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2018, Vol., No.70

  • 1.

    The British Antiwar Movement and the Emergence of the Protests of 1968 - With Focus on the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign -

    Dong Phil Won | 2018, (70) | pp.5~36 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper analyzes the way in which the International Marxists Group (IMG), a small Trotskyist faction in Britain, led the British 68 movement — a broad movement carried out in opposition to the Vietnam War. The paper examines some of the main success factors from the perspective of the following three different elements. First, the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign (VSC) stimulated the ethical awareness among the radicals by emphasizing the fact that resistance against the U.S. invasion is not different from that against the universal evil. Second, the International Marxists Group was relatively free from factionalism and hegemonism of the extreme leftist groups. In terms of openness and solidarity, the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign created a new paragon. Third, the International Marxists Group distinguished itself from other Marxists groups, especially with regard to a sense of internationalism, a coherent theoretical system, and cultural sensitivity. Moreover, the International Marxists Group had a solid theoretical system which can consistently explain modern capitalism and the infiltration of U.S. imperialism, and also aroused the imagination of the younger generation by publishing radical cultural magazines.
  • 2.

    Contradictions of Representative Democracy and Aspirations of Participatory Democracy - General Strike and Self-management in France in 1968 -

    Shin, Dong-kyu | 2018, (70) | pp.37~64 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Whereas Rousseau had thought a ‘veritable democracy’ was impossible, certain French revolutionaries in 1789 believed it will be realizable through a representative democracy. But this representative democracy regime makes paradoxically an undemocratic social structure and an immense tyrannical system of regulation. Finally, this imperfect democracy system become a target of criticism and resistance in 1968. This criticism goes with the aspiration for direct democracy. It leads the people to imagine the possibility of creating a new type of power and shows the possibility of direct democracy in which public opinions are gathered from below, not manipulated by the powerful authority. The strong desire for direct democracy provides a basis for a political goal and an ideological foundation in 1968 and it legitimized the resistance movement, which ran counter to the authoritarianism of De Gaulle’s regime. Especially, the desire for political participation is expressed in the form of workers’ self-management (autogestion) movement. Under the influence of the spirit of 1968, this new idea shows the possibility of ‘direct democracy from below’. But it also exposes the illusory aspects of the 68 movement that the self-management movement — though it showed the possibility of direct democracy from below under the influence of the protests of 1968 — could remain a mere fantasy without being accompanied by the fundamental change of production structure.
  • 3.

    A Study on Ordinaries in Medieval European Heraldry

    Yun-Sun Kim | 2018, (70) | pp.65~87 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The coat of arms is closely related to feudalism in Western medieval society, especially knightly cultures. It is not only the mark of the knights in the battlefield but also the symbol of recognition and authority in the medieval society. As the status of the knights is dismantled, the coat of arms has expanded into the life of the commoners. It symbolizes the identity of individuals and the communities, rather than exposing the aspects of social discrimination. Since the 19th century, the coat of arms has been studied in the two categories such as ordinary and general. Ordinary heraldries are composed of lines and facets, and the general ones comprise of the humans and the natural objects. Due to their spatial restrictions of being used for shields, however, heraldries have followed the strict rules to deliver compressive meanings, thus creating ordinaries and general heraldries. Studies on these heraldries have become meaningful when the representation of medieval cultures flourishes in the field of the cultural industry today. In this context, this paper attempts to study the geometric shapes represented in medieval European heraldry. Geometric shapes which have been explained within the rules of heraldry are not expanded into general research on figures only. It is not easy to trace and analyze the meanings of figures. In this paper, I have reviewed the basic meanings and symbols on figures in order to help contribute to decoding the ordinaries of medieval European heraldry. For this purpose, I have studied the origin and the development of heraldry, the classification of heraldry, the relationship between the line segment and color, and the characteristics and the meanings of the ordinaries.
  • 4.

    Essay and literary self-portrait - through Marguerite Duras’ La vie matérielle and Park Wan-suh’s A single fathom -

    Kaya LEE | 2018, (70) | pp.89~120 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article analyzes how are the relationship between the theory of literary self-portrait - as posited by Michel Beaujour in Miroirs d’Encre - and the genre of essay, through Duras’ La Vie matérielle and Park’s A single fathom (Han Gil Saram Sok). Michel Beaujour wrote that since literary self-portrait portrays oneself of today as how one sees oneself through the mirror and that a mirror doesn’t aim to narrate, a literary self-portrait has a distinctive characteristic of non-narrative structure, unlike autobiography, biography or novel. A literary self-portrait reflects and analyzes a given theme, which allows it to embrace contemporary experiences and to gain universality as it gets interposed with digressions and annotations. This is similar to the nature of essays in that the latter is not retrospective, composed of very short stories - unlike autobiography - and that it describes not only one’s own life stories but also the stories of other people’s lives and socio-political events over the course of one’s life that are not necessarily relevant on a personal level. This article examines the characteristics of literary self-portrait as a mirrored writing found in the essays of both Duras and Park. It considers how thematic and spatial descriptions of literary self-portrait, which refuses chronological narrative, show in their writings. In the writings of Duras and Park, memories of personal spaces, mainly home and hometown, get often intertwined with various other themes of their stories. In particular, it is important to observe how personal and particular thoughts and memories of an individual transfer to the themes that appeal to the authors’ contemporaries on a more universal level. Finally, it will be discussed what aspects of oneself Duras and Park wanted to convey in their essays, by observing how the identity of the moment, reflected in the mirror, is portrayed. That identity of now is the condition of literary self-portrait set around its nature of subjective confession and nowness.
  • 5.

