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2017, Vol., No.66

  • 1.

    Black-Korean Conflicts, Bakewell, and Local Governments in Los Angeles

    Chanhaeng Lee | 2017, (66) | pp.5~37 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This essay examines the black-Korean conflicts in Los Angeles in the late 1980s and local governments’ responses to the ethnic tension. In Los Angeles, unlike New York City which also experienced conflicts between Korean Americans and African Americans, African Americans’ boycotts against Korean stores usually did not last long. This was because there had been since the late 1960s very few community organizations to sustain long-term boycotts. The demise of left and progressive political imagination in the late 1960s left a political vacuum in Los Angeles but this vacuum was filled by racial agitators like Danny Bakewell and black nationalist organizations. The black-Korean conflicts were more exacerbated by these agitators and nationalist organizations. However, this essay argues that local governments in Los Angeles were neither willing to resolve the conflicts nor prepared to mobilize resources.
  • 2.

    North Korea’s Martial Law and Military Tribunal during the Korean War

    Yun, Kyung-Seop | 2017, (66) | pp.39~69 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This essay analyzes the transformation of North Korea’s military tribunal system during the Korean War and its meaning. In the initial stage of war, a new tribunal system was founded by the military government under martial law. It, however, was basically based on the criminal tribunal system of a peaceful period. The new regulation on a war-time military tribunal system was made in mid-August of 1950. Under the new system, the violators of war-time laws and military disciplines could be punished in the name of maintaining state security and social order. The military crimes like the act of running away from a battle field were punished heavily as anti-state activities. And the crimes of civilians also come to be punished by the military tribunal in case they were committed with an anti-state purpose. In this essay, it is reviewed as a shift from earlier martial law to emergency martial law in North Korea.
  • 3.

    Reorganization of Japanese Emperor’s historical perspective and intellectuals in postwar Japan

    Jonggil Choi | 2017, (66) | pp.71~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on how the criticism of Japanese Emperor’s historical perspective has continuities with the creation of a new nation in postwar Japan. The historical textbooks based on the newly proposed standards are The History of the Country. However, this textbook still contains issues such as the imperial family-centered contents and the limitation of shifting war responsibility to the military. In this regard, criticism was raised from the point of view of the formation of a subject capable of serving in the injustice of the emperor and in the postwar reform. Ishimoda Sho judged that the emperor system would be resurrected if the revolutionary power is isolated from the people even though the empire-centered regime was reformed in the new post-war political environment. The logic of Ishimoda Sho overlaps the policy of the Ministry of Education in Japan, which tried to create a new people based on nationalism.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Dimension of Human Existence through the Poetic Imagination in Henri Bosco’s Major Novel Malicroix

    Kim Dong-Yoon | 2017, (66) | pp.107~139 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to investigate into how the dimension of human existence will be constituted through the poetic imagination in Henri Bosco’s major literary work Malicroix. Even though this work contains an abundant richness about the question of human existence faced with a harsh condition of nature, this topic remains till now barely exploited in term of literary research. Indeed, in this fictional text, nature appears first of all as a violent and threatening entity rather than a mild, docile one to allow for hardships to human living condition. The unwelcoming world with which the narrator is struggling to survive can be said a geological world founded on cosmic universal elements (water, air, fire, earth) in the phenomenological sense of Gaston Bachelard. The narrator facing the world to which human beings are not welcome plays the role of a solitary protagonist like a romantic hero in absolute silence. With such an ‘état d’âme’ (state of soul), human existence is being inscribed into the dimension of being, but we are not able to define exactly its stretch of meanings. In revealing by itself through the fictional text, this existential dimension is being unfolded through particular temporal aspects: waiting and slowing down over the time. As a central theme, the very contemplative act of waiting can be interpreted as its fundamental levels: for instance, ethical, metaphysical and especially ontological ones. If these aspects are viewed from the standpoint of what we call human existence, the theme of waiting is quite similar to the dimension of being in the Heideggerian sense. As for an example, the narrator’s stay in the absolutely desert place (the isle of Camargues in Provence) seems to be a way of waiting in search of the meaning of life and human existence. Therefore, we can say the act of waiting in this work is no more than a creative moment free from boredom (ennui) and anxiety upon which human condition is based, according to Blaise Pascal. In other words the act of waiting as a way of human existence is open up onto all possibilities of the events; it could be also an expression of a strong desire to live authentically a span of time with neither worries nor anxiety. However when waiting and living timeless moments within the terrible silence, the narrator tends to be fused with the cosmic and elementary world: in this context suddenly appears the theme of dissolution of self into the fantastic world. The making use of the fantastic themes in Bosco’s fiction seems to be evident as far as the loss of the narrator’s identity goes: fusion of the self with the being sealed in nature. So we might say that material imagination out of the profundity of space and silent immensity as well prevails over Bosco’s fictional text. The world of cosmic elements as a narrative background of Malicroix can be also a geological world from which poetics will be unfolded in full swing.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Political Use of Shangshu (the Book of Documents) and Its Meaning in the Early Goryeo Dynasty

