This paper aims to analyse the background and reasons behind China’s utilisation of soybean as a retaliatory measure throughout the Sino-U.S. trade war. In July 2018, as the trade war began in earnest, U.S. and China put political and economic pressure on each other through various diplomatic means. While the U.S. utilised a variety of measures, including imposing additional tariffs on Chinese products, tightening sanctions on Chinese companies and designating China as a currency manipulator, China engaged in negotiations with the U.S. through a strategy focusing on agricultural products, especially soybeans. This paper analyses China’s negotiation strategy from the perspective of Sino-U.S. interdependent trade structure. A shift in the U.S. dominated asymmetric interdependence trade structure between U.S. and China can be attributed to three aspects. First, due to the change in the global trade structure, the global soybean market has been transformed into a buyer’s market, and it reversed the market dominance of the U.S. and China. Second, China’s influence in the global soybean value chain has been expanded with its overseas agricultural investment and M&A strategy. Third, China’s food security policy increased its soybean self-sufficiency rate, and the domestic soybean crushing industry structure was reorganised around domestic companies, which drastically reduced China’s dependence on U.S. companies.