Journal of Humanities 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.37

Korean | English

pISSN : 1598-8457 / eISSN : 2508-4550

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2022, Vol., No.85

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  • 1.

    Choe Nam-seon’s Translation of Washington Irving’s Works and Project of Establishing the Model Literary Style

    KIM MIYEON | 2022, (85) | pp.5~42 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper has paid attention to the translation in CheongChun (靑春) as the starting point in order to examine the history of accepting Washington Irving during the Japanese colonial period. Choe Nam-seon translated “The Author’s Account of Himself” and “The Art of Book-Making”, two stories in The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent by Irving. The situation in Japan during the Meiji (明治) period was examined to discuss the background of the translation into Korean. In Japan, the leading figures of modern literature translated and mentioned a number of Irving’s writings. In this process, I could confirm that they paid attention to the grace of the style of Irving’s writing. In addition, Irving’s writing was excellent in terms of both contents and forms, and was also used for an English textbook in Japan. I analyzed that the popularity of Irving in the Meiji period also affected Choe’s translation. Choe translated Irving’s writings into a project titled ‘The Model Literary Style (文範)’. In this project, the exemplary sentences and styles were taken for granted. Literature and arts played an important role in the history of America. This was an important reference to the leap to civilization, a major task of colonized Joseon. Irving’s writings translated by Choe Nam-seon contained a sense of problem: external search and internal discovery. Just as Irving discovered America’s identity through literature, Choe Nam-seon also focused on literature as a way of reorganizing knowledge and facing the nation and the world. As a result, I analyzed that Irving’s writing was presented as an example of style to the reader of CheongChun and played a role in instilling the conviction and justification to the activities of Choe Nam-seon.
  • 2.

    Literary Configuration of the Lumpenproletariat and its Political Significance - Focusing on Socialist Literature between the 1920s and the 1930s -

    Choi, Eun-hye | 2022, (85) | pp.43~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study aims to examine the reproduction of the Lumpenproletariat entailed in the socialist literature and its political significance with much focus on the period from the mid-1920s when socialist literature emerged to the mid-1930s when it declined. The socialist literature in colonized Joseon deemed the Lumpen intelligentsia not only as an object to be actively reproduced but also as a driving force of social change, getting away from the orthodox Marxist perspective of regarding it as an economically and politically useless group. The aspect of reproduction had no choice but to vary in each period. The works of the 1920s narrated the lives of the urban poor and emphasized that such phenomena were derived from social structural problems. On the other hand, the works produced in the 1930s disclosed the depressing life of many unemployed persons and Lumpen intelligentsia whose number had increased since the Great Depression and actively employed the subjectification strategy to overcome those situations. In the meantime, as we can see through the writings by Kim Ki-jin as well as the novels by Cho Myeong-hee and Yoo Jin-oh, the active reproduction of the Lumpenproletariat was made from the underdeveloped locality that mass-produces them and the colonial situation under which capitalism was driven by imperialism. In short, the political epic of the Lumpenproletariat was linked to the colonial conditions.
  • 3.

    Literacy Politics and the Status of Textbook for Women in North and South Korea during the Liberation Period - Focusing on Park Young-ae’s Textbook for Women and Choi Hwa-sung’s Textbook for Joseon’s Women -

