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2019, Vol., No.72

  • 1.

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution and the Human Work as Contents

    Kim, Jong-Gyu | 2019, (72) | pp.5~37 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Production as a human work is the uniquely human capacity to constitute the cultural world. This cultural meaning of the production was changed in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. Human work has since been regarded as a commercialized and alienated mechanical mechanism. As a new industrial revolution, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is also unlikely to change this basic trend. Rather, it is expected that this trend will be accelerated due to its technical feature. Today, human work is at the greatest risk, and this danger asks us to reflect on its fundamental meaning. As long as production is understood as a process of making commodities, human work would not be restored as cultural contents.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the Preservation of Cultural Heritage-With Focus on the Theseus Program in Germany-

    Yun-Sun Kim | 2019, (72) | pp.39~58 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Fourth Industrial Revolution refers to a total technological change aimed at the automation of production structure and social structure through digitalization. The key point here is digital automation based on infinitely growing data. Digital automation stands for an economic system that works towards personalized service based on the connection between virtual reality and the actual world. The automation, in this context, means that the machine determines everything on its own allowing no human intervention. The basis of this mechanical system is the Internet, which is a global infrastructure that encompasses everything from economy, industry, technology and society to culture and makes them interact dynamically. Germany has paid attention to the use of the Internet, which is getting increasingly important in daily life and in the workplace, and has strategically encouraged its productive use through the Theseus program. The Theseus program aims to provide values to the knowledge existing on the Internet, making the people use it more frequently, and to rearrange and develop the less meaningful data into a new knowledge-based infrastructure. Among the subprograms presented in this program is Contentus, which is associated with the preservation of cultural heritage. It aims to establish digital libraries to digitize cultural programs and cultural heritages of various contents in the form of texts, pictures, and audio or video files and to preserve the cultural assets efficiently for the future generation.
  • 3.

    Double Alienation, the Return of the Repressed (Alienated) Desire (Real), and Split Human Subject in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

    KIM, ILYEONG | 2019, (72) | pp.59~96 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Unlike the traditional approach to The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde which examines it in terms of “the good-evil antithesis that lurks in all men”, the novella is concerned with the split human subject caused by double alienation which the human should undergo in order to be a subject. The subject, according to Lacan, is constituted in/by the symbolic order, so that, to be a subject, we should be subjected to the symbolic order/human society which demands the subject to give up parts of ourselves. What is prohibited by the symbolic order is called the real. The human subject, thus, inevitably remains split and alienated from himself. Furthermore, the subject is alienated from his own desire, since he desires what Other/symbolic order desires, (mis)recognizing Other’s desire as his own. In this sense, the subject inevitably undergoes double alienation. Jekyll has a desire for “the respect of the wise and good” as well as “impatient gaiety of disposition” which led him to do “irregularities” in his youth. Hyde as an embodiment of “gaiety of disposition” represents prohibited/alienated desire as well as the real repressed by the symbolic order/Other’s desire, while Jekyll is a figure of the social identity given by the symbolic order whose desire Jekyll (mis)recognizes as his own. Jekyll, thus, is doubly aliened from his own desire by Other’s desire which represents Jekyll’s desire, forbidding Jekyll’s own desire. Hyde, in this sense, represents the return of the real/Jekyll’s alienated desire, whereas Jekyll is Hyde’s social mask.
  • 4.

