The ancient Greeks conceived the world as a single large organism and recognized it as a place where gods, nature, and humans live in harmony. It was believed that life itself is a creative being and nature has its own value because all things are organically connected. However, after humans had scientific and rational knowledge, they have been freed from the myths and fears of nature, and furthermore have occupied a superior position of using and dominating nature. The demagicalized Enlightenment Spirit regarded nature as a simple matter and regarded it as an object of domination.
Humans, having removed the myths and established the logic of domination, began to apply this logic to human society. Human knowledge became a means of development and led the scientific and industrial revolutions, and reckless development of nature took place.
Rousseau criticized the anthropocentric thinking that uses nature according to human needs and practical purposes, and showed how humans dominate nature in Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men. Herder opposes treating humans as heroes, and criticizes mere creatures, arrogantly failing to live in harmony with nature and destroying nature through technological advancement. The ecological interest in defending nature-centrism was raised by Goethe. Goethe lived a life in harmony with nature. His view of the world emphasized harmony with nature. Goethe vaguely admired for ancient Greek and Roman culture because they were harmonized with nature. His idea of the unity with nature is also well expressed in Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (The Sorrows of Young Werther), which he wrote in his youth. At the same time, he warns against a human-centered, development-oriented life.