This paper has an ultimate purpose of searching the possibility of making the East-Sea Rim Region as an Ecological Community for the regionalization of the East-Sea Rim area. Given the purpose of this paper, I focused on looking into the following three issues. At first, I critically consider the contemporary ecological cooperation and practical activities for collaborating in the East Sea Rim region. Secondly, I examine the existing theories of ecological discourses, and find that there are some problems in applying these ecological discourses to the East Sea Rim regional studies. Finally, I try to find how to internalize ecological solidarity in this region and to suggest some practical plans for the solidarity.
In conclusion, I emphasize on internalizing the regional characteristics of the East-Sea Rim area and on, in practice, containing the universal tenets of ecological community into the process of transforming the East-Sea Rim Region to a regional ecological community. In order to practice these conceptual findings in actual reality, I suggest to internalizing solidarity of the region with bioregional narratives and to conduct solidarity in actual reality by promoting workers' collaborating consciousness in terms of transnational consumers.
This article focuses on the State Development and Planning Commission, which plays a role of ‘pilot agency’ in China, where the state-led development strategies have been adopted. This includes the Commission’s role in long-term planning and economy policymaking, as well as the mechanism how it has coordinated the macro-economic policies with other related governmental departments, especially the leadership of Chinese Communist Party, the supreme policymaking institution. For this purpose, firstly, this study will discuss how the Chinese leadership has recognized and modified the developmental state model in East Asia. And then, it will try to understand the role of state in the reform period from the view of developmental state theory, which can be followed by analysis of decision-making process and planning system of Chinese government focusing on the role of SDPC as a pilot agency.
The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a study that focused on the trends regarding the development and evaluation of civic education programs. To arrive at this aim, the researcher dealt with the following themes: development of educational programs and model of factors, curriculum and selection of contents, concept and characteristics of program evaluation, problems related to program evaluation, school development planning and self-evaluation, and cases of development and evaluation of civic education program.
The bottom line of this article can be formulated as follows:① In program development we have to clarify the relevant factors, make a decision considering those factors, and keep in mind a set of action process including evaluation of aspects of both process and consequence.
② Because evaluation of educational programs is not a lab experiment in a strict sense, it seems to be desirable to consider a process-accompanying or formative evaluation as a better alternative.
③ Evaluation of civic education programs can be expected, after all, to contribute to consolidating the fundament of legitimacy and to ameliorating quality assurance.
④ Based on the two cases of development and evaluation of civic education program, we can identify the plausibility and usefulness of analysis and assessment of questionnaire results in the sense of above-mentioned process-accompanying or formative evaluation.
When we talk about Chinese people, the issue of social relationship is very interesting and important topic in terms of Chinese people's psychological and behavioral attitudes. Not only do Chinese people recognize social relationship as the most important factor in their social lives, but also people in other Asian countries such as Korea and Japan do so. Although Chinese society had been rapidly developed, Chinese people's perception of social relationship has not been changed because Chinese people tend to regard social relationship as cultural tradition in China. This study is designed to show some light on how Chinese people acknowledge the role of social relationship in contemporary China. What the authors find by the statistical analysis of a survey data (Asian Barometer 2009) are the following aspects. First, even though most Chinese people criticize all kinds of corruption which seem to be related to 'individual's social network (Guanxi), those with such critic are more likely to accept the usefulness of Guanxi tradition in their social lives. It suggests that Guanxi culture (‘utilizing individual’s social network in problem-solving process’) plays a significant role in contemporary Chinese society. Second, Chinese people blaming serious corruption in China have higher level of life satisfaction compared to those not blaming the corruption. Third, because young peoples in China are not inclined to recognize Guanxi as an important factor in the process of making his/her life successful, one of the most important social traditions in Chinese history, ‘individual’s social network (Guanxi), would go out of existence as like other social and historical traditions.
This paper seeks to draw some implications for the economic cooperation in Northeast Asian region with a special focus on the case of Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) between China and Taiwan. It suggests a main research hypothesis such as: - establishing the ‘Greater China Economic Zone’ including well-organized overseas-Chinese network will be able to accelerate economic cooperation in East Asian region. In spite of many obstacles in cross-straits relations, economic cooperation agreement has been successfully concluded. The author believes that it has been possible mainly thanks to the strong will of the Chinese government towards Greater China Economic Zone. It can be also helpful for the economic cooperation in the whole Northeast Asian region.
This study examines how modern nation-state as time-space formated and activated. This aims to understand meaning of modernity which is formed in the 19th century. European modernity is what we affronted in the late 19th century, and the totality of european imperialist values which Europe wanted to implant in the third world. This process of implantation had a base of eurocentrism and 'civilisation'. In this sense, Europe is not only conception of geology, but also cultural conception. This european modernity has three axis: market, state, democracy. These form modern community, in the areas of economy, politics, and society. To reexamine european modernity in this times relates to the situation of its limit. In the globalization, the cadre of nation-state of capitalism and democracy begins to collapse, making democracy crisis. These situations demand new transformation of democracy, in posing problematics of three axis of european modernity. This article aims to comprehend critically signification of european modernity and its values.
The Civil Organizations in China ushered in a new period of development after mid-1990s with the drive of sustained economic development and political social reform. Since various Civil Organizations work in the public domain, the relationship between Civil Organizations and government of superiority and controlling government also began to change. Taking into account the Chinese characteristics in transition period, this paper presents a direct government management and direct government financial support as the analysis framework. Using this analysis framework, it analyses management types of Chinese government, and classifies the management types of government as Dependent-type, Control-type, Cooperation-type and Delegate-type. The emergence of these management types is the result of the Dual control System, which is the registration authority and operation control department, and its adaption to the change of environment.
In the case of political reform lagging behind economic reform, this paper forecasts the Dual control System as main Chinese government management model will maintain in the future for a long time. However, internal and external environment changes is the main reason which will lead to the change in direction and speed of government management model.
This paper reviews historical developments and changes in the China’s banking system since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. In contrast to most emerging economies, the Chinese banking industry showed gradual transformation notwithstanding its remarkable economic growth for the past three decades. China’s banking system has been heavily dominated by state-owned commercial banks. This paper examines China’s state-owned commercial banking sector in particular, shedding light on its problems, reforms, and efficiency. Banking sector in China has been known for its heavy non-performing loans and low efficiency because of interventions from the central government. Since China’s entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001, banking reforms have been extensively conducted for international competition. Nevertheless, there are still much room for improvement by international standards.
This article highlights how the collective level is often either overlooked or addressed in an unconvincing manner within discussions on responsibility to protect (R2P). The discussion recalls that the R2P framework includes a collective level: the collective responsibility of the international community. The article suggests that a concern over an imperfect duty may be an important reason for attempts to conceptualize the collective responsibility as a perfect duty of particular actors. A plea is extended to avoid such methods as they result in fallacies of composition. Instead, we should earnestly examine this collectivity and the collective level. The paper proposes that this would entail addressing for instance representation, agency, and efficacy. The conclusion suggests why research on the international community should be of interest to the Asia-Pacific region.