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2018, Vol., No.69

  • 1.

    4th Industrial Revolution & Machine Medical Ethics

    JEON Daeseok | 2018, (69) | pp.5~38 | number of Cited : 0
    The main purpose of this paper is explore the main issues of the 4th Industrial Revolution (4th IR) and the Machine Medical Ethics (MME). If we analyze the 4th IR and MME in terms of the concept of integration and dispersion, the technology of Big Data integrates personal data in the world but the technology of Artificial Intelligence (AI) disperses decision-making and legitimated responsibility from human to artificial machines. The debate of MME should start from raising two kinds of main questions. The first question is that we require the self-reflective thinking of how we can design an artificial machine that can operate in favor of humans. And the other question is a philosophical discussion of how we can deal with or treat artificial machines. Roughly speaking, the first is a problem of robotics or robot-ethics, and the latter is a problem of the machine ethics. In short, the machine medical ethics combines the two questions mentioned above. According to J. H. Moor, a kind of Artificial Moral Agent (AMA) could be classified according to its competent properties; ethical-impact agent, implicit moral agent, explicit moral agent, and full moral agent. And the main problems of AMA differentiates three questions such as a problem of computability, a machine as an autonomous moral agent, and the implementation of ethical rules. Computer scientists and engineers try to implement AMA by applying ‘Top-Down, Bottom-Up and Hybrid approaches.’ However, it is manifest that finding a settlement through these approaches is as difficult as disentangling the Gordian Knot.
  • 2.

    Artificial Intelligence - Law and Medicine -

    Kim Ki Young | Kim Tae Kyung | 2018, (69) | pp.39~75 | number of Cited : 0
    With the development of artificial intelligence technologies and an increase in the amount of data available, data-based medicine has stood out as one of the important fields of research. Artificial intelligence, which derives medical insights by analyzing complex medical data, is expected to play an important role in various fields such as medical image processing, risk analysis, diagnosis, and the production of drug beyond the limitations of existing technologies that simply assist or supplement human activities. In addition, new legal issues are being raised and analyzed in the technological development in the machine and medical fields due to the Big Data and the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This study analyzes these conceptual understandings and examines the changes and types of medical accountability in relation to the use of artificial intelligence and big data before examining the risks and opportunities of using algorithms in the medical field. In addition, we can classify the legal problems resulting from the change of medical responsibility into several types. In particular, the responsibility for data error and for the cases of medical malpractice is analyzed to define the legal limit of responsibility.
  • 3.

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution and the Education of Arts and Humanities - With Focus on the Field of Medicine -

    Kim Seung Hyun | Kim Meyoung Kon | 2018, (69) | pp.77~98 | number of Cited : 0
    The goal of this paper is to find methods to enable the medical field, which has developed — without ever caring for humanity — along with capital economy and the information industry, to help restore humanity, which is at the root of medical care in the age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. As a method, the characteristics of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the medical field were examined and the concept of human subjects and the role of the education of humanities and arts were considered from the viewpoint of critical post-humanism. The Fourth Industrial Revolution can be characterized by ‘technological convergence in diverse fields’ and the ‘ultra-high developing speed.’ The convergence and speed give birth to the creation and destruction and bring about an unprecedented hope and anxiety. Despite that the medical field has a characteristic that it cannot be easily combined with the Fourth Industrial Revolution, it seems clear that the capitalist economy system will destroy even a few remaining public protection devices by actively introducing newly developed technologies. On the contrary, the medical circles and doctors can have the opportunity to restore humanity and display the original creativity that human beings should have with the help of the Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies and AI. As a method to that end, this paper proposed to actively introduce the education of humanities and arts into the curriculums at medical colleges. Humanities and arts education can explain what humanity is, examine the fundamental reason why human beings — not science — should be the principal agents of medical treatment, contribute to the cultivation of the empathic ability as doctors and cultivation of innovative thinking, and provide grounds for balanced judgments on the power necessary for human survival and complex ethical issues in the future when human beings will coexist with AI.
  • 4.

    The Process of the Establishment and Development of Vocabulary Items in Standard Korean

    CHUNG, HEE CHANG | 2018, (69) | pp.99~134 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study is to propose an objective and systematic research method for understanding the process of the settlement and development of the standard language vocabulary items of Korean dictionaries, with the analysis of the vowels of standard language as the starting point. This study has adopted the methodology of: using the lexical items including the standard words of standard vowels as a starting point of discussion; investigating the processes of their admittance to the Korean dictionaries; and, finally. statistically processing them. This discussion has a meaning that it provides an objective basis for the process of developing and expanding the standard vocabulary items through the standard of conformity between Korean language and Korean dictionaries. However, this study confirms the validity of the statistical methodology and presents a content interpretation that meets the result of statistical analysis. It is also necessary to present the contents of specific and meaningful lexical items in accordance with the result of statistical analysis.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Scholarly Culture of Beijing Xuannan in the 18th Century from the Perspective of Jehol Diary

