even though indecent themes and profaneness, as well as the false wit characters and hypocrisy were frequently introduced during the play, as the vicious people are made ashamed of their follies or faults by seeing them exposed in a ridiculous manner, so are good people at once both warned and diverted at their expense. In order to comprehend and judge rightly on the comedy of manners during the Restoration Age, therefore, it is necessary to keep distance with the puritan’s views and to understand the new fashions and tastes of the newly rising middle class audiences.
  • 5.

    The Aesthetic Grounds of Zhuangzi’s Cognition - In comparison with Kant’s Cognition toward the Thing-in-itself -

    Shin Jungwon | 2017, (65) | pp.135~171 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper contemplates the manifestation of imagination and artistic freedom in realization of dao (道) by studying the grounds of aesthetics in the philosophy of Zhuangzi. Zhuangzi tried to reach the ultimate value of the universal origin, or dao being freed from the limitation of the cognitive subjects’ arbitrariness. Its attainment can be mediated by unconstrained interactive communications among the cognitive subjects, and between the subjects and the objects. After all, he desired to realize true-knowing and eventual realm of freedom in perfect accordance with nature transcending human physical body and spirit. In Western philosophy, the attempt to accord nature and freedom was made especially by Immanuel Kant. It is located in the center of his aesthetics. In Kantian aesthetics, nature and freedom can be unified as one. Furthermore it is a coincidence between nature and human, truth and morality, universality and individuality, and the subjects and the objects. Beauty exists in-between the philosophy and art then still has the property and form of independence and abstractness. It is both universal and objective while individual and subjective concurrently. How can this animated, sensible and even concrete beauty go together with the rational, logical and universal philosophy? The belief that we may be able to find a clue to answer to this difficult question is the starting point of this paper. Epistemology and aesthetical philosophy in Zhuangzi has originality and yet studies have rarely been made under this theme. The preceding researches to compare Zhuangzi and Kant have dealt with imagination and aesthetic appreciations; however, few investigations have been made in depth to relate the purposiveness and Zhuangzi’s epistemology as far as I know. This paper will study Zhuangzi’s pursuit of true-knowing in association with art and free wandering by comparing imagination and purposiveness ― the major concepts of Kantian aesthetics. Particularly it will deliberate on Zhuangzi’s transcendental cognition in terms of its will to combine nature and freedom and suggest that free imagination and the realm of art are the ground for that. The ultimate purpose of this paper is searching for the possible connection of Zhuangzi’s cognition to the realization of aesthetics’ integral cognition through the comparison between the aesthetic cognition of Zhuangzi and Kant.
  • 6.

    Newsreels’ Format at the end of the colonial era and the multilayer of propaganda and mobilization - Focusing on Newsreels from Gosfilmofond -

    Kang Buwon | 2017, (65) | pp.173~217 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In 2009, a late Japanese colonial era newsreel discovered at the Russian Gosfilmofond film archives was released to the public. The newsreel was originally designed to efficiently disseminate news of the Japanese Empire as well as give a favorable impression of the ongoing war. The following contribution, however, moves beyond the obvious propagandistic elements of the film to analyze both the distribution and popularity of newsreel films. Through various formal mechanisms, late colonial era newsreels penetrated deep into public consciousness, Designed to hold the nation together during war by conveying propagandistic messages in support of mobilization. Newsreels served to remind viewers of the current war situation and strengthen their sense of duty and obligation to the state. Through visual spectacle and elaborate narration mimicking the format of the melodrama, these films captivated and enticed viewers. However, this point is less about the relative effectiveness of newsreel films on audiences, than it is about helping us understand the format of the newsreel film itself in the complexity of war propaganda and mobilization measures.
  • 7.

    A Study on Early Translation of Freud’s Works in Korea - With Focus on Sang-chang PAEK’s Theory of Sexual Desire (性慾論) and Yong-ho LEE’s Selected Works (選集) -

