Patients with extreme anxiety who are unable to cope with dental treatment under non-pharmacologicalbehavioral management method may require sedation, or other forms pharmacological behavioral managementmethod. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of concomitant administration of 0.1mg/kg intramuscular midazolam with or without sevoflurane insufflation sedation on sedation depth andcardiopulmonary function in pediatric patients. We analysed the records of anesthesia on patients who receiveddental treatment under deep sedation using sevoflurane insufflation from January 2013 to March 2014. Thirtysixchildren, aged 3 to 6 years, undergoing dental treatment were sedated using either sevoflurane insufflationalone (Group S, n = 18) or a combination of intramuscular injection of 0.1 mg/kg midazolam plus sevofluraneinsufflation (Group SM, n = 18). Upon comparison, the average entropy value of group SM was lower than thatof group S, but there were no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). The averageheart rate and mean arterial pressure of group SM were higher than those of group S (p < 0.05). Concomitantintramuscular injection of 0.1 mg/kg midazolam with sevoflurane insufflation sedation is not sufficient to enhancethe quality of sedation.
DNA extraction is a prerequisite for the identification of pathogens in clinical samples. Commercial DNA extractionkits generally involve time-consuming and laborious multi-step procedures.
In the present study, our modified DNA isolation method for saliva samples allows for the quick detection ofpathogens associated with dental caries or periodontitis by PCR within 1 h. To release DNA from the bacteria, 1min of boiling was adequate, and the resulting isolated DNA can be used many times and is suitable for longterm storage of at least 13 months at 4℃, and even longer at -20℃.
In conclusion, our modified DNA extraction method is simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and suitable forpreparing DNA from clinical samples for PCR for the rapid detection of oral pathogens from saliva.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of facemask therapy in patients with Class III malocclusionwith two types of bonded expanders covering different numbers of anchored teeth and to compare the anchoragevalue of two types of bonded expander.
Eighteen subjects with Class III malocclusion in early mixed dentition were included in this study, andsubjects were divided into two groups based on the number of teeth covered by bonded expander: group 1(splinting four teeth on each side, 9 subjects) and group 2 (splinting three teeth on each side, 9 subjects).
Lateral cephalograms were obtained and assessed before (T1) and after (T2) the treatment.
The facemask therapy showed skeletal effects including anterior movement of maxilla and backward rotationof mandible in both groups, with no significant differences between groups. Mesial movement of maxillarymolars which indicates anchorage loss of the bonded expander was found in both groups, but significantly largermesial movement was found in group 2 than in group 1.
In conclusion, the value of anchorage was different according to the number of teeth covered by bondedexpander as an intraoral anchorage of facemask, but there were no significant differences in skeletal effects.
Impacted teeth are teeth with a delayed eruption time or that are expected to erupt incompletely. Those teethcan cause a series of potential problems such as root displacement and resorption, periodontal problems in adjacentteeth, referred pain and the formation of cysts and odontogenic tumors. The purpose of this study was toinvestigate characteristics and treatment of child and adolescent patients younger than 15 years of age thatwere diagnosed with an impacted tooth who visited the Chosun University Dental Hospital.
The impacted tooth, its etiology, treatment and traction period were surveyed through electric medical records,radiographs in 335 patients. We excluded the impacted third molar, supernumerary and deciduous teeth fromthis study.
The most frequently impacted teeth are upper canine, followed by the upper incisor. The most commonetiologies of impaction were an abnormal eruption pathway and localized pathologic lesions. The treatment of animpacted tooth was mostly orthodontic traction. The traction period was relatively short in cases with distinctobstacles, with an impacted upper incisor and if patients were younger.
An orthodontic traction is considered to be more unfavorable if the patient gets older. Therefore, an earlydiagnosis and a precise treatment plan through a regular check-ups are mandatory.
This study investigated the pattern and treatment of traumatic dental injury (TDI), with respect to the timeelapsed prior to the initial visit to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Chonnam National University DentalHospital for TDI, from January 2009 to December 2013. The dental trauma records of a total of 378 patients(940 traumatic teeth) were analyzed. The prevalence rate of dental trauma was twofold higher in males versusfemales. The principal cause of injury, among all participants, was falling (36.5%). The most commonly affectedteeth were the maxillary central incisors (66.9%). Subluxation (43.9%) represented the most common traumafor primary teeth, and uncomplicated crown fracture in permanent teeth (30.9%). Only 10% of patients visitedthe dental clinic within 1 hour of sustaining trauma. The principal treatment provided for primary teeth, duringthe initial clinical visit, was follow-up (53.2%); for permanent teeth it was root canal treatment (27.3%). Theprevalence of root canal treatment for permanent teeth increased commensurate with the time elapsed sinceinjury. These data suggest that delayed checkup following trauma may increase the risk of loss of pulp vitality.
Regional odontodysplasia (RO) is a rare and nonhereditary dental malformation. It is a dental alteration ofunknown etiology, involving both mesodermal and ectodermal dental components, which is characterized byclinical, radiographic, and histologic features.
The maxilla is more often involved than the mandible (especially the left side), and there is no racial predilection,but females are affected twice as often as males. The affected teeth are clinically hypoplastic and hypocalcified,presenting a“ ghost-like”appearance radiographically.
The present case features a male patient aged 4 years and 6 months who was diagnosed with regional odontodysplasiain the maxilla on the right side, confirmed by clinical and radiographic examination, with a follow upof 5 years.
Since teeth affected by RO have a poor prognosis due to the fragile tooth surface and open apices, the longtermtreatment strategy depends on periodic clinical and radiological observations.
Gingival fibromatosis is a rare oral condition that is characterized by proliferative fibrous overgrowth of theattached gingiva, the marginal gingiva, and the interdental papilla, typically presenting in the growth period.
A case of a 27-month-old girl with a generalized severe gingival overgrowth is described herein. The patienthad no known systemic disease, but enlarged gingival tissue had gradually covered her teeth. The excess gingivaltissue was removed by conventional gingivectomy, which involved extraction of the retentive primary teethunder general anesthesia when she was 5 years old. Post surgical follow-up at 18 months after the surgerydemonstrated no recurrence.
Resectional surgery of the enlarged gingival tissue is the treatment choice for gingival fibromatosis, althoughthere is a high risk of recurrence. More frequent professional follow-ups and oral hygiene instruction might berequired. A delay in the surgical treatment may have significant consequences for the patient, such as primarydentition retention and consequent delay in the eruption of the permanent teeth, difficulties in mastication andphonation, malpositioning of the teeth, and psychological problems. Early surgical treatment should beperformed according to the severity of enlargement.
Regenerative endodontic treatment has the potential to heal a necrotic pulp, which can affect root developmentin immature teeth. However, several drawbacks and unfavorable outcomes are associated with regenerativeendodontic treatment, of which the most significant is coronal discoloration due to the presence of minocycline intriple antibiotic paste and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).
To prevent tooth discoloration following pulp treatment, the modified triple antibiotics (ciprofloxacin,metronidazole, clindamycin) were used as canal disinfectants and Retro MTA, a ZrO2-containing calciumaluminate cement, was used to seal the canal. Following access cavity acquisition, the canal was copiouslyirrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A modified triple antibiotic paste was then applied to the canal. Oncethe tooth was asymptomatic (after between 3 and 8 weeks), Retro MTA was carefully placed over the blood clotor a collagen plug. Follow-up radiographs revealed normal periodontal ligament space and root development. Intwo cases, successful regenerative endodontic treatment of the infected immature tooth, without discoloration,was achieved with disinfection using modified triple antibiotics and Retro MTA sealing.