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2019, Vol., No.25

  • 1.

    Japan's Post-War Asianism: Seeking Independent Diplomacy in the Framework of Cooperation with the United States

    Kim, Nam-Eun | 2019, (25) | pp.75~103 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Japanese diplomacy during the Cold War period was incorporated into the framework of the Cold War strategy of the United States, and there was a very limited room for Japan to pursue ‘independent diplomacy’. Nevertheless, Japan has sought to strengthen its own influence in the region, providing economic support and cooperation to the Southeast Asia. As for China, it tried to seek a gradual strengthening of its relation with China, emphasizing Japan's diplomacy is not necessarily following the policy of blockade based on the “separation of political and economic” consideration. It was, so to speak, a ‘2nd Back-to-Asia Policy Line’. However, Yoshida abandoned the normalization of diplomatic relations with China for the early realization of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, and Kishi, whose key task was the revision of the US-Japan Security Treaty, cut off further approach to China. Sato also emphasized economic assistance to Taiwan rather than further approach to China by fully implementing the US-Japan Cooperation Policy in order to realize the return of Okinawa. This can be regarded as a case of ‘cooperation’ with the United States in that it abandoned the restoration of diplomatic relations with China, and it can be seen as part of ‘independent diplomacy’ in that it got what it wanted. This study evaluates this approach of Japanese diplomacy as the manifestation of “seeking independent diplomacy within the framework of cooperation with the United States”. In this respect, it can be seen that Japan's diplomatic cooperation with the United States is not contradictory but complementary, and has the attributes of being two sides of the same act.
  • 2.

    Activities of Organization for Repatriation of the Japanese in Hamheung after 8·15

    Byun Eun-Jin | 2019, (25) | pp.105~144 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This article is a summary of Organizations for Repatriation of the Japanese in Hamheung, especially Hamheung Japanese Committee, in order to understand the activities for repatriation of Japanese settlers in the north of the 38th parallel after the collapse of Japan in 1945. ‘Hamheung Japanese Sewakai’, which was organized for the first time in Hamheung, reflected the social relations of the colonial Korea in its composition. This nationalistic nature was unable to correspond to the changing situation in the north of the 38th parallel, and on December 3, 1945, Hamheung Japanese Sewakai was completely renovated into the ‘Hamheung Japanese Committee’. In addition, Isogaya-Sueji and Matsumura-Gisio who had formed a friendly relationship with Korean people before the collapse of Japan, made a new moment of Hamheung Japanese Committee activities. Based on mutual trust, they focused on communication and cooperation with related organizations of Joseon and the Soviet Union. Through these efforts, it is possible to solve various problems such as various relief activities for residence of Japanese and refugees before returning to Japan, efforts to solve problems of Group refugees such as ‘bupyeong problem’, and the return of ‘Group escape’ method. As a result, a large number of Japanese and refugees from Hamkyung Province could return to Japan between March and June 1946, before the announcement of official Repatriation. This illegal escape was possible because of the ‘implicit’ and ‘active’ support of the Joseon and Soviet authorities. Therefore, the ‘Group escape’ by the Hamheung Japanese Committee at this time was semi-legal in fact. On the other hand, they have used the problem of ‘remaining of Japanese engineers’ as a negotiation card to receive various supports under the judgment that it is impossible for Korean comrades to construct a new Joseon without industrial-based reconstruction. This is a win-win for both Koreans and Japanese.
  • 3.

    A Study of “Party activist” of Takiji Kobayashi

    HWANG Bongmo | 2019, (25) | pp.145~169 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper has studied “Party activist” of Kobayashi Takiji(1903~1933). First of all, in this paper, I investigated the situation and the bibliographic items at the time of the presentation of this work. I looked at the character “I” of the hero who is devoted to the truth despite any difficulties. And I examined the fighting at Kurada Industry which is a military factory. In short, in “Party activist”, the hero's <I> is a man like steel that opposes the power of the state with an indomitable will. And at the same time, <I> have infinite love to mother, brother, Kasahara, and farmers and workers. While <I> live an extremely difficult life economically and physically, <I> is devoted to party activities. In this work, the life of <I> without an individual's life was the life that Takiji himself experienced in the underground life. On the other hand, Kurada Industry becomes a military factory that produces munitions after the war begins. A battle will be held between the company side and the <I> side, which is trying to prevent it, over the dismissal of temporary workers. The <I> side acts before the company's date of dismissal. <I> instigated “oppose war” and “opposed to dismiss” to factory workers, but eventually they will be fired. However, in spite of this, <I> and Suyama and Ito are active actively in new places.
  • 4.