    Lev Tolstoy and Nikolai Ge

    Oh Jong-Woo | 2018, (70) | pp.121~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Leo Tolstoy in the history of world literature is a special phenomenon. He sought to uncover the truth through literature. Therefore we can understand him as a philosopher and teacher of truth, and not just as a famous writer. Of course, L. Tolstoy is an outstanding author. His works have formed an original world, which has a rich artistic quality. The fine artistry of his works comes from his quest for truth. Nevertheless, L. Tolstoy was always dissatisfied with the fact that his works did not adequately express the truth directly and immediately. How does art express truth directly and immediately? Is this possible? It’s not that the writer announces the truth through literature. Art as a propaganda of the truth is somewhat different. Nikolai Ge, a peredvizhniki, also thought about the relationship between art and truth. At that time he met with L. Tolstoy and made sure that art is close to the truth. The picture he created, What is truth? expresses the truth directly and immediately. N. Ge corrected the question, which Tolstoy himself could not solve. We know that N. Ge painted a picture of What is truth?, being influenced by L. Tolstoy’s novel Anna Karenina. Let’s look at the picture What is truth. At first glance, it seems that Pilate is not very evil. Of course, he knows that Christ does not have any guilt. But he is a bureaucratic person. Pilate asks Christ about what is true. Christ remains silent, realizing that it is pointless to answer Pilate: there is a spiritual boundary between them. Pilate will kill the innocent Christ in order to maintain his position. That is, he changes his truth in order to benefit instantly. But in the picture we see that the light separates Pilate from Christ. So, from the picture, we immediately understand that there is the truth.
  • 6.

    The Influences of Campus Life and College Educational Services on Chinese Students’ Decision to Stay in South Korea

    KIM, EUNSOO | Han, Yeri | Kim, Hyosun | 2018, (70) | pp.149~176 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The purpose of the study is to explore the influences of campus life and college educational services on Chinese students’ decision on whether to stay in South Korea after their graduation. To pursue the research purpose, the study conducted a survey and collected 187 data. After selecting a clear data set, the study finally used 126 response data to analyze campus life, college educational services, study motivation, relationships, and others, focusing on gender differences. T-test results showed that male students were highly satisfied with almost all the aspects compared with their female counterpart. Multiple regression results provided that gender differences influences Chinese students’ intention to stay in South Korea after graduation. Based on the results, the study has suggested significant implications for the future studies.
  • 7.

    Representation of Advertising on the Elderly and Its Signification - IBK Ads Featuring an Elderly TV Celebrity Song Hae -

    Kang So young | 2018, (70) | pp.177~210 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    We are living in an era when the average life expectancy is heading for 100. Since 2000, we have entered into the aging society where the elderly accounts for more than 7% of the total population, and it is expected that we will be in the aged society in 2018 where population aged 65 and above accounts for 14%. The increase in the number of the population of the elderly in our society has already played the role of the subject, not surpluses, and the elderly still plays the major role in production with the Act on Retirement Age Extension to Sixty’ passed at the National Assembly (April 30, 2013) allowing the extension of the retirement age. In addition, it is important to note the fact that active seniors, an independent and active senior group, have emerged and become the leading subject of consumption. The theoretical review of this study mainly discusses the categorization of the elderly by age and the dependency of the elderly on mass media and advertisements as a source of information. In mass media, including TV advertisements, the elderly are still described in a stereotypical manner, appearing only as physically powerless grandfathers and grandmothers in traditional families. In addition, the elderly are portrayed as funny characters in the advertisement for IT companies. However, TV advertisements have gradually started to show the elderly who are psychologically and financially independent. As a research method, this study employed the text analysis from the semiotics of Saussure and investigated signifier and signified in advertisements, and postulated their primary and secondary signification processes. ‘Positive’ here refers to a certain ‘nature’ of the elderly group who are still financially and socially independent with the emergence of the active seniors. This will be defined later when explaining the ‘positive code.’ The ‘positive code’ means the type of being positive, the degree of being positive, and the positive contents of advertisements both in terms of products and services. This paper is one of a few studies that define the elderly as a mechanism of socialization, regarding TV advertisements featuring the elderly as the cultural contents. The status of the elderly is now changing into that of the independent consumers and the producers of culture, rather than the surplus others. Thus, this paper attempted to open a new horizon of the recognition that the image of the elderly has positively changed, as they are living more positive lives than before. Studies on the elderly are the imminent subject, regardless of the disciplines. In addition, it is hoped that mass media are increasingly portraying the elderly positively and that studies on the elderly will be conducted in a positive and humanitarian perspective.
  • 8.

    The Era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and Liberal Arts as a Platform

    Kim jonggyu | Won, Man-Hee | 2018, (70) | pp.211~237 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is aimed at finding out a new direction of liberal arts education at universities and the concrete programs associated with it in the era of the Forth Industrial Revolution. The core area of the change that the Forth Industrial Revolution pushes forward is a platform. A platform itself, as a cooperative model, replaces the old isolated modes of production. Corporations look out for the talents equipped with cooperative competence. Creativity is also newly understood on the basis of cooperation, and education that can cultivate this collaborative creativity is demanded in this era. A new orientation of this education is cooperation, not competition. Universities should also provide collaborative education and are urged to establish the educational space where various expertises can be converged. At this time, liberal arts education should function as a platform for expanding knowledge that could incorporate various contents of professional knowledge, and prepare for an educational plan utilizing Big Question which can naturally induce such cooperation.