Journal of Humanities 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.53

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pISSN : 1598-8457 / eISSN : 2508-4550
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2023, Vol., No.90

  • 1.

    The Transmission and Dissemination Method of “Hunminga (訓民歌)” as Hierarchical Discourse

    Kim, Tae-woong | 2023, (90) | pp.5~33 | number of Cited : 0
    This article examines the transmission and dissemination of the 16 pieces of “Hunminga (訓民歌),” a stanzaic sijo (three-line verse) written by Jeong Cheol (鄭澈) whose pen-name is Songgang (松江). The results show that the 10 pieces were mainly transmitted in anthologies and were not widely popular in performance spaces until the 20th century when they started to be transmitted and disseminated again. Considering that the majority of the remaining 6 pieces were well represented in various collections, it can be said that transmission and dissemination were made effectively in performance spaces. In particular, the fact that a single siJo text was transmitted in many collections implies that it underwent transformations and was sung as different works by those who newly enjoyed and appreciated them, highlighting the significance of such transmission and dissemination. “Hunminga (訓民歌)” has been performed on actual performance stages, with changes in lyrics and variations in musical compositions, and it has been transmitted to future generations, while at times the transmission has been interrupted. Furthermore, if Songgang Jeong Cheol wrote “Hunminga (訓民歌)” not simply as a creation but from the perspective of hierarchical theory, the significance of this siJo genre is immense. When Songgang Jeong Cheol composed “Hunminga (訓民歌),” he did not aim for the hierarchical perspective of oppressive conversion imposed by the state on the people in the Gangwon Province, but rather wished to help the people to undergo self-conversion through singing “Hunminga (訓民歌).” This is why despite being a didactic siJo genre, it continued to be transmitted in later collections as a song. In later records related to “Hunminga (訓民歌),” it is highly valued to the extent that it is consistently recited to rural children and their mothers, even to the point of teaching the essence of righteousness. Considering that anyone could easily sing and understand the genre of poetry when understanding it as a song, it becomes evident why Jeong Cheol chose the genre of siJo composition for “Hunminga (訓民歌),” given the propagating power of songs. If it were simply written from a hierarchical perspective in a top-down style, it would have been easier for Jeong Cheol to issue instructions to the people for conversion rather than composing “Hunminga (訓民歌).” Nevertheless, he must have considered that using the genre of poetry and allowing the people to realize something on their own would lead to their self-conversion. Therefore, even later literati believed that by continuing to recite it to "women, children, and everyone," they would undergo self-conversion. Through this article, I hope that new and more valuable research on “Hunminga (訓民歌)” will be made.
  • 2.

    Daily Predicament under the Hierarchy -With Focus on Sohyŏnsŏngnok and Hyŏnmongssangnyonggi-

    황지현 | 2023, (90) | pp.35~58 | number of Cited : 0
    Hierarchical violence imposes various physical·emotional violence and disadvantages. However, the mastery lies not in dramatized events, but in tying one's daily life down by reading another's countenance. This study was conducted on Korea’s two classic novels Sohyŏnsŏngnok and Hyŏnmongssangnyonggi and focused on the daily predicaments faced by Sino, Changdu, Gungno, and Seo-dong, whose names were not mentioned, and attempted to understand the violence and meaning of the hierarchy. In the meantime, various approaches to assistant-characters have been made in the history of research, but the number of studies on unnamed people has been comparatively counted. Therefore, this study aims to pay attention to the daily predicaments they faced and reveal the meaning of each event. First, I explored the case of receiving inconsistent orders with a time difference and receiving different demands at the same time. After that, I revealed that they were punished even though they wanted to obey the order, and that the punishment took on the character of example as warning and venting one's anger. Furthermore, I confirmed that the violence of such a hierarchy is linked to domestic political dynamics, and that the linear hierarchy is not actually a vertically arranged series of hierarchies, while conflicting orders can cause greater hardship to the weak. However, it was also examined that they were not entirely passive, but on the other hand, they were responding by selectively carrying out orders with their own survival strategies. Through the analysis of the case that those at the bottom of the family were caught up in the conflict of order and tried to come up with self-rescue measures, this study has examined the violence and vulnerability of the hierarchy and the antagonism of the subjects participating in it.
  • 3.

    Localization between Insiders/Outsiders of the Local and the Aspects of Literary Representation - Focusing on Novel Busan and Writing Busan -

    Cho, Myung-Ki | 2023, (90) | pp.59~90 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper begins with a question about differences in footing points between outsiders’ and insiders’ gaze. It compares how the structure and the desire, which are embedded in the mode of local imagination, are embodied by analyzing two novels ― Novel Busan and Writing Busan ― as the texts for this study. Novel Busan imagines Busan from the gaze of an outsider. The gazing subject recognizes that his/her gaze is ultimately directed toward his/her desire to consume an unknown and lost object, rather than the object itself, by perceiving its fallacy and his/her desire that operates by depending on it, as he/she witnesses the paradox of melancholy in Seoul in which the position of the gazing subject is fixed. Although Busan is described as the object of gaze, as the space structure still operates, the signified including identity is omitted, so it only remains as the space that is replaceable and abstracted, the signifier without the signified, in other words, a kind of trace. On the other hand, Writing Busan formalizes the insiders’ gaze. The short stories introduced in Writing Busan attribute trace to the past by misunderstanding it as an aura, while they prescribe the present as the time of loss/damage, as if we can claim for the possession of the object, by misunderstanding a lack as a loss. The stories, therefore, can argue that the present and the future should possess the past sublime value that they already once possessed by recovering and restoring it. Writing Busan’s misunderstanding, which means to regard things that it cannot possess as its possession, has the form isolated and solidified through the paradox of deceptive spectacle, so it has an effect on the process in which the place identity of the present Busan is organized. The outsider’s gaze which repeatedly otherizes Busan for the melancholy of Seoul is homologous with the insider’s gaze intending to prescribe the place identity by misunderstanding the trace as an aura. It is, however, possible to find the attempts to refuse to copy the outsider’s gaze in Writing Busan. Key
  • 4.