    Franz Kafka’s automatic writing

    MiRi Park | 2019, (72) | pp.97~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to verify Franz Kafka’s automatic writing based on a philological review. Furthermore, the paper aims to highlight the authenticity of Franz Kafka’s automatic writing by suggesting the similarities and differences between Franz Kafka’s automatic writing and Écriture Automatique of Surrealism. The conclusions drawn from the analysis on “The Judgment (Das Urteil)” as an example for automatic writing demonstrate that improvisational elements, dreamlike elements, and unconscious elements are inferred as the essential factors in the automatic writing of Surrealism. The improvisational elements are manifested in the typical, unplanned beginning of writing, inconsistency of text progression, numerous beginning parts of a novel, slight revision, a flowing style of parallelism in writing, and the eccentric use of punctuation marks that go against school rules. The dreamlike element is expressed in the work as the split different characters in a psychological conflict, a lack of causal chain in the progress of the story, exceeding a normal, experiential boundary, flowing all incidents put in disorder, a dissolved division of dream and reality. Kafka stated his writing as a “description of dreamlike inner life.” The unconscious elements, before anything else, can be attested by Kafka’s many different statements. For example, “one must write as if in a dark tunnel, without knowing how the characters are going to develop,” “descent to the dark powers”, and “submerged in unknown deep levels of personality.” Considering the similarities and differences between Kafka’s writing and Écriture Automatique of Surrealism, Kafka’s version of automatic writing should be considered as an indigenous parallel development achieved on the other side of Surrealism.
  • 5.

    Empathy and Alliance Generated by the Representation of Disability in Literature-Focusing on Shani Mootoo’ Cereus Blooms at Night-

    Lee Sun-min | Woo, Chung Wan | 2019, (72) | pp.133~169 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper starts from the critical perspective that the aesthetic representation of disability in contemporary novels marginalizes the discourses on efforts for promoting a more ethical understanding of the disability issues by focusing on rhetorical symbolism such as political resistance rather than the materiality of the disabled bodies and the actual experience of the disabled individuals. Thus, this paper aims to argue that the ethical issues at the core of representations of disability are ‘vulnerability’ and ‘dependence,’ which result in anxiety. This perspective will be supported by exploring the way Shani Mootoo’s novel Cereus Blooms at Night represents disability, based on Julia Kristeva’s theory of the abject and Rosemarie Garland- Thomson’s concept of the Misfit. Mootoo describes how her main character becomes a mentally disabled figure resulting from a change of space. Physical violence caused by a conflict between individual values and hegemony creates misfit space and transforms the main character into a mentally disabled abject figure. However, the mentally disabled character deconstructs the boundary between misfit and fit through ‘interactive empathy and bonding.’ This suggests the possibility of interactive empathy and bonding for minority individuals by recognizing atavistic vulnerability and dependence. Through the analysis of Cereus Blooms at Night, this paper maintains that mental disabilities also have access to materiality as a medium for interactive empathy and bonding. As a result, this paper argues that the representation of the actual experience of the people with disabilities in contemporary novels suggests the possibility of understanding ‘vulnerability’ and ‘dependence’ between the non-disabled and the disabled individuals.
  • 6.

    Cultural policy of decentralization in France-With Focus on Overseas d partments-r gions-

    Kaya LEE | Sookyung NAM | 2019, (72) | pp.171~204 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Since the establishment of the Ministry of Culture (and Communication) in 1959, the French government has put emphasis on democratization of culture so the latter would be accessible and enjoyed by as many people as possible. The decentralization policy under President Francois Mittérrand, in effect since 1982, has led to the introduction of a variety of cultural policies that differ distinctly from the conventional centralized approach of the French government up until then. Under the Mittérrand government was installed a Direction Régionale des Affaires Culturelles (DRAC) across the nation, which is now considered to be a representative institution for executing the decentralized cultural policies. The Fonds Régionaux d’Art Contemporain (FRAC) were also established during the same period. The paper examines the ways in which the decentralized cultural policies of France are put into action in overseas départments-régions. France currently has five overseas départments-régions: Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies; Guiana in South America; and Réunion and Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. These overseas départments-régions operate a Direction des Affaires Culturelles (DAC), which is an overseas equivalent of DRAC. There exists also the special Fonds d’Echanges artistiques et Culturels pour l’Outre-mer (FEAC). It is true that the cultural development in the overseas départments-régions seems to stagnate, at least in part due to limitations and burden of consistent financial input. The importance of promoting arts and culture in overseas territories, however, remains two-fold. Firstly, It shows that French culture is inevitably one of diversity, collaboration and even confrontation of different elements. Secondly, it can strategically reflect the core idea of the French Ministry of Culture that lays emphasis on cultural diversity. Under such circumstances should the policies of culture and arts promotion in French overseas départments-régions continue to be closely monitored and reviewed.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Cultural Formation of Patriarchal Domination in the Joseon Dynasty -Based on the Selective Tradition of Raymond Williams-

