This study aims to examine the phonological problems of, and the correlation between, the characteristic of Cia-cia language and the transcription of Cia-cia language into Hangeul. Besides, this study is also aimed at providing solutions for the phonological problems of the transcription of Cia-cia language into Hangeul. The phonological characteristics and constraints of Cia-cia language and modern Korean are different. Therefore, the application of the transcription of Cia-cia language into Hangeul needs to preserve not only the characteristics of Hangeul but also the characteristics of Cia-cia language. Currently, some transcriptions of Cia-cia language into Hangeul do not take into account the characteristics of Cia-cia language, but rather only apply the transcription of modern Korean language as it is.
In the current transcription of Cia-cia language into Hangeul, the ‘ㅡ’ transcription is used for double consonant, the ‘을ㄹ’ transcription is used for [l] located at the beginning and middle of a word and the ‘응ㅇ’ transcription is used for [ŋ] located at the beginning and middle of a word. These transcriptions do not correlate with the characteristics of Cia-cia language. However, they correlate with modern Korean language consonant and syllable constraints. Therefore, phonological problems will arise if they are applied to Cia-cia’s writing system which has different constraints compared with Korean. This study has proposed a method for transcribing the double consonants of Cia-cia language with double consonants (합용병서) of medieval Korean, the [l] located at the beginning and middle of a word with double ri-eul (쌍리을) and the [ŋ] located at the beginning of a word with i-eung in medieval Korean (옛이응). This solution is more appropriate than just applying the transcription of modern Korean language to the transcription of Hangeul in Cia-cia language without considering the characteristics of Cia-cia language.
In 1942 and in 1943, Lv He-ruo published Jaejasu (財子壽) and Hapgapyeongan (合家壽安), respectively. This paper is aimed at analyzing the fall of the “the Great family” and its metonymic meaning. Jaejasu shows the unfortunate fate of ‘We-mei (玉梅)’ in the feudal patriarchal order. This paper also examined the author’s judgment about mainland China and Taiwan, as well as the misfortune of a Taiwanese woman who suffered under the male-centered patriarchal order at the time. This is because the ‘crucial’ cause of the misfortune of We-mei is not attributed to her husband’s moral defects, but to the closedness of “the Great family”. In other words, Lv He-ruo thought that China was not aware of the changes around the world at the time and did not interact with other countries, thus resulting in Taiwan falling into a Japanese colony.
And on the surface of Hapgapyeongan, the bankruptcy process of the opiate father is an important story. However, the author’s intention is in the complicated mind of his adoptive son who looks at his father addicted to opium. The son cannot ignore his opiate addict father, at the same time seeks the existence of a “new/another” father. This is interpreted as implying the composite situation of the helpless mainland China, suffering from opium and was bankrupt, and Taiwan which imagined that continent as their homeland. The adoptive/orphan son wants to get away from the opiate addict father on one hand and wants to be recognized by the new/another father on the other hand. The desire of the adoptive/orphan son is similar to what Taiwanese young people wanted to head to ‘the South’ during the Great East Asian War.
In the middle of the war, Lv He-ruo revealed the fate of the Taiwanese community in the rapidly changing situations of the world, and the artist’s complex feelings about mainland China through works such as Jaejasu and Hapgapyeongan.
This study analyzes the relation between students’ academic major satisfaction and their attitudes in three areas (literature, English, and occupation), focusing on their subjective and psychological experiences in English department. We examine students’ need satisfaction with a model specifying three need factors (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and two latent method factors (satisfaction and dissatisfaction) based on the Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs (BMPN). The satisfied group demonstrates the higher level of satisfaction than the other in all three areas, and the area of literature is where the most significant difference lies. The average of the difference between the two groups in the area of literature is almost close to 0.6 (t=3.83, p<0.001). This study proves the importance of literature education in English major and provides a basis for developing a future curriculum to meet students’ internal needs in their field of study.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of English relative clause constructions in the American media and Singaporean media on the basis of data collected from News on the Web Corpus and World English. The corpus analyses show that relative clauses’ antecedents in Singaporean media have various vocabularies related to economics or finance and specific regional or national people. Moreover, It is found that verb types can affect the choice between American English and Singaporean English as English variation. The relative clauses’ 6 verb types in Singaporean media have various verbs with positive and active meanings. This paper claims that English learning and pedagogy through corpus materials enables one to identify language variation between English from inner circles and that from outer circles. This kind of English learning and pedagogy could increase social, economic, and cultural interaction all over the world.
This study examines how Mencius has been understood, focusing on Ito Jinsai’s The Ancient Meaning of Mencius. In addition to The Ancient Meaning of Mencius, Ito Jinsai, the pioneer of the Kogaku (“Study of Antiquity”) philosophical movement, wrote The Meaning of Words in the Analects and Mencius which describes the main concepts of The Analects and Mencius. There are the descriptions of Mencius also in Questions From Children (Dōjimon), which is composed of dialogues for students.
Ito Jinsai proposes a method based on publicity in The Ancient Meaning of Mencius. The reading of Mencius by Ito strongly reveals the political aspect along with the position of human beings and moral ethics. This publicness is based on the mutuality of the public. Making it with the public is a way of publicness. The ‘human’ presented by Ito through the Mencius is ‘human’ to practice the method of publicness. In this regard, the ‘human’ predicted by Ito is ‘public human’ because it is the main purpose of realizing the ‘public’. What Ito asked for from the magistrate was to provide a place for living for individuals, which shows that Ito reads Mencius in terms of politics and economy.