    The Precedent of the 9th Tongsinsa in 1719-Based on the Records of Tsusima Soke-

    LEEJAEHOON | 2019, (25) | pp.171~199 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we wanted to find out how Tsuima responded to the failure of precedent or unclear precedent by the records of Tsusima Soke(1719). The purpose of the Tongsinsa was already diplomatic, so they could not arbitrarily change format or change course. Therefore, before the Tongsinsa is done, the details must be solved through Kangjung(講定). It is usually based on how it has been done in the previous Tongsinsa. However, unexpected variables may occur. Such as when the Kangjung do not convey information accurately, the precedent is not clearly recorded, or inevitably cannot be kept as the weather or place changes, and when the precedent is unilaterally rejected by one side. When Tsusima was carrying out its mission, it mostly checked old records if it failed to keep the precedent or was not aware of the precedent. If there was no precedent, they would check with someone who had done Tongsinsa or make a judgment based on the circumstances. Most of them seemed to respond to two criteria when they failed to keep the precedent. One was for safe and smooth passage, such as a change in precedent following bad weather, and the other was for the protection of authority and face of Bakuhu or Tsusima, as is related to etiquette or treatment. Particularly, such as etiquette has been the point where both sides cannot easily make concessions, as the relationship between the top and the bottom seems to be determined. That is why we could also find the tightness of demanding that even minor things be kept on record so as not to be pre-examined later. The fact that they made people pretend to be sick or ask them to maintain sitting on their seats even though they didn't eat food can be seen as a situation created by the collision of two sides that are trying to keep up appearances and carry out the mission smoothly.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Root of Koubetu Hwayi(Wani)-uji in 『Shinsensyoujiroku』

    Hangjoo Na | 2019, (25) | pp.201~236 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the corrective root of Wani-uji(和邇氏), who was classified as a clan of koubetsu(皇別) in 『Shinsensyou-ziroku(新撰姓氏錄)』. Most of all, the commonality between Wani-uji(和邇氏) and Wangin(王仁Wani) dispatched from Baekje(百濟), and his relatives has been widely verified. Wani-uji(和邇氏) and Wangin(王仁Wani) bring a question of being the same person. First, this study has been conducted to check commonality of two sides and verify this. As a result, we were able to identify three things. That is, (1) There is a complete correspondence between the two sides in the Chinese character notation(和邇) and the Japanese basic notation(Wani), (2) accordance in the areas of residence, local activity and in the territory, and (3)Common in the field of tasks and activities. Secondly, in order to verify Hwayi (Wani)-uji, reviewed its ancestors and clans from the same roots; Mano-uji(眞野氏) and Kabane(姓) of Ono-uji(小野氏). As a result, the following three things can be found : (1) The person who claimed to be Hwayi (Wani)-uji's ancestor does not have any credibility in its historicity and reality, and (2) Ono's kabane (姓) is unsuitable for clan of Koubetsu. and (3)Mano-uji(眞野氏) confirmed that he is related to Dami-uji(民氏) from Baekje. Therefore, I confirmed from these points that Wani-uji(和邇氏) came from the Korean Peninsula, not from its native clan. Third, to identify Wani-uji(和邇氏)'s more specific roots, we have examined Koshi-uji(高志氏)(descendants of Wani). As a result, it was confirmed that Koshi-uji(高志氏) is related to Wani-uji(和邇氏). Wani-uji(和邇氏)[Hwayi (Wani)-uji] has confirmed that its root is a clan originally from the Korean Peninsula, especially Baekje. After all, the Wangin(王仁, Wani) and Wani-uji(和邇氏) are related, therefore, Wangin(Wani) and Wani-uji(和邇氏) are the same entity, and Wani-uji(和邇氏) is definitely related to the Wangin(王仁, Wani) crossing over from Baekje. Finally, we reviewed the background and reason why Hwa-yi (Wani) had her roots changed. It is also true that Wani-uji(和邇氏) was the maternal line of Tennoke(天皇家) for a long times, and the route has been changed from the Toraikei(渡來系) to the clan of Koubetsu(皇別) to increase the value of their royal line.