    YUN BOKSIL | 2019, (72) | pp.205~240 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The influence of the filial piety philosophy in the Joseon Dynasty is an important part of the patriarchal domination culture, and its influence is enormous to modern times. Therefore, this paper has attempted to use the perspective of the external ideology, which goes beyond the intrinsic analysis of the Confucian classics in order to reveal the process of its establishment. Raymond Williams, a classical scholar of contemporary cultural studies, established the “Structure of Feeling” Theory to explain the dominant culture. When we apply his theory to the dominant culture of the Joseon Dynasty, filial piety is a selective tradition. Therefore, the study examined the formation of a patriarchal dominant culture by viewing filial piety as a selective tradition of the patriarchal domination culture during the Joseon period.
  • 8.

    The acceptance of secularization by Protestant intellectuals and the theme of socialization of the Korean Protestants in the 1960s

    koh ji soo | 2019, (72) | pp.241~278 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the influence of Western secularization theology, which was housed within Korean churches in the 1960s, on Protestant intellectuals from the perspective of the church’s socialization relationship. The mid-1960s was a time when Korean Protestantism differed from theological orientation into a small number of progressive groups and many conservative camps. This phenomenon was caused by a variety of theological backgrounds, but this study approached the change factor of the influence of the “secularization” of religion after the modern period, as was called by Western secularization theology, on the social consciousness of the church in the nation.
  • 9.

    ‘Self-Overcoming’ in Nietzsche and Zen Buddhism-In the Case of ‘Playing Child’ and Zen Master-

    Kwang-Yul Seo | 2019, (72) | pp.279~306 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Nietzsche and Zen Buddhism have a common starting point in denying the ‘self’ as a subject. Both positions regard ‘I’ as a fiction created by consciousness and try to get away from it and see the true figures of ‘I’ and the world. They are consistent in that they regard everything as ‘becoming’ rather than ‘being’, but they differ in their attitude toward ‘becoming’. Nietzsche wanted to overcome nihilism by distinguishing “the self” from the traditional ‘I’ and actively accepting the ‘will’ created by this ‘self’. On the other hand, Zen Buddhism, originated from Nagarjuna, was aimed at achieving the state of emptiness (sūnyatā)’ by eliminating all illusion derived from ‘I’. However, they have a common point in that they want to abandon all logical oppositions, although they selected the different paths. Nietzsche insisted that moral freedom should be obtained by overcoming all dichotomy represented by good and evil, and Zen Buddhists believed that a free thinking could be recovered by renouncing all logical distinction. They also share the common philosophical goal of realizing free life through ‘self-overcoming’. As we know, Nietzsche proposed “Übermensch” as an ideal human type, but from the perspective of a free life, a comparison of ‘playing-child’ with “Zen Master” is more appropriate than a comparison of “Übermensch” with Zen Master. A ‘playing-child’ resembles the life of the ‘Zen master’ who is liberated from the illusion and obsession of all concepts. Of course, the former differs from the latter. The latter does not want to be reborn anymore, while the former positively affirms the ‘will’ and life through ‘play’. However, the two types of characters are looking at the same direction in that they love free life and try to sublimate life artistically. Nietzsche and Zen Buddhism have an ironic relationship with each other. The distance between them is close and far. It is meaningful that the comparison and analysis of the two is helpful not only in examining the problem of self-overcoming but also in understanding the differences and similarities of Eastern and Western philosophy.
  • 10.

    Two Realities and the Imagination of Art

    Oh Jong-Woo | 2019, (72) | pp.307~330 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Art is an act of man that has never died out in human history. Art played a big role when the human life of hunting and gathering settled down with agriculture and livestock. Art also played a major role in the life of mankind during the Industrial Revolution, when energy sources switched from animal power and natural power to machine of the steam engine. In the time of tremendous transformations of human life, art has made a big influence on people’s lives. The permanence of art can be seen in the principles of biology, which tells the truth that it dies out when it is useless. Then, what is the meaning of art in the era of rapid change now? This article is an attempt to examine that problem.