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2016, Vol.43, No.1

  • 1.

    Evaluation of the Developmental Age of Permanent Teeth by the Nolla Method

    신민경 | Je Seon Song | JAE HO LEE and 3other persons | 2016, 43(1) | pp.1~7 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The developmental age of permanent teeth was evaluated in children and adolescents according to age and gender using the Nolla Method. A retrospective study was performed on panoramic radiographs of 1,200 subjects aged 4-15 years, including 50 children for each age/gender group. Three well-trained examiners estimated the developmental stage of upper and lower permanent teeth using the Nolla Method. The inter-examiner reliability was excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient value = 0.973). The mean developmental age was calculated. In boys, Nolla stage 6, indicated by crown completion, was seen in the central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, first premolar, second premolar, first molar, and second molar at 5.4, 6.4, 6.7, 7.5, 7.8, 4.6, and 8.1 years, respectively, in the maxilla and at 4.8, 5.1, 6.0, 6.5, 7.2, 4.5, and 8.0 years, respectively, in the mandible. In girls, Nolla stage 6 was seen at 5.3, 6.0, 6.3, 7.3, 7.7, 4.8, and 8.1 years, respectively, in the maxilla and at 4.8, 5.1, 5.9, 6.5, 7.2, 5.0, and 7.9 years, respectively, in the mandible. In this study, the developmental age of permanent teeth was evaluated in Korean children and adolescents who visited Yonsei University Dental Hospital. This study may be helpful in diagnosis and treatment planning in the clinic.
  • 2.

    Prevalence of Periodontopathogens in Saliva and Plaque of Korean Children and Adolescents

    최혜진 | 김재환 | 이대우 and 2other persons | 2016, 43(1) | pp.8~16 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Early colonization of periodontal pathogens has been related as a risk indicator for the subsequent development of periodontal disease. Such colonization can be easily detected with mediums like saliva and plaque. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the bacteria associated with periodontal disease in saliva and plaque in healthy children and adolescents. The experiment was conducted using 90 samples from subjects consisting of thirty elementary school students, thirty high school students and thirty adults. PCR was used to detect the prevalence and distribution of five periodontal pathogens in the collected saliva and plaque. The detected periodontal pathogens are as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, F. nucleatum and P. intermedia. Periodontal pathogens were prevailed in a higher number of adolescents than the number of children. A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. intermedia were detected the most in the adolescents group. T. forsythia and F. nucleatum were detected the most in the children group. The overall result showed that saliva is more a useful medium than supragingival plaque. The detection of high risk periodontal pathogens in children and adolescents without clinical signs of periodontal disease can emphasize the importance of the early diagnosis and preventive approach.
  • 3.

    Survey on Preferences Regarding Rubber Dams in Children, Adolescents and Parents

    정한글 | Nanyoung Lee | Sangho Lee | 2016, 43(1) | pp.17~26 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The use of a rubber dam is a useful technique for protecting patients and operators, producing good results when treating children and adolescent patients. Despite its many advantages, some children and adolescent patients have negative feelings and sometimes express its discomfort. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patients’preferences for rubber dam use and the associated factors that may affect it. A survey was conducted targeting patients aged 4-18 years old who visited the pediatric dental clinic, the restorative dental clinic, or the student treatment dental clinic of OO University Dental Hospital, and were treated using a rubber dam without sedation. We collected questionnaires through electronic medical records. Most children and adolescent patients showed positive attitudes towards using rubber dams. The group with a short treatment time and the group with past knowledge or experience of rubber dam use showed more positive attitudes towards rubber dams (p < 0.05), while no significant difference was found among factors such as gender, age, procedure, anesthetics, treatment site, and operator (p > 0.05).
  • 4.

    Impact of Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia or Intravenous Sedation on Oral Health-related Quality of Life in Pediatric Dental Patients

    Ji-Soo Song | Kim, Young J | 2016, 43(1) | pp.27~35 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aimed to assess the perception of a child’s primary caregiver on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) or intravenous sedation (IV-SED) in pediatric dental patients. Self-administered questionnaires were completed before dental treatment under GA or IV-SED by 52 primary caregivers of healthy pediatric patients (10 years old or younger), and 43 (84%) of these caregivers completed the same questionnaires within 6 months after treatment. The Korean version of Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and the Family Impact Scale (FIS) were used to assess OHRQoL in the questionnaires. The scores of COHIP and FIS improved after dental treatment. Demographic variables such as gender did not affect the improvement of COHIP and FIS, and age did not affect that of COHIP. However, baseline FIS score of younger patients was better than that of older patients before dental treatment. Regardless of the treatment variables, all COHIP and FIS scores were improved after dental treatment. COHIP score improved more in cases with pulp treatments compared to those without the treatments. On the other hand, FIS score improved less in cases with posterior stainless steel crown restorations compared to those without them. Anterior esthetic restorations and anterior teeth extractions did not affect the degree of improvement. Based on the primary caregiver’s perceptions, the OHRQoL of healthy pediatric patients was improved by dental treatment under GA or IV-SED.
  • 5.