    JUNG MIN LEE | 2017, (65) | pp.219~248 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study examines how the Freudian theory of personality was adopted in Korea and Korean language by reviewing the context of the times when Freud’s works were initially translated into Korean. During the Japanese colonial period of Korea (1910-1945), the theory was only partially introduced by the Japanese academic circles with no translation found yet. After the Korean War (1950-1953), translation of Freud’s works started to be published in earnest with Sang-chang PAEK’s Theory of Sexual Desire (性慾 論, 1956) and Yong-ho LEE’s Selected Works (選集, 1958-1972) as the notable outcomes. Both translations could represent what kind of purpose had Koreans with regard to the theory at that time. The former, PAEK’s translation (especially the selection of Freud’s papers) seems to have focused much on a medicinal purpose, considering the career of the translator as a psychiatrist. On the other hand, the latter, LEE’s translation was aimed at meeting the demand of the general readers who were interested in the theory itself or arts (especially literature) as well as social and cultural theories. This can be regarded as an important feature in the reception history of the Freudian theory in Korea considering that a similar trend still continues to exist as well. From this context, the acceptance of Freud in the early 1950s was the origin of the aspects of the present reception and it shows the general forms of usages in the Freudian theory which were constructed historically. On the aspect of translation, the research randomly chose original (German) and English, Japanese, and Korean texts and compared the translated texts with them, in order to investigate the source language. Unlike translators’ claims that their respective books had been translated from original German or English texts, their translations were estimated to have been the retranslations based on Japanese translations. It can be interpreted that they did not mention the source texts correctly, due to the possible conflict resulting from the anti-Japanese sentiments in society after the liberation of Korea and the reliance of the domestic academic field on the Japanese counterpart at that time. And the terms, which would be the basis of human thoughts, were directly imported from Japan as well. (Most of the terms are still used nowadays.) In conclusion, the early translations of Freud’s works in Korea still remained in the magnetic field of Japan and Japanese language, even though they gained independence and established sovereignty: This can be viewed as a broad landscape of the academic activities in the 1950s in Korean society.
  • 8.

    Rhetorical Spectrum of a Scientific Textbook - A Rhetorical Criticism of Percy Buck’s Acoustics for Musicians -

    Ku Ja Hyon | 2017, (65) | pp.249~280 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    It is possible that a rhetorical analysis of a scientific writing may be carried out by a variety of methods. The paper tries to analyze Acoustics for Musicians, a scientific textbook which Percy Buck wrote in order to teach musical students musical acoustics. This analysis employs a variety of methods which have been used in rhetoric: Bitzer’s rhetorical situation, Aristotle’s three artistic proofs, five canons of the classical rhetoric, the metaphor analysis, and the narrative analysis. Through the analysis, various features of Buck’s textbook are revealed. The author regards the rhetorical situation as an exigence in which the established textbooks of acoustics cannot transmit such mathematical knowledge to students unfamiliar with mathematics and physics that they may misunderstand the sound waves and may be unable to treat temperaments. As for logos, the textbook provides a logical approach by means of arranging chapters dealing with mathematics, and as for pathos, it bestows the senses of safety and easiness through guiding students kindly. The textbook arranges the chapters dealing only with mathematics, and uses metaphors in order to teach the concepts of sound waves and the sensical nature of sound, and to emphasize the importance of mathematics. As for the evaluation of the narrative rationality of the textbook, its probability of narrative is secured by helping understand physical concepts but its fidelity of narrative is suspected by a few scientific and historical errors.
  • 9.

    The State’s Economic Polices for Paris in the Late Middle Ages during the Government of John II the Good

    HONG, Yong-Jin | 2017, (65) | pp.281~319 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze the characters of the Ordinance of John II promulgated in February 1351, in particular for the capital of Paris in order to intervene in the economic and demographical crisis and to regulate the price of labour and the merchandise. In this Ordinance, many scholars focused on the refusal against mendicancy and the imposition of labour, as the response of labour shortage after the Great Plague in 1347-1350. But the purpose of the Ordinance is not limited to this problem. The regulation of the market and the price by the royal government constructs the broad context of the politics on poverty and labour and these two problems move from the religious and ethical category to the political and economic one. It is important to observe the background of the birth of this Ordinance that can be explained in two levels: on the one hand, the political and economic and on the other, ideological. The intent to control the economic situation of the kingdom is issued not only from the demographical catastrophe but also from war and financial problems deepened throughout the 14th century. The royal government wanted to fill the treasure, principally for the war against England and this awakened its interest in the problem of the economic situation, especially on the affairs of money and taxation. With these realistic needs, the survey on the ideological context presents the thought on various theories and discourses in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. Thomas Aquinas and Egidius Romanus already underlined the role of the commerce and the merchant for the wealth of kingdom and royal control. Peter of John Olivi (Petrus Johannes Olivi) developed the concept on the market, the merchant and money on the basis of voluntary poverty, the criterion of the evaluation of the utility and the price. All these phenomena present that from the 14th century, the problems on labour and poverty began to enter the political and economic domain, considered to be the object of regulation of the royal government. From that time on, poverty was correlated more closely with labour and these two problems constitute the indispensable elements of the economy of the kingdom.
  • 10.