    Chen Bingbing | Hao Jun Feng | 2018, (69) | pp.135~172 | number of Cited : 2
    The paper aims to examine the scholarly culture of Beijing Xuannan in the 18th century based on the analysis of Jehol Diary written by Bak Jiwon, a noted scholar of the Northern School in the late Joseon dynasty. The culture of Xuannan is an important element for understanding the culture of Beijing. In the Qing dynasty, the government carried out a residential policy according to which the literati and the scholars of the Han nationality were permitted to dwell only in the area of Xuannan. As time went on, the scholarly culture of the Han nationality literati became a symbol of the Xuannan culture. Scholars gathered here for academic and literary exchanges and promoted the development of Chinese culture and arts in the 18th century. The essence of culture at all times and in all places converged on Xuannan, which became a holy land in the hearts of Chinese and foreign scholars. In 1780, Bak Jiwon traveled to China as a member of the government delegation and wrote the famous Jehol Diary. The book records Chinese politics, economy, culture and customs in detail as well as the cultural exchanges between Chinese and Korean literary scholars and intellectuals. He made a lot of efforts to describe Beijing Xuannan culture which includes: the literary trends of the 18th century China; communications among scholars in the Liulichang street and the bookstore culture there; Western learning; and other aspects. This dissertation not only focuses on the aspects of the Xuannan culture mentioned in Jehol Diary by Bak Jiwon as the main research topic but also explores the understanding of the Xuannan culture among the scholars of the Joseon dynasty.
  • 6.

    Cultural Conflict between Korea and China and the Competition in the Cultural Industry

    Lee Ruda | 2018, (69) | pp.173~198 | number of Cited : 0
    In the 2000s, the popularity of South Korean TV dramas in China had been maintained in line with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) government’s cultural development strategy. With this background, this study analyzed how the Chinese academic world researched South Korean TV dramas for promoting the domestic cultural development, and intended to identify not only how fierce the competition in the cultural industry between Korea and China would become but also whether there is a high possibility that cultural clash would happen between the two nations. For the purpose of this research, this study analyzed the three items like the followings. First, this study analyzed the trend of research by the major Chinese journals on South Korean TV dramas. Secondly, the studies on South Korean TV dramas were made under the context of the cultural development strategy pushed for by the Chinese Community Party during the period of President Hu Jintao. Thirdly, this study examined the competition in the cultural industry and the possibility of cultural clash between Korea and China. From 2001 to 2012, a total of 120 thesis on South Korean TV dramas were published in the major journals of China and research on analyzing the reason for the popularity of South Korean TV dramas accounted for the highest percentage (19.2%). Besides, theses that examined South Korean TV dramas from the perspective of the cultural industry and traditional culture emphasized the necessity and importance of the cultural industry development and the revival and succession of the traditional culture. This had some connections with emphasis on the soft power while the CCP pushed for the development of the cultural industry and revival of Chinese culture from 2000. As a result, the possibility of cultural clash is getting higher because of the competition of the cultural industry with South Korea as well as how both countries are sharing the culture because the CCP is promoting the cultural power of the nation.
  • 7.

    Bergson and Deleuze -Two Different Logics beyond Correlationism by the Name of Empiricism-

    Arum LEE | 2018, (69) | pp.199~222 | number of Cited : 2
    In the thoughts of Bergson and Deleuze, we can find a new ontological thesis in terms of duration and difference. To maintain the ontology of becoming, it needs to show that we still can think the things beyond the phenomenon which appear to us. Since Kant set limits on what we can know, it has been thought impossible to think the thing itself beyond the subjective transcendental condition for all constitutions of our experience. However, especially by criticizing the transcendental form of sensibility, Bergson suggests that there are parts which coincide with the external reality in our perception. Considering our proper duration as an internal form for experience, we can think the sources of experience which appears to us as quality — the sources which are durations different from that of our inner life. Bergson defines this kind of metaphysical method to grasps the external duration as the intuition, which makes possible “the integral experience”. The logic of Deleuze to go beyond the wall of what is defined as correlationism to seek for the possibility of ontological speculation is quite different from that of Bergson. He shows that the condition of experience constructed by the accord of different cognitive transcendental faculties – sensibility, imagination and understanding – is not the only condition for all possible experience. As we can see in the later philosophy of Kant, free accords are possible between transcendental faculties. For example, when we encounter something sublime, our sensibility matches directly with the reason which is the faculty to figure out the thing itself. It transcends its limit by forcing us to think something which makes our experience possible. By the transcendent exercise of faculty, superior empiricism or transcendental empiricism can be possible — empiricism which makes us think something to generate our experience. Deleuze uses a special term “schizophrenia” to express the free accords or discordances between faculties which are not determined by concordance by the concept of understanding. In conclusion, Bergson and Deleuze show us that we are able to think things beyond phenomenon by reconsidering the conditions of our experience. That’s the reason why these philosophers open a new realm of metaphysical thoughts by the name of empiricism.
  • 8.