    Effect of Blood Contamination on the Push-Out Bond Strength and Surface Morphology of Tricalcium Silicate Materials

    박미선 | 김재환 | Namk Choi and 1other persons | 2016, 43(1) | pp.36~43 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood contamination on the push-out bond strength and surface morphology of tricalcium silicate materials; Biodentine, Theracal and mineral trioxide aggregate. The standardized lumens of root slices prepared from extracted single-root human teeth were filled with Biodentine, Theracal and mineral trioxide aggregate by manufacturer’s instruction. The specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20) for each material and then incubated for 4 days at 37℃; control group (phosphate buffered saline solution) and experimental group (fetal bovine serum). The push-out bond strengths were then measured by a universal testing machine and the surface morphology of each experimental group was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. Biodentine and Theracal showed higher push-out bond strength compared with mineral trioxide aggregate after exposure to fetal bovine serum. A substantial change in the surface morphology of each material was observed after exposure to fetal bovine serum. In conclusion, the push-out bond strengths of Biodentine and Theracal were higher than mineral trioxide aggregate when exposed to blood contamination. Therefore, it is supposed that the use of Biodentine and Theracal is appropriate in the presence of blood.
  • 6.

    Remineralization Effects on the Demineralized Enamel of Primary Teeth by Fluoride Varnish

    조성은 | Kim Jongbin | Jong-Soo Kim | 2016, 43(1) | pp.44~50 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the remineralization effect of three types of fluoride varnishes on demineralized enamel of primary teeth. 40 primary teeth were decalcified by soaking them in artificial acidic solution and stored at 37℃ for 7 days. Then 3 varnishes - Cavity shieldTM, V varnishTM and MI varnishTM were applied respectively one time a week, for 3 weeks on the demineralized enamel surface. For the first week, MI varnishTM showed the highest microhardness value, V varnishTM was in second position, and Cavity shieldTM showed the lowest microhardness value. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups(p > 0.05). For the second week, V varnishTM showed the highest microhardness value, and MI varnishTM came next in second position noting no significant difference (p > 0.05). Cavity shieldTM was significantly lower than the other groups (p < 0.05). For the third week, V varnishTM showed the highest microhardness value, noting a significant difference from the other groups (p < 0.05). MI varnishTM came next, while Cavity shieldTM showed the lowest microhardness value. However, there was no significant difference between MI varnishTM and Cavity shieldTM (p > 0.05). The increase in the microhardness of groups V varnishTM and MI varnishTM were higher than that of group Cavity shieldTM (p < 0.05), while no significant difference was noted between groups V varnishTM and MI varnishTM (p > 0.05).
  • 7.

    Epidemiologic Survey on Failed Eruption of Mandibular First Molar

    김소현 | 김영진 | Kim, Hyun - Jung and 1other persons | 2016, 43(1) | pp.51~59 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the present retrospective study was to analyze gender, age, awareness, etiology, and treatment choice in patients with failed eruption of the mandibular first molar. Radiographic material and dental records from 67 patients with 74 mandibular first molars with failed eruption treated during the years 2001-2014 were evaluated. As results, the prevalence of mandibular first molar with failed eruption was higher in males than females, and the average awareness age was 9.19 years old. The most common etiological cause was unknown, and the next most common causes were abnormal eruption pathway and odontogenic tumor in order. In this study, it is suggested that more dental education to children about the time of eruption of permanent tooth is required, and the importance of regular dental check-ups is emphasized during mixed dentition.
  • 8.

    Esthetic Restoration of Complicated Crown-Root Fractures Utilizing Orthodontic Extrusion

    김민지 | 김진영 | 김수현 and 1other persons | 2016, 43(1) | pp.60~69 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Complicated crown-root fracture of permanent incisors cause esthetic, functional, and psychological problems to patients. Therefore, treatment is important and multidisciplinary treatment is required. This case report describes the clinical procedures involved in the treatment of trauma-induced complicated crown-root fractures in the maxillary incisor of two young patients. Conventional root canal treatment and apexification were performed in each patient. To expose the fracture margins to the supragingival level and to reestablish the biologic width, orthodontic extrusions with fixed appliances were performed followed by a retention period. During the retention period, fiber-optic posts and cores were built up and provisional crowns were placed. Finally, ceramic crowns manufactured using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system were placed. In both patients, the teeth presented satisfactory functional and esthetic outcomes without relapse. The periodontal tissues were healthy.
  • 9.