    Yim Sehwa | 2022, (85) | pp.85~156 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    What did ‘liberation’ mean to Korean women during the liberation period? For the women in post-colonial state, the ‘liberation’ meant the “dual liberation” from imperialism and feudal patriarchy. This article examined the special nature and meaning of the ‘liberation movement’ of Korean women, who had to be ‘liberated again’ after Korea’s liberation from Japanese colonial rule, through “literacy politics” and textbooks for Korean woman women during the liberation period. In the situation where the ideological confrontation and the system competition between the left and the right were escalating, South and North Korea began to carry out literacy politics for the purpose of establishing the legitimacy and superiority of their ruling system and achieving stability. The education policy of the two Koreas during the liberation period was outwardly declared as a national project for the eradication of illiteracy and the education of democracy and gender equality, but its underlying purpose was to secure public support for their ruling system and to seek for consolidating ideologies. The Cold War mode of thinking that interprets the influence and aftermath of literacy as a matter of ideological politics consequently became consistent with the aspirations of Koreans for education, but the start and direction of the education policy of the two Koreas was fundamentally different from the ideals of the Koreans. From the beginning, illiteracy eradication and national education in Korea already had the nature of extremely heterogeneous ideology, and the direction of the education gradually contained the nature of an ideological confrontation between the two occupying countries of the United States and the Soviet Union. As revealed in the duality of the ‘illiteracy eradication movement’, the two Koreas carried out literacy politics as a national movement under the same slogan despite their different goals. In the same way, the ‘women’s liberation’ also started from a completely different ideological purpose, but outwardly it was carried out under the same slogan and declaration. Both South and North Korea emphasized the importance of the extension of women’s rights and the realization of gender equality while using women’s literacy education for political purposes. Therefore, Korean woman in the liberation period once again acted as a mark to reveal the ‘political progressiveness’ and ‘degree of modernity’ of the nation. The purpose of the policy direction to ‘establish a democratic order based on gender equality’, which was put forward by both South and North Korea, was to solve the political problems that occurred in the process of accomplishing the basic goal of the occupation of the two Koreas, namely, reorganizing South and North Korea into a capitalist/Communist society, respectively, and to seek social stability. However, the policy to advocate women’s rights and improve their status had actually served a wider political purpose in drawing women’s support and participation in the policy implementation process and visualizing the reality and efficacy of the democratic ideology. Historically, textbooks for women have functioned as an institutional strategy and a political project that represent and reproduce the reality of the times, ideological changes, ruling ideology, and gender roles. Park Young-ae’s Textbook for Women(女性讀本) and Choi Hwa-sung’s Textbook for Joseon’s Women(朝鮮女性讀本) were written by female socialists, who paradoxically preached literacy for ‘women’s liberation’ using the form of ‘textbooks’, which have been a double shackle for women since the modern enlightenment period. These two textbooks, containing the ‘ideology of women in the liberation period’, were written by women themselves, and hold a special position in the trend of textbook publication in the liberation period or in the history of women’s liberation movement. In particular, the writers of these books emphasized that women should stand straight as ‘economic subjects’, and argued that women should serve as the main agents of liberation themselves, breaking away from the structure of being summoned as comrades in the establishment of the nation-state and revolution. These two books deserve attention as a symbolic example and reality of the modern women’s liberation movement, which was combined with the government planning, Cold War ideology, nationalism, post-colonialism, and enlightenment, at the time when the ‘Women’s Liberation’ started in earnest. In addition, they have a special importance as an evidence of the process that agendicized the issues, which had remained unsolved in the history of women’s liberation movement, simultaneously in the realms of field politics and academic discourses, and legalized them concretely in the midst of chaotic system competition by raising them as prerequisites for the times. Women’s literacy acted as a medium to connect and visualize the Cold War ideology of the division between the United States and the Soviet Union and the desire of post-colonialism. The need for women’s literacy was pointed out in various ways, sometimes as a product of national liberation, the vanguard of democracy, and an essential condition for national formation and national education, but the Cold War ruling technology was operating at the bottom of ‘women’s liberation’ through ‘literacy education.’ Therefore, the women’s liberation movement, which remained as a historical achievement while gaining political influence in the Cold War structure during the liberation period, was accepted limitedly as long as it had a strategic cooperative relationship with the ruling ideology of the Cold War, and was always judged through the ‘nation.’ The policy keynote of liberated Korea, which called women the members of the new nation and the economic subjects, was a powerful driving force of ‘women’s liberation movement’, and it was a limitation at the same time. In the middle of the liberation period, Korean women struggled again for ‘dual liberation.’
  • 4.

    Korean Intellectuals’ Translation practice in the Cold War Period - With Focus on Sasanggye’s Plan on Translation with the CCF -

    Choi Jin-Seok | 2022, (85) | pp.157~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This article aims to examine Korean intellectuals’ Cold War performativity by investigating Sasanggye’s correspondence with the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Magazines and books published by the CCF were references for Sasanggye’s translation practices. This study examines not only Sasanggye’s translation practices but also Sasanggye’s unpublished plans or proposals to the CCF. It allows a new approach to Sasanggye’s translation practice. The CCF officials wanted to promote Korean intellectuals’ interest to the international Communist and anti-Communist movements. however, Korean intellectuals involved in the activities of Sasanggye didn’t just desire for anti-Communist knowledge and discourses. Especially in the 1960s, Sasanggye became more interested in struggle against dictatorship than the Communist movements. But the CCF couldn’t meet the Sasanggye intellectuals’ interests in democratic discourses. It demonstrated the Sasanggye intellectuals should seek a new direction, instead of the agenda of ‘Overcoming Asiatic Backwardness and Westernization of Korean intellectuals.’
  • 5.

