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2019, Vol., No.74

  • 1.

    The Creative Evolution of H. Bergson in Terms of a Metaphysics of Immanence

    Arum LEE | 2019, (74) | pp.5~32 | number of Cited : 0
    This article tries to show what the philosophy of immanence means and what philosophical characters define it properly, by analyzing the concept of life in Creative Evolution by H. Bergson as a metaphysics of immanence. First of all, the meaning of Life in Creative Evolution doesn’t indicate simply the sum of the living organisms. It means the Totality and the Virtuality as the intrinsic sources of its universal creation. Thinking the Life as Totality, Virtuality and Productivity is a metaphysical task beyond one’s empirical area. But Bergson’s philosophy of life shows us how we can think metaphysical things from and beyond the condition of human experience and how the experience can be constructed as we know in the evolutionary formation. This new metaphysics proposes a new way of thinking with regards to the relation between the empirical and the ontological level, not opposed. Our own life indicates no longer “appearance” opposite to “essence” in the scheme of essentialism, no longer “phenomenon” corresponding to its transcendental condition. Our life relates to and participates in universal Life Becoming. In this sense, it means “the expression”. This new metaphysical thinking is neither the philosophy of God nor of human, but of Life. We can call it as the philosophy of immanence as a philosophical plan without transcendence after the famous philosophical manifestation of Nietzsche: “God is dead.”
  • 2.

    The Phenomenology of Ambiguity - The Philosophical Meaning of Merleau-Ponty’s Expression of Meaning -

    Byun, Yeonkyeong | 2019, (74) | pp.33~55 | number of Cited : 0
    Merleau-Ponty is well known as a philosopher of “Ambiguity”. Ambiguity is not only his writing style but also a unique concept in his philosophy. Especially in case of expression, which includes language, paintings, and novels, ambiguity can be understood as an ‘ambiguous meaning’. Merleau-Ponty often put the art/artist’s work on the same horizon, or at least compared them with philosophy/philosopher’s work. Arts and literature question on the world and try to give answers through expressions. On these expressions, the ambiguous meaning, which is never clear and works as a historical move, is revealed within indirect language. This character makes arts and literature similar to philosophy, especially phenomenology. Expressing an ambiguous meaning can be called the phenomenology of ambiguity, both in arts and philosophy.
  • 3.

    Are Determinables as Fundamental as Determinates?

    BAEK SONG EE | 2019, (74) | pp.57~94 | number of Cited : 0
    If an object weighs 210g, then it necessarily has mass. Likewise, if an object is red, then it is also necessarily colored. It is said that there are relatively specific properties possessed by objects and each of them belongs to one general property. The former sort of properties are considered to be ‘determinate’, while the latter sort of properties to be ‘determinable’. Some philosophers who are supporting for anti-realism about determinables believe that there are only determinates in a fundamental sense, while determinables are just be supervenient on or reduced to determinates in a derivative sense. But Jessica Wilson argues that there are some reasons for accepting that determinables also exist in a fundamental level or are as fundamental as determinates. She tries to defend realism about determinables, along with two positive arguments and three negative ones. However, most of her objections can be rejected, except for one of negative arguments, the argument from naturalness, which seems to be intricate to handle with. Nevertheless, there would be some viable strategies to solve it. To sum up, this article aims to present that anti-realism about determinables can be sustained by refuting Wilson’s arguments.
  • 4.

    A Study of Communication in The Lay of Igor`s Campaign

    CHOI Jung Hyun | 2019, (74) | pp.95~133 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper is aimed at examining The Lay of Igor`s Campaign, an anonymous epic poem written in the Old East Slavic language, from the perspective of the strategy of communication. The poem revolves around a unsuccessful raid by Kniaz Igor Svyatoslavich, Prince of Novgorod-Seversk in 1185 on the Polovtsians tribe residing in the southern area of the Don region. In a sense, The Lay of Igor`s Campaign can be said to be the text for "communication." From a historical point of view, the inadequate communication of Chernigov's prices against Kiev, who enjoyed its authority as a medieval Kievan Rus`, and the resulting dogmatic and defeat of Chernigov princedom against nomads’ tribes of steppe, even though the expeditions of Chernigov's princes were wrong, the other appearances that dismiss Rus` in a crisis are the result of lack of communication and failure. An anonymous author of a work that knows this well, says that the most important element in her work is the very itself of communication. In order to deliver a message that internal unity is needed against external enemies and to unite and unite the Kiev-Russian followers, the author tries to communicate with the listener/reader as the recipient of the text. In other words, as an important constructive orientation of the work, the intention to communicate through harmony between the voice of the other and the artist's own voice is realized even by the alternation of the masculine and feminine voices. In addition, in order to communicate with the listener/reader most actively and efficiently, the artist also takes full advantage of the flexibility of the genre, which is a characteristic of medieval literature in general. Thus, the significance of this paper can be found in that it can fill a small empty loop in the accumulated research of medieval East Slavic epic in terms of communication strategy about The Lay of Igor`s Campaign.
  • 5.

