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2021, Vol., No.80

  • 1.

    The Background of Lee Seunghee’s Trip to Beijing and the Mood of Friendship Poetry -Focusing on the Seoyoulok (西遊錄)-

    Han, GilRo | 2021, (80) | pp.5~37 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    In 1905, Japan forcibly signed a treaty with the Korean Empire. The fall of the country and the collapse of Confucianism were so shocking that intellectuals at the time considered immigration. Lee Seunghee (李承熙), the leader of the Hanju School (寒洲學派), was also one of the intellectuals who considered immigration. In 1908, 62-year-old Lee Seung-hee took a ship bound for Vladivostok, the border between Russia and China, where he devoted himself to establishing a Confucian community and building a base for the independence movement. In 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution broke out in China, he became a central figure in the Confucius Religion Movement (孔敎運動) and also grew to represent the Confucian scholars living in China. In 1913, he founded the Korean Organization of Confucius Religion Church of the Three Provinces in Northeast China (東三省韓人孔敎 會) in anticipation of overcoming the conflict and national crisis in the Korean community at that t ime. I n the w orks in Seoyoulok (西遊錄; The Records of Travels in the West), Lee manifested his own Confucian spirit and active will to put it into practice, neither resorting to minor Sinocentrism nor showing a trait of a Sinophile. At the same time, the book vividly records the reappearance and the elevated status of Korean Confucians in modern China. In short, the book marks a new beginning of the Modern China (Beijing) Travel Literature, which records the Korean Confucians’ travel to China in the new modern period, not based on the so-called previous routes, and shows an early appearance of the collaboration and cooperation between Confucians in Korea and China of the modern period.
  • 2.

    Hong Eurn’s Poetries About Dosan’s Garden

    KIM AYUN | 2021, (80) | pp.39~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    During the Japanese colonial period, Hong Eurn was an independence movement activist, a journalist and an author in the United States. He had kept company with Ahn Changho since 1911. Ahn’s house was located at 106 North Figueroa Street in Los Angeles, CA, and was equipped with Dosan’s Garden at the front of the house. Hong wrote eight pieces of poetries about Dosan’s Garden and released them in The New Korea (Sinhanminbo) which was founded on February 10, 1909. The purpose of this paper is to analyze Hong Eurn’s Poetries about Dosan’s Garden. This paper can be summarized as follows. Five pieces of poetries among a total of eight ones singing Dosan’s Garden, published during Ahn’s lifetime, were the gasa-style poems in terms of a genre, and presented a deserted Dosan’s Garden that had a desolate look because Ahn stayed in Korea under Japanese colonial rule and that symbolized t he p eople’s wish f or K orean i n depen den ce. T he o ther t hree pieces about Dosan’s Garden published after Ahn’s death could be categorized into two genres (gasa a n d sijo), and expressed the lamentation over the dead and the grief of a survivor who had lost Ahn. Moreover, Hong Eurn’s poetries about Dosan’s Garden have two significances; the poetries shared Ahn’s whereabouts, noble character and the presence of an independence movement activist with the Korean-American community and The New Korea readers based on newspaper publicity, and let him continue the publication of poetries about flowers and trees.
  • 3.

    Collective Symptoms and Social Healing of the Trauma of Division in A Sickle by Yun Heunggil

    Park Sungeun | 2021, (80) | pp.75~111 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Yun Heunggil is one of the writers who tried to overcome the trauma of the national division through reconciliation as a way to heal the wounds. His representative works include The Rainy Spell, When Will the Rainbow Rise, and the novel A Sickle. While the first two works suggested the necessity of condolence and reconciliation to restore family relationship, A Sickle differentiated itself from the others by attempting reconciliation at a social level beyond an individual dimension. However, while private-level reconciliation proceeded in a relatively smooth manner, the process to achieve social reconciliation was inevitably more complicated due to the longer period of time when the division system had continued. It turns out to be the harmful consequences of the division trauma that hinders objective reflections on the d ivision an d the war. A Sickle by Yun Heunggil reveals the pattern of a division trauma that operates in a society at the end of 30 years after the Korea War. In addition, he faces that the healing of the trauma of division is a structure that cannot be cured without reaching a social consensus beyond the individual level. Therefore, in order to objectively reflect on historical events as a beginning of social healing, concealed memory is restored to attempt to integrate the memory. As a subsequent phase, he suggests that it is necessary for the victims to encounter each other to talk about and listen to their wounds. He argues that the final stage of overcoming division is the process of social healing. This article aims to analyze condolence, reconciliation, and social healing as a solution to overcome the division suggested by Yun Heunggil and examine its limitations.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Causes of a Combination of Postpositional Particle Ege and Inanimate Nouns