    The boom of Korean Mystery Novels between the Late 1970s and the 1980s and its Socio-cultural Context

    An, Hea-yun | 2022, (85) | pp.193~234 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper focuses on the period between the late 1970s and 1980s, when the detective novels created the biggest boom since Korea’s liberation from Japanese colonial rule, examines the process of the term from ‘a detective novel’ to ‘a mystery novel’, and analyzes the socio-cultural background that drove the mystery novel boom. In the 1970s and the 1980s, Korean mystery novels reached their greatest golden age after the nation’s liberation. With the emergence of a popular writer named Kim Seong-jong, a complete collection of mystery novels was published, and the mystery novel became a bestseller. In addition, TV dramas based on mystery novels were produced as well, and the reproduction of the genre in other media is also active. The fact that these changes occurred during the period when the powerful ruling ideology under the military dictatorship that created the Yushin (Revitalizing Reform) Constitution was in operation and when the nation entered into a high-growth and consumer-capitalist society raises the need to explain the blossoming of mystery novels in this period in a socio-cultural context. This paper has first analyzed the change in the image of Korean mystery novels as the term ‘detective novel’ was replaced with the term ‘mystery novel’. In particular, through the change from a famous detective to an ordinary cop, the mystery novel could demonstrate its appeal to the public while ssecuring dailiness and sociality. In addition, I tried to explain the relationship between the popularity of popular novels that started in the early and mid-1970s and the boom of mystery novels, and explain that the popularity of mystery novels influenced the sense of the advent of mass society. I also pointed out that through the boom in the collection of mystery novels, readers could come in contact with mystery novels of various genres, and that there was an aspect of mystery novels being used in the context of the popularity of success literature at the time. Finally, it was discussed that the emergence of the new popular media outlets in the form of sports newspapers resulted in the emergence of popular mystery novel writers and male fans as the main readership.
  • 6.

    Political Correctness of the Test of Proficiency in Korean (TOPIK) - With Focus on Hidden Curriculum of Listening and Reading Text Analysis -

    JISOON PARK | 2022, (85) | pp.235~263 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper has studied the aspects of political correctness of the Korean Language Proficiency Test by examining the hidden curriculum of the listening and reading passages toward gender, country, class, and culture. The results of analysis are as follows. First, stereotypes about gender appeared in the occupations and status differences of male and female characters, and the pattern of speech acts. Second, with regard to the perception of the nationality, foreigners were portrayed as a minority of outsiders, which can be seen as implicit discrimination in the form of invisibility and stereotyping. Third, prejudice against social class has been confirmed through the characters’ occupations, and about 84% of the characters were portrayed as middle-class. Fourth, most of the listening and reading passages dealt with the elements of Korean culture, and more materials related to Western culture than Eastern culture were used, suggesting some bias toward a specific culture.
  • 7.

    An Acoustic Study of American English /l/ Variation Produced by Korean and Mongolian

    Choi, Chung Hun , KANG, YONGSOON | 2022, (85) | pp.265~298 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to show that non-natives’ English /l/ pronunciation is strongly influenced by their mother tongue. Crosslinguistically, laterals show various articulatory and acoustic patterns. To be more specific, the current study compared the production of /l/ sound by Koreans and Mongolians. The study collected the data of 16 subjects (8 Koreans and 8 Mongolians) and analyzed them using Praat. The results show that 1) Koreans showed high F2 and relatively low F1, probably influenced by ‘palatalization’ of Korean while Mongolians showed higher F1 and lower F2, originated from tongue backing for ‘pharyngeal constriction’ and ‘velarization’ in Mongolian [ɮ]. 2) Mongolians showed less F2-F1 difference than Koreans, particularly in postvocalic-/l/ position, implying Mongolians articulated dark /ɫ/ more accurately than that of Koreans. 3) Koreans’ duration of /l/ was slightly longer than Mongolians except for prevocalic-/l/. 4) As for intensity, Mongolian was considerably high. The results clearly indicate that English pronunciation of non-natives is interfered by their native language.
  • 8.

    A Study on Absurdity in Camus’ Caligula

    Kiil Kim | 2022, (85) | pp.299~326 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Camus attempted to show the absurdity in both the most realistic and ideal way in his play Caligula (1944). He wanted to show in a natural way that the ordinary people can share the same mind-set with the ancient Roman emperor Caligula, who wielded absolute authority over things including eternal life, absolute power, and sanctification that those people want to enjoy. He endeavored to understand the absurdity through the structural aspect of “a play within a play” as well as the element of violence in Caligula. The “play within a play” in the structure of Caligula does not follow the conventional structure of the viewer and the seer in classical literature as was pointed out by a theater critic Forestier, but rather does the expanded concept of “a play within a play” showing the expanded concept of the Mise-en Abime play and the form of role distribution, etc. (the Praise of Venus, a shadow play, a poetry contest in Caligula) which was defined by Schemeling. as well as “a play within a play” in the form of meta-drama that shows a reflection play centered around acting, which was classified by Kowzan. In addition, Caligula’s double change of reality and fantasy and the continuity of the two spaces through the object of a mirror are manifested as violence through the figure of the absolute power trying to teach the absurdity to the people of reality in the fantasy and through the illusion in the mirror. In the end, the play projects the image of Camus, a human form of Caligula who tried to overcome the absurdity — as he sees himself as an autocrat being eventually killed after the rebellion of his subordinates — but cannot overcome the absurdity of reality. The justification of violence and murder through acting in the fantasy space of Caligula, a human with absolute power, ultimately leads to his death by treason in reality. As we watch a man trying to escape from his fantasy by breaking the mirror, which is an object, looking at his own face before his death, we realize the absurdity that Camus was trying to say. Power that one wants to possess forever, but cannot possess, and death that one tries to ignore but cannot escape, will be topics that are repeated indefinitely in human life, and the absurdity will continue forever for all beings. Human beings who live an absurd life have the problem of living while searching for the double truth in reality and fantasy. The eternity of the absurd always coexists with the tragedy of life and death. Although it shows an absurd human figure within the limits of human nature, humans must wish to accomplish their hope and continue to strive for happiness.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Ambivalence of Smell in “Un Fantôme” and “La Chevelure” of Charles Baudelaire