    A Comparative Analysis of Philosophical Eduction and the Eduction of Ethical Codes from the Perspective of Biomedical Ethics

    Chang Dong Ik | 2018, (69) | pp.223~248 | number of Cited : 1
    The education of biomedical ethics at medical schools is aimed at developing medical students into ethical characters equipped with moral qualities. This purpose may be achieved when professors know not only the character and the aim of biomedical ethics and the object of education but also their mutual relations. Therefore, I will suggest, first, that biomedical ethics, unlike other areas of ethics, has a character being dependent on other moral agents including physicians. Second, I will recommend that there are closer relations between a purpose and an object in biomedical education. Their well-coordinated relations can help effectively educate biomedical ethics to students. Third, I insist that the education of philosophical biomedicine should correspond to the graduate students, while the education of Habitude on Code of biomedical ethics should correspond to the undergraduate students. Only when these correspondences are made, educational effects will be achieved in the sector of biomedical ethics.
  • 9.

    A Study of the Ethical Consciousness in the Pictorial Ideographs of Folk Paintings and the Books for Promoting Virtuous Deeds in the Late Joseon Dynasty

    Cho, Heon Cheol | Lim Byeong Hak | 2018, (69) | pp.249~278 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper is aimed at examining the ethical consciousness manifested in the pictorial ideographs in folk paintings (minhwa munjado, 民畫文字圖) and the Daoist books for promoting virtuous deeds (gwonseonseo, 勸善書) — which contained the thoughts of the confluence of the three religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism — in the late Joseon dynasty. The idea of the Daoist books for promoting virtuous deeds, aimed at edifying the public, was written as a result of the confluence of the three religions in the mid-Tang dynasty and thereafter. In China, through the formation of the new Daoist Order in the Song dynasty, the scriptures were actively produced and the books for promoting virtuous deeds that fused the three religions became popularized. There was an increasing tendency that people practiced ethical virtues whose models were presented in the books for promoting virtuous deeds. The books for promoting virtuous deeds containing the thoughts of unifying the three religions and the contents of edifying the public in the Joseon dynasty had been largely influenced by the policy of educating and civilizing the public in the Ming dynasty. The edification of the people through the books for promoting virtuous deeds started in earnest with the compilation of the Samgang haengsildo (Illustrated Conduct of the Three Bonds, 三綱行實圖) during the reign of King Sejong in the Joseon dynasty In the late Joseon dynasty, not only the royal families but also the Buddhist temples and the individual public participated in the publication of the books. In the process of the diversification of the ethical consciousness along with the internal and external crises in the late Joseon dynasty, the books for promoting virtuous deeds were circulated as the codes of ethics among the general public. When we reconsider the historical trend that Daoism-based books for promoting virtuous deeds prospered for the purpose of edifying the people, we can see that the popularity of the books for promoting virtuous deeds and the pictorial ideographs in folk paintings — which emphasized social and ethical consciousness such as filial piety (孝), brotherhood (悌), loyalty to the nation (忠), trust (信) or individual sense of ethics such as proprieties (禮), righteousness (義), uprightness (廉) and a sense of shame (恥) — can be understood under the same context. The popularity of the pictorial ideographs in folk paintings which convey the ethical consciousness of the people in the late Joseon dynasty were produced voluntarily in society among the public without any direct intervention of the ruling class. The popularity of the pictorial ideographs shares the similar trend with the development of the Daoist books for promoting the performance of virtuous deeds by edifying and enlightening the people and encouraging them to do so. This not only coincides with the trend of the ethical thoughts among the public in the late Joseon society but also manifests the way how the people of Joseon took up the challenges as they were overcoming the internal and the external crises and coming up with social irregularities and absurdities.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Anti-establishment Lectures in Paris in the 1860s

    LEE Eun-Young | 2018, (69) | pp.279~309 | number of Cited : 2
    In Paris in the 1860s, the anti-establishment lectures were organized by the opponents of the Second French Empire. Paris was the place where the people criticized the Empire under the situation that the press was oppressed. Under the government censorship and surveillance, the Republicans, the Orleans and the socialists sought to spread the consciousness which was critical of the Empire at a lecture at the center of Paris. The Parisian public attending this lecture actively supported the opposition camp. A sense of criticism aroused in this lecture led to strong resistance to the regime at the end of the Empire. It also laid a foundation for the establishment of a republic after the sudden collapse of the Second French Empire.