    KIM JI HYE | 2021, (80) | pp.113~140 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper is aimed at examining a phenomenon that the postpositional particle ege (에게) ― which is mainly combined with animate nouns ― is exceptionally combined with inanimate nouns and at figuring out the reasons why the postpositional particle ege can be combined with inanimate nouns. It was analyzed that the reason why the postpositional particle ege is combined with inanimate nouns is largely attributed to two mechanisms: ‘metonymy’ and ‘metaphor’. The case of analyzing ‘metonymy’ could be divided into two cases: One is the case of referring to an adjacent animate noun through an inanimate noun, and the other is the case in which human members belonging to the group noun, which are the inanimate noun, are recognized. Through this metonymic expression, it seems that inanimate nouns and the postpositional particle ege can be combined. On the other hand, the case analyzed as a ‘metaphor’ could be divided into two conditions. One is a case that an inanimate noun is personified and recognized as an animate noun, and the other case is that an animal noun in a relatively l ower hierarchy of a n imacy t han a h uman n oun is in terpreted as an agent in a sentence. It seems that the expression mechanism of this metaphor works, and the postpositional particle ege is combined with inanimate nouns or animal nouns.
  • 5.

    Representation of Home Front of Empress Shōken in the Sino-Japanese War -The Birth of Another War Image-

    Park Si Eon | 2021, (80) | pp.141~171 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Empress Shōken existed in the ad quem of the origin where Japanese visually enjoyed the image of “Home Front.” In effect, the empress supported the battlefront of the Sino-Japanese War, which was depicted by the visual mass media “Nishiki-e” of the Meiji era. Although brutal battle scenes or an exaggerated figure of a soldier do not appear in the illustrations of the war, we have examined “Nishiki-e” from a broad perspective of dealing with the illustrations of the war. In this way, the empress was recreated as a representation of an ideal “Home Front” and functioned as a suitable propaganda model for mobilizing Japanese women for war. The emergence and representation of the “Home Front” played an important role as a basis of change with regard to the social status of women. The existence of the empress was emphasized as a representative model during the war. Furthermore, the image of Empress Kōjun from the illustrations of the war overlaps with the representation of Empress Shōken during the Pacific War. Hen ce, we h ave looked i n to t he s uccession o f the image of t he “ Home Front” to posterity. In this paper, we have focused on another form of war in mainland Japan and the nationalization of women through the meaning of the “Home Front” representation system of the empress.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Nature of Tragedy in Oedipus the King

    Lee Sunhyung | 2021, (80) | pp.173~200 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Aristotle presents plot, character, thought, diction, melody and spectacle as the main components of tragedy. These six elements are divided into three parts as f ollows: diction an d melody as t he m edia o f mimesis; s pectacle as the mode of mimesis; and plot, character and thought as the object of mimesis. O f these, p lot, t hought a n d character, w hich a re t he o bjects o f mimesis, are related to the person. The object of mimesis is directly con n ected w ith the person in t hat in the c ase of t he p lot, t he v irtuous or t he wicked should not fall into misfortune, and the action of the person changes according to the thought and the character. Aristotle regarded Oedipus the King by Sophocles as the best tragedy. Therefore, from the main character of this tragedy, we will find a typical tragic figure. Oedipus, with his noble lineage, is neither a particularly virtuous nor an evil person in view of his thought and character. The character of Oedipus, which cannot be considered to have any particular flaws, is a universal one that anyone would have. Nevertheless, the reason he falls into bad luck is due to hamartia rather than thought and character, and it would be an ignorance of oneself caused by hybris. The reason why Oedipus the King is a real tragedy is that the main character, who solves the Sphinx’s riddles, does not know who he truly is himself at all. Thus, Oedipus punishes himself not by killing himself ― which means the end of the world for him ― but by physically stabbing out his own eyes which had prevented him from looking at things clearly. In summary, this study argues that Oedipus’s hamartia is the true cause of his falling into misfortune, and the character of Oedipus the King, rather than plot or thought, prompts his hybris that provokes his ignorance, which is the essence of his hamartia.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Method of Selecting Topics in Academic Essays by Types

    Kim Tae Kyung | 2021, (80) | pp.201~226 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In college writin g education , academic e ssays a re t he r esult of a combination of the writing skills that a student has developed in classes in a semester. For effective academic essay writing, it is important to develop the writing format skills as well as to discover proper essay topics suitable for the type or style of the essay. In this paper, I have identified the types of academic essays covered in an academic writing class at S University and the need to select appropriate topics for each essay through examining actual cases. This research will provide an empirical insight into the impact of topic selection on writing effective academic essays. Furthermore, it is expected that the outcome of this paper will be used to reaffirm the importance of selecting topics in classes for academic essay writing, while conducting a foundation study on the contents and methods of classes to select appropriate topics.
  • 8.