    A Study on Postnominals in Korean Education - With a focus on verbal construction -

    limkjinsuk | 2019, (74) | pp.135~176 | number of Cited : 0
    The purposes of this study are to reestablish the concept of verbal construction-based postnominals and set their criteria in Korean language education, make a list of them, and propose implications for plans for their use in Korean education. In Korean education, verbal construction-based postnominals have several problems including no unification of their terms, lack of accuracy in their concept, no clear boundaries between their forms, and few cases of independent research on them. Based on recognition of these problems and a detailed analysis of previous studies on them along with teaching materials and Korean grammar books and dictionaries, the study argued that there should be explicit presentations of verbal construction-based postnominals and rearranged their list. The criteria were as follows: first, the construction of verbal construction-based postnominals takes the form of "postposition + conjugated ending of an incomplete predicate"; second, postpositions before incomplete predicates should be fixed in their forms; and third, incomplete predicates in postnominals have limitations with their ending utilization and can appear only in certain conjugated forms. It is important to deliver explicitly the forms of postpositions fixed in verbal construction-based postnominals such as ‘reul/eul, e, (eu)ro, neun/eun, gwa/wa, ege, eda’ and ‘edo’ first. It is needed to tell explicitly that there are ending limitations in ending utilization in such connection and modifier forms as ‘‘go’, ‘eo/a/hae(seo)’, and ‘(eu)myeon’. There is another need to tell the patterns of ending utilization with a conjugated form from those with two or three in Korean education. The present study holds its significance in that it has classified the lists of verbal construction-based postnominals in Korean education and provided implications to help learners promote their Korean language competency through explicit instructions.
  • 6.

    The Military Supervision in the Northern Region of Korea Carried Out by Russian Officers A.I. Zvegintsov and N.A. Korf

    Lee Hang Jun | 2019, (74) | pp.177~205 | number of Cited : 0
    Russia considered that it had an overwhelming naval power because the enemy Japan in the Far East was an island nation, and mapped out not only a land strategy but also a maritime strategy. The military overview concluded both land and marine surveys on the Korean Peninsula, based on these two strategies. The military surveillance summarized the coast of the Korean Peninsula. This section was written on January 24, 1904. The Korean coasts flow into the East Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Korean Strait. The meaning of these three oceans is diversity depending on the characteristics of coastal regions. The southern branch line of Dongcheong Railway, which was built toward the Yellow Sea, maintained the superiority of the Yellow Sea basin. The military overview suggests that Russia should take into consideration the tactical significance of the East Sea in many ways, since the East Sea will soon become a naval battlefield if Korea and Russia are regarded as battlefields during the war between Russia and Japan. First, in the case of Russian defense operations, the activities of the Russian fleet should be as far away as possible from the Vladivostok blockade in the event of overwhelming Japanese military forces. In the case of Russia‘s offensive operations, the Russian fleet's operational goal was to secure a back ferry from Vladivostok to Sinpo port. In this case, the position of Russia can be advantageous compared with that of Japan. The reason for this was that all the Russian rear ferry from Vladivostok to Sinpo port was closer to Vladivostok than any other bases in Japan. Japan occupies a favorable position with regard to its occupation of the Korea Strait and landing in Korea. Russia cannot occupy an area that is a condition for the construction of an offshore base in Korea if it exits only Broughton. Because Busan and Masanpo are under the indirect influence of Japan. Vladivostok, the definitive marina of the fleet, can command the East Sea, disperse the Japanese forces along its bases, and support the Pacific during the Russo-Japanese War. Vladivostok raises the value of cruisers' combat bullets and cruisers that require fuel while enhancing the fleet value of the marina. From the other side of Dongcheong Railway, the position of Vladivostok can create a great commercial value in a modern sense. In the early days of the Russo-Japanese War, Japan was expected to secure a clear command of maritime command, and the superior maritime command would move to the land. Therefore, military operations in Russia must be defensive in the first half of the war. It concluded that the most important task here was an immediate mobilization of Russian troops.
  • 7.

    Does the personhood argument inevitably imply infanticide?