    HYUNSOOJIN | 2017, (66) | pp.141~181 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This study focuses on examining the political use of Shangshu (尙書 or 書經), the Book of Documents, and its meaning in the early Goryeo (高麗) dynasty. There are two purposes of this study. First, this study attempts to understand the Confucian principle of political operation which Goryeo’s ruling class pursued. Second, it aims to search for the political and academic background why the principle was pursued in Goryeo society. In the age of the ancient Three Kingdoms, five Confucian scripts were read importantly. In case of Silla (新羅), the ruling class had already accepted the principle of political operation which Shangshu suggests, from the late 6th century to the early 7th century. From the mid-7th century, there was a change of understanding Shangshu as the Three Kingdoms sent students to the national school of the Tang (唐) dynasty in China. Just at that time, Emperor Taizong (太宗) of Tang let scholars such as Kongyingda (孔穎達) to arrange existing annotations and to make new ones related to five Confucian scripts. As students returned to their own country, they brought those scripts named Wujingzhengyi (五經正義). As a result, new annotations were accepted to the three countries. Shangshu became understood through Shangshuzhengyi (尙書正義) which was one of the Wujingzhengyi. Goryeo’s intellectuals read the scripts as well. Also they wanted to apply the principle of political operation written in Shangshu. Accordingly, it was used to cope with various political situations in early Goryeo. Shangshu gave imperativeness and authority to the king’s and bureaucrats’ political decision-making. Also it was used as an example to several political systems performed at early Goryeo. As Goryeo society accepted the Confucian principle of political operation, it was natural that they accepted Shangshu’s contents. Also Shangshuzhengyi, which contains Tang Taizong’s ideal politics, became a model for Goryeo’s ruling class who pursued his political operation. By the turn of the 12th century, solving the problem resulting from the huge natural disaster became important for the Goryeo government. For them, the most fundamental way to solve this problem was found from the king’s self-discipline and by reading Confucian texts. The reason why they thought like this was an influence from Neo-Confucianism of the Northern Song (北 宋) dynasty. In particular, Shangshu’s certain selection “Hongfan (洪範)” received attention since it was recognized as the way to solve the natural disaster. As a result, King Yaejong (睿宗) in Goryeo studied Shangshu, especially “Hongfan,” at the king’s study with his scholar bureaucrats called Gyeongyeon (經筵). This shows the changes had been made in using Shangshu at this time. However, Shangshu was still used actively at giving imperativeness and authority to the ruling class.
  • 6.

    Gray area of plagiarism in cinema: homage, adaptation, quotation, and remake - From the perspective of French films and theories -

    PARK, HEUITAE | 2017, (66) | pp.183~213 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The matter of plagiarism arises from the earliest times of cinema. Thus, Excursion to the Moon (1908), directed by Segundo de Chomón, is actually a "remake" of A Trip to the Moon (1902) shot a few years earlier by the famous Georges Méliès. It is difficult to characterize this Chomón’s film as a tribute to Méliès or as a reinterpretation of Jules Verne’s original book according to Chomón’s own vision. It seems rather to have been produced in order to benefit from the success of Méliès’ work. If one considers from an ethical point of view the inspiration drawn from other artistic works, we are faced with the following question: how to differentiate between inspiration and plagiarism in movie creation? Indeed, from the point of view of traditional aesthetics, the cases of homage, adaptation, quotation or remake are not significantly differentiated from plagiarism. However, one can observe that there is a tendency not to be very sensitive to this question in the world of cinema, with the exception of critics and film-lovers who value the creativity and originality of a cinematographic work. The specific realm of the motion picture industry, which often thinks only in terms of box-office gross, seems to make useless the warnings issued about the act of copying the work of others. Thus, in order to distinguish between such practices, we will consider the various forms of plagiarism that have occurred since the first times of cinema, focusing on some French examples.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Expression of ‘Hedging’ in Korean Language during a Debate