    Russian Perceptions of Central Asia Manifested in the Travel Writing of the Mid-19th Century - “Travel to the Tian-Shan” by Peter Semenov Tian-Shanskii -

    Kyehyeong Ki | 2017, (65) | pp.321~362 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Travel writing is meaningful in that it is a record of the people who have experienced the prejudices of other cultures and at the same time experienced the unfamiliar and exotic world. The purpose of this article is to examine how Central Asia was understood from the perspective of Russian travelers. This study attempts to analyze the concrete aspects of other perceptions in the travels to Central Asia. To this end, the paper analyzes “The Travel to the Tian Shan” that formed the perception of Central Asia in Russian society since the mid-19th century. In Chapter 2, it analyzes the understanding of Russian society in Central Asia during the first half of the 19th century. In Chapter 3, it deals with the details of “Travel to the Tian-Shan,” a travelogue written by Peter Semenov. Thus, this paper attempts to reflect on the fundamental conditions and limitations of cross-cultural perception of Russia.
  • 11.

    The Relevance of the TV Series “Guardian” to Classical Korean Narrative Literature and the Meaning of Its Storytelling

    Jaiin Park | 2017, (65) | pp.363~398 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This paper discusses the traditional methods of storytelling, focusing on Kim Shin who was the protagonist of the TV drama series “Guardian: The Lonely and Great God” (Dokkaebi, a higher spiritual being translated as "goblin") and who was most popular among many other dokkaebi characters that have appeared in a number of modern cultural contents. Examining its narrative relevance to "Chasa-bonpuri," along with "Yeonggam-bonpuri" and "Dohwanyeo and Bihyeongrang" that depict dokkaebis as deities in reverence. The narrative of the drama centering around the dokkaebi, Kim Shin, shows the similarities with the three traditional narratives mentioned above. It is similar with "Yeonggam-bonpuri," a shaman ritual indigenous to the Jeju Island, in a sense that Kim Shin had been abandoned by the authorities and degraded into an implemental entity, and later on, exerted his divine powers for those people seeking for his help at anytime and anywhere. It also resembles "Dohwanyeo and Bihyeongrang" in a sense that Kim Shin had helped other people with his mysterious power while living as an immortal undead, and punished Bak Jung-heon, the evil spirit, as an exorcist. Moreover, Kim Shin directly intervened in humans affairs and deaths, too, while manifesting his divine power, and this characteristic had not been found in other traditional dokkaebi narratives; it is concerned with the abilities of Gang Rim, the royal messenger in the mundane world in "Chasa-bonpuri." Also, the process of how Gang Rim solved the problem of finding his partner as he had experienced the afterlife corresponds to how Kim Shin recognized his real soul mate. And, the drama does not remain in only pursuing freshness and ingenuity through fusion with the traditional narratives. but also illustrates human anguish by presenting problems which have been succinctly, but relatively less, dealt with in the traditional narratives. The problem about ‘grudge of the abandoned,’ which is left behind by "Yeonggam-bonpuri" is solved by the story of Bihyeong; and another problem that comes out of integration with Bihyeong ‘s story is induced to the conclusion of choosing his way to the afterlife, as was just done by Gang Rim, the royal messenger in the mundane world. Though the fate of life and death as a result of it and the problem of such sad separation repeated through reincarnations, it ended with the continuous connections of destiny. In other words, the story of Kim Shin has the form of a narrative fusion in a way that it starts from "Yeonggam-bonpuri" and concludes with the stories of Bihyeong and of Gang Rim, as well as the flexible connections between those three narratives as the solutions for the resurfacing problems caused by each combination of the narratives. This kind of fusion method for traditional narratives can be a new means of storytelling. While creating a fresh story with fusion between a narrative and another, at the same time, this method invents a new story by closing up gaps of its narrative that are made in the form of fusion. In addition, the narrative flow with Kim Shin at its center has its broad frame in plots of a shaman myth, so that its diverse narratives show stereotyped features in their integration. It looks like a narrative of any shaman myth in the point that an ordinary human who had scars transcend a certain point to get his own divinity. That is, such narrative traditions of Korea are found in the storytelling itself that has been formed by its fusion with the traditional narratives. As shown in the above, the drama "Tokkaebi" is the successful case among the storytelling techniques of traditional narratives, as well as the modern content for confirming continuity of mythical influences in modern times.