    Jang Dong-ik | 2019, (74) | pp.207~229 | number of Cited : 0
    The personhood argument is considered as a good strategy for abortion. Although it has these advantages, criticism that it implies infanticide is also being raised at the same time. This criticism is fatal to an ethical theory. Here, I examined whether the argument of personhood necessarily implies infanticide or not. For this purpose, first, I distinguished the concept of ‘murder’ from that of ‘killing’, then explained that murder, not killing, has meaningful relevance to ethics. And considering the their responses to criticism that the personhood argument allows infanticide, I examined that its criticisms of implying infanticide could be overcome by their responses. Even if abortion is approved, it is confirmed that there is a way of opposing infanticide by examining the personhood argument.
  • 8.

    The concept of character, and the necessity and direction of character education

    Kim Tae Kyung | 2019, (74) | pp.231~253 | number of Cited : 3
    Even after the Character Education Promotion Act was enacted in 2015, lots of questions about the character education are still raised. It is even more meaningful to argue that it is difficult to even know what the character is. Here, I argue that these questions and arguments all came from the point of view of Duty Ethics, which is the core idea of act-based ethics And it showed that character education is not discerned from existing ethics education if it is understood from the viewpoint of act-based ethics. As a result, character education cannot be explained properly unless it is understood from the viewpoint of virtue ethics. In addition, the necessity and direction of character education can be presented properly from only the viewpoint of virtue ethics.
  • 9.

    Nietzsche's Critique of Modern People and Proposal for a New Life - The Symbol of 'Dream' and the Recovery of Meaning of Life -

    Kwang-Yul Seo | 2019, (74) | pp.255~284 | number of Cited : 0
    From the perspective of irrationalism, Nietzsche pointed out that modern people had lost the intuitive abilities and the meanings of life. Modernity achieved many civilizational achievements through scientific rationality. It changed human life into a calculative and measurable one. In the realm of life, Modernity emphasized the freedom of individuals, but the ideal human of Modernity was not a free human. By promoting equality, Modernity has idealized an ordinary human being. In Thus Spoke Zarathustra, “the last man (der letze Mensch)” showed this ordinary human-image that modern people wanted to become. 'Universality' or 'ordinariness' replaced 'ἀρετή (excellence)' which the ancient Greeks valued highly. Nietzsche argued that creation of new meanings of life would be a task for future humans. He said that 'the strong human in the Future' must reject a normal life and create new meanings of life. He emphasized new meanings being created through qualitative sublimation. He argued that the meaning of life could be newly discovered when the 'will to power' is exercised freely. The meaning of life will become diverse when we realize a 'will' in our own life as necessity. Nietzsche's "the great man (der große Mensch)" can be defined as a human type to create new meanings of life. This view of humanity is also very important to us, who live in the 21st century when various lives and cultures coexist.
  • 10.

    The Objectivity of Humanities Research and the Phenomenological Methodology

    Seung Ug Park | 2019, (74) | pp.285~313 | number of Cited : 0
    Recently, it is not strange to see that the famous natural scientists have tried to answer the old metaphysical questions. It is good to see, on a positive side, the collaboration between research of natural science and humanities research, but at the same time it negatively means the shrinkage of the research territory of humanities. Social science, originally aimed at seeking for the solutions of the social problems, has also adopted the methodology of scientific research. Scientific research becomes the standard of every academic research. This situation raised a question about the nature and role of humanities research. Since the Scientific Revolution, the key to the success of natural science is the objectivity of their methodology. Then, could we request for objectivity in humanities research? I have tried to argue in this paper the objectivity of humanities research with the help of the phenomenological methodology. And it shows which role humanities research has in the research about the so-called social dilemmas.
  • 11.

    Spinoza and a Kind of Materialism - The Interpretation of Stuart Hampshire -

    Sam-Yel Park | 2019, (74) | pp.315~336 | number of Cited : 0
    For Spinoza, the relative weighting of thought and extension is equal, and therefore neither can we give greater weight to the body nor to the mind: the body is not prior to the mind nor vice versa. However, from time to time, some commentators give weight either to one or to the other. Furthermore, among the various interpretations of Spinoza's mind-body problem, there is a notable materialistic point of view: modified materialism by Stuart Hampshire. In this paper, I considered the appropriateness of his perspective on Spinoza and discussed some of the problems which arise from his interpretation and some of the inadequacy of applying it to Spinoza's mind-body theory. For Hampshire, the physical aspect is more coherent and fuller than the mental, and he sees Spinoza as a (non-reductive) materialist. Therefore, it is problematic to adopt Hampshire's interpretation as Spinoza's mind-body theory. Spinozistic identity between the mind and the body should be found in that which encompasses both the mental and physical, and thus Spinoza’s theory should be regarded as monism with materialism and idealism as the double aspects of his monistic substance.