    Lee, Pil Eun | 2022, (85) | pp.327~352 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study analyzes the ambivalence of smell shown in “Un Fantôme” and “La Chevelure”, which are included in the collection of poems Les Fleurs du Mal. The poet’s attitude towards the sense of smell in his works is always ambivalent. Firstly, ‘Incense’ and ‘Musk’, which induce the narrator into memories in “Un Fantôme” have opposite characteristics. Fennel, made from aromatic plants, symbolizes religion, worship, and spatiality, while musk made from civet cat excrement signifies the body, worldliness, and temporality. In the end, the ambivalent two scents, meaning the past in poetry, cannot handle the present and future of time visualized as ‘Nothing but a very pale drawing, with three pencils’. Secondly, in “La Chevelure”, the narrator smells the body of a lover embodied in hair, which is Baudelaire’s representative metaphor, and dreams of an ideal love opposite to this. The sense of smell works ambivalently in that the narrator longs for infinite and ideal love with the sense of smell that embodies physicality and transitivity. The ideal love of Baudelaire is a divine and eternal love that goes against the physicality and ephemeral nature of the sense of smell.
  • 10.

    The French Government and Civil Society’s Response to the East-Berlin Incident

    Jeongmin Lee | 2022, (85) | pp.353~387 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    When the East Berlin Incident occurred, the French government mainly observed the movements of the West German government and tended to enter into negotiations with the South Korean government in accordance with Germany’s response. This attitude of negotiation made the French government take a passive stance. The French side showed this attitude because on the one hand, the number of people involved was significantly smaller than that of West Germany, and on the other hand, the French government had more difficulty in demanding the return of Lee Ungno and Park In-kyung, who had returned to South Korea voluntarily. Unlike the French government, French civil society has actively sought to release and return those involved in the East Berlin Incident. The French people continued to protest by continuing to send petitions and statements to both the South Korean and French governments, which continued until the end of the trial. In particular, they were trying to free four people, who had previously studied in France but had received no support from the French government because they had been arrested in South Korea. Their activities appear to have affected the release of Jeong Ha-ryong and Cho Young-soo, who had been imprisoned until the end of the trial.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Aspects of Grotesque Realism in the Movie <Joker>

    PARK, HEUITAE | 2022, (85) | pp.389~427 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Joker (2019), directed by Todd Phillips, differentiates itself from existing superhero movies, by unconventionally bringing the character of Joker, who had taken a supporting role in the original series, to the forefront. Besides, on the realistic background of New York in the early 1980s, it projects the issue of polarization resulting from the economic injustice the world is facing today. The discourse implied by Joker argues for civil disobedience, including violence, which is different from the system-protecting discourse in Hollywood films, ‘to eradicate evil that threatens the world and to reestablish justice’, which has been mainly used in existing hero films. One of the decisive reasons for the favorable reception of such a film among the public is that it raises the issue of polarization, but the audience’s response to the prominent cultural phenomenon of our time, or the incorporation of subculture reflected in this film into the mainstream culture, must have played an important role as well. This study attempts to understand this cultural phenomenon as an aspect of the spread of the grotesque over time rather than simply considering it as anti-culture or counter-culture. Therefore, this study stipulates that the subversive forms of various layers appearing in Todd Phillips’ movie Joker and the public acceptance of these works are the basis for showing the recent trend of the expansion of the grotesque era. In this context, by analyzing this film from the perspective of grotesque realism, this study aims to find out why and in what way the overall structure of this work is built on the structure of grotesque. And, based on major grotesque theories, it checks also how this structure works to subvert the existing order, which is the main way that the grotesque emerges and operates. Approaching the work with a focus on the grotesque theory will be a way to effectively explain the various subversive aspects contained in this work.