    Park Joo Hwa | 2017, (66) | pp.215~246 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    It is not easy to talk amicably with the other party. It may be effective to use inaccurate expressions or to express something indirectly in order to deliver the speaker’s thoughts and emotions well to the listener and minimize the burden, antipathy, and repulsion on the side of the listener. Of course, making clear and definite expressions may increase confidence when you speak your opinion and speak to persuade the other party. However, “vague expressions” as well as “clear expressions” can be effective in discussions that persuade the other party. It is possible to lower the antipathy and burden that may occur to the listener and the possibility of error of the proposition proposed by the speaker. The term ‘hedging’ refers to an expression that helps the speakers lead communications positively by not directly revealing their intentions. This study has examined the hedging expressions in the speaker’s remarks during the three rounds of the presidential candidates’ debates hosted by the National Election Broadcasting Debates Commissions (NEBDC). As a result, the hedging expressions can be largely divided into ‘reserved judgment on the proposition’ and ‘mitigation and enhancement of performance’. ‘Reserved judgment on the proposition’ is again classified into subjectification, possibility and conjecture, and partial judgment. First, ‘subjectification’ refers to an expression that minimizes the compulsion or burden to the opposite party by revealing that it is only a personal opinion by limiting the subject that judges the proposition to ‘I’. It is analyzed that subjects such as ‘jeo’ and ‘na’ are combined with cognitive verbs such as ‘think’, ‘see’, and ‘know’ so that the propositions are subjectified. ‘Possibility and conjecture’ refers to expressions that reserve judgment by means of probabilities or speculations without making any judgment on the proposition. Especially, by conveying opposing opinions or negative aspects of the other party euphemistically, it makes the image and attitude of the speaker more positive compared to the assertive expression. ‘Partial judgment’ refers to indicating that the proposition is not actively agreed or actively contested by partial agreement or objection to any fact or opinion. Or the speaker may make a judgment that is limited to a part of the proposition, and reserves a clear judgment. ‘Mitigation and enhancement of performance’ can again be divided into ‘expansion of subjectivity’ and ‘double negation’. The former can form a consensus through the vocabulary indicating a sense of either belonging or of solidarity like ‘we’ and ‘people’ and the speaker’s following opinion is generalized as if it were the majority opinion. ‘Double negation’ is ultimately positive and, in some cases, can lessen the burden on the listener more than positive expressions. It often appears with expressions showing the possibilities of some acts combined and in the form of the second time negation of single-ended or long form negative sentences. This expression is characterized by the fact that it expresses justice to the act while shifting the responsibility onto a situation of the inevitabile act rather than onto an act originating from the speaker’s own will. In addition, the hedging expression, which is expressed by double negation, seems to be a passive expression because the surface meaning and the attitude of the speaker are slightly different, but it can be understood that it conveys the strong will of the speaker.
  • 8.

    Choi Hanki’s Theory of Gampyeong as a Diagnostic Tool - From Modern Psychiatric Perspectives -

    nami lee | Chan-Kyu Lee | Lee Haenghoon | 2017, (66) | pp.247~282 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    “Gampyeong” in In-jeong (Politics and Humanity) by Choi Hanki is an essay on evaluation and selection of a capable person, which shows a significant achievement in terms of modern diagnostic evaluation techniques. “Gampyeong” is composed of four chapters: evaluation, teaching, selection, and encouragement of capable human resources. The chapter on evaluation breaks down into: 1) strength and clarity of characters; 2) morality and hospitality; 3) appearance; 4) knowledge and experience; and 5) material resources. From its scoring using tables and numbers, we may infer that he was influenced by Western scientific method. Choi realized that social corruption relying on personal connection hindered qualified officers from being appointed. He criticized society where bribery and favoritism, instead of capability, were key factors for promotions and appointments. He made strong efforts to make objective references and rational methods for human resource management based on Kihak, which is a more pragmatic and materialistic world view. Different from Yi Jema’s Sasang Euihak (or Sasang Constitutional Medicine, a typology based on four human physical temperaments and psychological characters), Gampyeong shows a more integrative and holistic understanding of human beings. He emphasized the longitudinal approach toward human development of characters. Evaluation of a socio-economic status, which was not always correlated to the hierarchical class system in the Joseon dynasty, was a reformist approach toward human and social development. Compared with its typology counterparts in Western psychology, Gampyeong set a good precedent for modern psychology, although his theory did not evolve into the level of Western psychopathology and failed to have any significant followers. To revisit and reilluminate Gampyeong requires further efforts to integrate the Eastern and Western methods on human typology in the 21st century.