    The Memories of Im Gyeongeop - Focusing on Representation of Class -

    박혜미 | 2023, (90) | pp.91~130 | number of Cited : 0
    This study discusses the various media and the social class that reconstructed the life story of Im Gyeongeop. The life story of Im Gyeongeop was widely known in the form of documentaries and oral literature and it also influenced other stories like Tale of Lady Pak and Tale of Kim Yongchol. Both the ruling and governed classes tried to make the memory of Im Gyeongeop into narratives. Through this, Im Gyeongeop became the symbols of esteem in the Ming dynasty, a deity of general and croaker fishery. In addition, it was suggested that the creation of Im Gyeongeop's life story was made before the restoration of identity and that the time when Im Gyeongeop began to be remembered and reconstructed based on literary records was earlier than the restoration. Im Gyeongeop is a figure painted in both portraits and shamanist paintings. In this study, the paintings were divided into Portrait of Chungmingong and Painting of General Im to analyze the production period, style, and function of each paintings. Considering the relationship of the remaining portraits of Im Gyeongeop and the records of paintings, the fact that Im Gyeongeop was recognized by the Ming Dynasty requires reconsideration, and it is possible that it was intentionally reborn as a portrait style of a meritorious person. Just as the subject of production can be estimated to the classification of literature, paintings can also be guessed through style analysis. Portrait of Chungmingong, who was involved in the production from the ruling class to the state, was produced and functioned for the purpose of Confucian rituals. On the other hand, Painting of General Im was produced by the indigenous people and actively used for shamanist rituals. In this way, during reconstruction, the production and consumption subject selects the type of medium and can access the subject again through the medium. Therefore, the various aspects of Im Gyeongeop's life story should be understood as a projection of the values of each social class.
  • 5.

    The Role of Bak Bok-yeong in the Amtae-do Tenant Farmers’ Strike and His External Activities in the 1920s

    Choi, Sung-Hwan | 2023, (90) | pp.131~168 | number of Cited : 0
    The Amtae-do (巖泰島) Tenant Farmers’ Strike is one of the major peasant movements during the Japanese colonial period. This article focuses on the activities of Bak Bok-yeong (朴福永), the leader of the Amtae-do Tenant Farmers’ Strike, and examines his specific role and external activities. Bak Bok-yeong's Christian faith and experience of participating in the Mokpo Independence Movement, his specific role in the Amtae-do Tenant Farmers’ Strike, and subsequent support for the island’s tenancy dispute and external activities have been analyzed. Bak Bok-yeong expanded his personal network based on his Christian faith. He became involved in the independence movement in the Mokpo region in 1919 as a result of his ac tivities f or a s ec ret soc iety c alled ‘Ilsimhoe ( 一心會)’. After serving his sentence in prison in around 1923, he launched a social movement, starting with his career of serving as the youth chairman in his hometown of Amtae-do. In the process, he actively supported the Amtae-do Tenant Farmers Association. This study has revealed that Bak Bok-yeong played a very important role in the overall process of the dispute from the foundation of the tenant farmers association. The influence of Bak Bok-yeong was also great in the course of tenant farmers’ strikes in the nearby islands of Docho-do and Jaeun-do. He was involved in not only the group activities in Amtae-do, but was also active in external activities. Based on various youth bodies and farmers' organizations, they engaged in activities to connect the island and the inland regions.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Concept of Creativity and Creativity Class Model Applicable to University Dance Education

    김연진 , Jeon Dae Seok | 2023, (90) | pp.169~203 | number of Cited : 0
    This article proposes a creativity education model that can be applied to dance education by defining the concept of creativity that can be applied to arts. Modern society emphasizes creativity as a core human competency, but it can be questioned whether the development of a curriculum for creativity in university education can be considered as great as expected. Although discussions on the creativity education model are under way in some university education, it can be questioned whether sufficient discussion has been m ade on w hether i t can be a ppl ied in t he a ctual education fiel d. I t should be seen that dance education conducted at universities in Korea cannot be free from these criticisms. In particular, if a single and uniform educational model and procedure are applied unilaterally to dance education while the environment, characteristics and educational goals of each university are different, the possibility of failing to obtain appropriate educational results will be higher. Therefore, dance education should also consider the environment of each university and seek a practical model that can provide creativity education required by the future society. In order to teach and learn creativity in dance education, a discussion on how to define 'creativity' should be preceded. Creativity is generally classified into 'creativity in a narrow sense, creativity in a broad sense, and creativity as a process' according to the content of thinking. Creativity in the field of arts, including dance, is considered to be included in the narrow creativity based on 'divergent thinking' according to the traditional definition. However, if these old fashioned ideas are blindly followed, problems may arise in creativity class model that can be practically applied to dance education. This is because it is not easy to show the content and form of divergent thinking in detail. Therefore, this article will show that at least the concept of creativity in dance education needs to be further expanded from the existing ones in order to propose a substantial educational model for cultivating creativity in dance education. Next, in order to actually apply the expanded concept of creativity to dance education, based on Root-Bernstein's thinking tools, they will be newly categorized to fit well with dance education, and what core abilities it requires will be explored. Finally, we will propose a practical class model that can be applied to dance education at universities.