    Treatment for Class II Division I Malocclusion Using Cervical Headgear and Hotz Appliance: A Case Report

    조용제 | Seonmi Kim | Namk Choi | 2016, 43(1) | pp.70~78 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Many types of orthopedic appliances have been developed and used for the treatment of class II malocclusion in pediatric dentistry. Headgear is one of the extraoral appliances, which is used for the purpose of preventing the overgrowth of maxilla. Hotz appliance is used in couple with a cervical headgear for the expansion of maxilla and retraction of maxillary incisors. This case report is about the orthodontic treatment of three patients with class II division I malocclusion. These young patients were given orthopedic treatment in combination with a cervical headgear and Hotz appliance. After the treatment using these extraoral and intraoral appliances, succeeding treatments were practiced considering individual needs as follows: fixed orthodontic appliance for mandibular anterior crowding, Class II activator for retention and additory orthopedic treatment and the retention with Hotz appliance. Young patients with Class II division I malocclusion reported in this study received the orthodontic treatment using a cervical headgear and Hotz appliance as well as appropriate succeeding treatment afterward. All patients received improved convex profiles and lip protrusions by retracting maxilla and maxillary incisors.
  • 10.

    Minimally Invasive Surgery in a Pediatric Palatal Plasmacytoid Myoepithelioma

    NAM OK HYUNG | LEE BAEK SOO | 이수언 and 2other persons | 2016, 43(1) | pp.79~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Myoepithelioma is a rare disease in the salivary gland. Myoepithelioma is more common in adults than in children or adolescents. An 8-years-old female patient visited our clinic with a chief complaint of a painless swelling on the palate. Conservative treatment that preserves the overlaying palatal mucosa while surgically excising the tumor was carried out under general anesthesia, because the patient was young and the size of the tumor was relatively large. The surgical wound healed well and there had not been any sign of recurrence during the regular follow-up period of 40 months. Minimally invasive surgical treatment which preserves peripheral palatal tissue can be useful in a pediatric myoepithelioma.
  • 11.

    An Evaluation Study for Satisfaction of Symposium for Dental Sedation

    Chul Choi Sung | Shin Teo Jeon | Seunghoon Yoo and 3other persons | 2016, 43(1) | pp.85~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (KAPD) organized the Committee on Sedation, Education and Research to establish appropriate guidelines in dental sedation and to help to the safety of dental sedation of society members through continuous education. The purpose of this study was to try to evaluate the satisfaction rating of the society members of the sedation symposium and BLS course that was held during the KAPD annual congress in 2015. The committee created a questionnaire to target the KAPD members who participated in the annual congress. The questionnaire was given to the 143 total members and were carried out based on the satisfaction evaluation of the symposium. The 23 total members who participated in the BLS course, reported satisfactory evaluations of the BLS course. Both the symposium and BLS courses confirmed a high level of satisfaction from the KAPD members. In addition, the committee learned about the future direction of the education offered by the KAPD the members wish for it to take. KAPD will endeavor to consistently provide advanced education and the systematic training program of emergency management situation for KAPD members.
  • 12.

    Prospect for 3D Printing Technology in Medical, Dental, and Pediatric Dental Field

    Sangho Lee | 2016, 43(1) | pp.93~108 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    One of the fields to which the 3D printing technology can be applied is the field of medicine. Recently, the application of 3D printing technology to the bio-medical field has been gradually increasing with the commercializing of the bio-compatible or bio-degradable materials. The technology is currently contributing to the biomedical field by reducing times required for operations or minimizing adverse effects through preoperative identification of post-surgical consequences or model surgery with artificial bones and organs. This technology also enables the production of customized biomedical auxiliary products like hearing aids or artificial legs etc. For the field of dentistry, the 3D printing technology is also expected to elevate the level of dental treatment by making the customized orthodontic models, crown, bridge, inlay, and surgical guides for implant and surgery. However, issues remaining unidentified or incomplete in printing materials, modeling technology, software technology associated with CAD, verification of bio-stability and bio-effectiveness of materials or in compatibility and standardization of the technology are yet to be solved or be clarified for the full-scale application of the 3D printing technology, thus, it seems such issues should be resolved through further studies.
  • 13.

    Agents Used for Pediatric Dental Sedation

    Jiyeon Kim | JEONG,TAE-SUNG | Yang Yeon Mi and 3other persons | 2016, 43(1) | pp.109~116 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Sedation is an indispensable part of contemporary pediatric dentistry. The Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (KAPD) organized the dental sedation committee to help members perform safer and more effective sedation. The committee surveyed 111 members who practice dental sedation to figure out the present state of sedation in 2014. According to the survey, 86% of the respondents indicated that they were interested in continuing education of sedation. The most interesting topic was sedation related emergency management, followed by safe dosages of sedative drugs. However, it is not realistic to establish the recommended dosages as a guideline since the selection of agents and dosages depend on various factors. In order to provide successful sedation, pediatric dentist should make an individual sedation plan for each procedure. It is important to understand not only the properties of each sedative, but also interactions with other drugs. This article reviews useful information of commonly used agents for dental sedation and summarizes the recommended dosages from the Physicians’Desk Reference (PDR) and some famous pediatric dentistry textbooks.