In recent years, with the rapid development of China's economy and the increasing degree of opening to the outside world, many Chinese people go abroad and many foreign friends come to China. In addition, the exchanges between China and foreign countries are also increasing. Therefore, Chinese culture often conflicts with the culture of other countries and nations. Many foreigners are confused about the psychology and way of thinking of Chinese people. Based on the archetypal theory of Carl Gustav Jung, a famous Swiss psychoanalyst, this paper analyzes the national character of Chinese people, including the common characteristics of Chinese people and the causes of these characteristics. This is a new research angle in the academic field of China. This paper includes the following parts: the first chapter describes the research background and significance of this paper; the second chapter describes Carl Jung's collective unconsciousness theory, including the concept of archetype, shadow, persona, anima and animus, and self; the third chapter explains that the research method adopted in this paper is the literature method; the fourth chapter analyzes the common character of contemporary Chinese from the perspectives of China's political and economic system and modern Chinese history, deeply analyzes how the shadow in collective unconsciousness has a negative impact on Chinese character, analyzes the unique persona of Chinese people on the basis of Chinese culture, and the performance of anima and animus in Chinese character. Finally, it explains how Chinese people seek the balance between inside and outside world from the perspective of self.