    Transmedia-based Literature Study and Education -As a Methodology for Human Development in Era of the 4th Industrial Revolution-

    Im HyeongTaek | 2021, (80) | pp.227~256 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This article h as b een written for t he p urpose o f assertin g that creativity, a quality required for human beings, can be cultivated through the study and education of literature in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution and for examining and suggesting the proper methodology. Humans today are strongly influenced by a wide range of highly developed technological cultures. As technology develops, its scope and level of automation increase as well. Therefore, as the rate of using technology increases, the motility of sensations and thoughts generated when humans directly perform, and human creativity developed based on this, decreases. Moreover, the creativity required in a situation where many of the existing human ‘work’ are disappearing due to the technological development is driving the position of human beings into a difficult situation. Now, it is virtually impossible either to break away from technology that has already been linked to almost all parts of daily life, or to use it as if it were. This decrease in creativity also occurs in actual literature. Although language and literature still exist, the majority of literary activities in real life are made up of digital texts that are densely filled with highly precise and elegant audio-visual information such as movies, dramas, webtoons, and games. Therefore, the active and continuous operation of human senses and thoughts requested in literary activities on oral or written texts becomes a hindrance to the digital texts where they are highly automated. However, digital, the integration of all elements, is also a treasure trove of new possibilities and methods. Digital also can make up for what is lacking by selecting and reorganizing the elements necessary for the development of creativity. This paper has divided the literary activities that can promote creativity into three discussions. They do not only remain in accepting texts that are full of all elements as given, but show that human senses and thoughts can be actively employed through the reproductive action of adding and subtracting media sensation elements according to the purpose. Besides, because it is an activity that frequently crosses and converts the media, it is tied to a transmedia-based literary activity. And since the ideal is a process of conscious effort to promote development, it was again conceptualized as “transmedia-based literature study and education”.
  • 9.

    Gender Sensitivity in Technoscience -Representation of Femininity and Gender Dynamics in Posthuman SF

    KWAK EUN HEE | 2021, (80) | pp.257~292 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to examine ‘gender sensibility in technoscience’ as a core theme, and to predict the question of “how will technobiopower ― from artificial intelligence with emotions to cloned humans based on genetic engineering ― affect human’s lives?” through the representation of femininity and gender dynamics in posthuman science fiction. For this discussion, I took the epistemologically shared point of a science fiction genre and posthumanism as the basis of discussion, and chose a method of combining critical posthumanism, technoscience, and technofeminism. In the f ilms Her and Zoe, emotion-based artificial intelligence shows the future of intimacy while being represented with femininity. The film Her dismantles gender norms by driving the love of Theodor and Samantha into catastrophe, and recreates Samantha, an artificial intelligence operating system, as a feminist subject that affirms diversity and difference. In contrast, Zoe shows human aspirations to improve the quality of life by making artificial intelligence robots an intimate existence and life’s companion to humans, but has limitations in that this film does not aim for a horizontal relationship between humans and non-humans. The films Gattaca a n d Never Let Me Go predict the future of human life by looking suspiciously the aspect that the genetic biopower appropriates femininity. In Gattaca, femininity is represented as a motherhood reproduce the specular logic of the identity, whereas in Never Let Me Go, femininity is represented as a subject realizing the technobiopower of modern humanism. In this case, posthuman femininity causes a crack in the violence of the technobiopower, as a subaltern to the subaltern. Through the cracks, we can look into the irreversible situation in the future where human cloning has become a commonplace, and look at the direction and speed of progress that is currently being made here and now.
  • 10.

    The Limitations of Coexistence of Characters and Cultural Codes in the Co-production of The Great Wall (2016)

    YI YONG JOU | 2021, (80) | pp.293~324 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The study aims to analyze the coexistence, as well as the limitations, of cultural codes of the characters who have grown up in Chinese society and Western society, which values individualism, in the film The Great Wall (2016) directed by Zhang Yimou and co-produced by China and the United States. The film created an opportunity to check the possibility of a co-produced blockbuster film ― containing various Chinese elements and cultural codes ― to attract Western audiences. However, China’s cinematic potential was manifested to target the global film market, while also taking the risk of establishing a strategy of De-Sinicization by lowering the cultural discount rate, which resulted in suspicious identity. The film has become a good example of how it is possible for manpower, capital and technology to meet in international co-production, but the limitations of cultural differences should be considered. Through the analysis of this film, we got an opportunity to diagnose the possibility of diversifying the contents of films to meet the global standard by naturally projecting their culture in terms of ‘culture’ and developing their digital post production processes such as CG and DI.