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pISSN : 1226-8496 / eISSN : 2288-3819

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2019, Vol.46, No.1

  • 1.

    Degree of Conversion and Polymerization Shrinkage of Low and High Viscosity Bulk-Fill Giomer-based and Resin-based composites

    Heera Kim | Jaesik Lee | Kim, Hyun - Jung and 2other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study was to compare the degree of conversion and polymerization shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomer-based and resin-based composites. Two bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil Bulk Restorative (BBR), Beautifil Bulk Flowable (BBF)), two bulk-fill (Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-fill (TBF), SureFil SDR flow (SDR)) and two conventional resin composites (Tetric N-Ceram (TN), Tetric N-flow (TF)) were selected for this study. The degree of conversion was measured by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polymerization shrinkage was measured with the linometer. For all depth, BBR had the lowest degree of conversion and SDR had the highest. At 4 mm, the degree of conversion of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomer resin composites was lower than that of bulk-fill resin composites (p < 0.05). At the depth between 2 mm and 4 mm, there were significant difference with TBF, TN and TF (p < 0.05), while no significant difference in the degree of conversion was measured for BBR, BBF and SDR. Polymerization shrinkage of six resin composites decreased in the following order: TF > SDR > BBF > TBF > TN and BBR (p < 0.05). Polymerization shrinkage of bulk-fill giomer resin composites was lower than that of bulk-fill resin composites (p < 0.05). From this study, it is found that the bulk-fill giomer resin composites and TBF were not sufficiently cured in 4 mm depth. The degree of conversion of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomer resin composites was significantly lower than bulk-fill resin composites in both 2 mm and 4 mm depths. Therefore, such features of bulk-fill giomer resin composites should be carefully considered in clinical application.
  • 2.

    Eruption Stage of Permanent Teeth Using Diagnostic Model Analysis in Kyung Hee Dental Hospital

    Taejun Oh | NAM OK HYUNG | Kim Mi Sun and 3other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.10~20 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Individual dental age is used as an index of chronological age estimation and is an important indicator of the child’s growth stage. Dental age does change greatly over time, but it changes constantly. And updating information about this change is important. The purpose of this study was to provide information about tooth eruption stage using diagnostic model analysis and to investigate tooth eruption sequence and estimate chronological age based on this information. Tooth eruption stages were measured on a diagnostic model from 488 patients in 5 - 13 year old children. Based on the information on eruption stage, eruption sequence in maxilla was first permanent molar, central incisor, lateral incisor, first premolar, canine, second premolar and second permanent molar. Eruption sequence in mandible was first permanent molar, central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, first premolar, second premolar and second permanent molar. There were significant differences between males and females in the eruption stage of canine, first and second premolar, and second molar at several ages. The chronological age of male and female was estimated by the coefficient of determination of 0.816, 0.826 respectively.
  • 3.

    Effects of Saliva Contamination on Shear Bond Strength with Conventional, Moisture Insensitive, and Self-Etching Primers

    Yoonjeong Oh | Sohee Oh | 2019, 46(1) | pp.21~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths of orthodontic bracket with Conventional primer (CP), Moisture insensitive primer (MIP), and Self-etching primer (SEP). In addition, the effect and the timing of saliva contamination on shear bond strength was evaluated. A total of 135 bovine mandibular incisors were used in the study and divided into 3 groups. Group I, II and III were used CP, MIP, SEP, respectively. Each group was then divided into three subgroups: the group without saliva contamination, the group with primer application after saliva contamination, and the group with saliva contamination after primer application. After the primer application, the metal bracket for the lower incisor was attached and the shear bond strength was measured. The mean shear bond strengths was highest with CP and lowest with SEP in dry condition. However, CP showed a significant decrease in shear bond strength in the presence of saliva contamination. MIP and SEP showed no significant decrease in shear bond strength with saliva contamination.
  • 4.

    Factors Influencing Prognosis of Traumatized Tooth in Primary Tooth Intrusion

    Yongkwon Chae | Yoonkyung Han | NAM OK HYUNG and 4other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.29~37 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of intrusion in primary dentition and to evaluate factors influencing complications of primary and permanent dentition during long-term follow-up period. 61 patients (84 teeth) were selected in this study. Medical records of 61 patients were reviewed and age, gender, cause of injury, site of injury, severity of traumatic injury, other injuries associated with trauma, treatment method, and complications of primary and permanent dentition were examined. Collected data were statistically evaluated using Chisquare test and Fisher’s exact test. Intrusion in primary anterior teeth was predominant in boys over girls and fall was the most common cause of trauma. It was most common at home and occurred most in the primary maxillary central incisors. Severity had an effect on the incidence of sequelae in permanent successors (p = 0.014). The incidence of complications was significantly lower in patients with soft tissue injuries than in patients with other periodontal injuries (p = 0.000).
  • 5.

    Relationship between Upper Airway and Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children with Mouth Breathing

    Doyoung Kim | LEE DAE-WOO | KIM JAE GON and 1other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.38~47 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The most common cause of mouth breathing is obstacles caused by mechanical factors in upper airway. Mouth breathing could be consequently pathological cause of sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep-disordered breathing in children can cause growth disorders and behavioral disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between upper airway and sleep-disordered breathing in children with mouth breathing. Twenty boys between 7 - 9 years old who reported to have mouth breathing in questionnaire were evaluated with clinical examination, questionnaires, lateral cephalometric radiographs, and portable sleep testing. This study assessed apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) for the evaluation of sleep-disordered breathing and was done to investigate the correlation between these values and the upper airway width measured by lateral cephalometric radiographs. There was no significant correlation with the size of the tonsils (p = 0.921), but the adenoid hypertrophy was higher in the abnormal group than in the normal group (p = 0.008). In the classification according to AHI and ODI, retropalatal and retroglossal distance showed a statistically significant decrease in the abnormal group compared to the normal group (p = 0.002, p = 0.001). As AHI and ODI increased, upper airway width tended to be narrower. This indicates that mouth breathing could affect the upper airway, which is related to sleep quality.
  • 6.

    Measuring Agreement of Modified MP3 and CVMS according to BMI Percentile

    Seoksoon Yi | LEE DAE-WOO | Yang Yeon Mi and 1other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.48~56 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this study was to examine measuring agreement between middle phalanx of the third finger and cervical vertebrae analysis for assessing skeletal maturity according to body mass index percentile. A retrospective chart view was used to select patients with body mass index data, hand - wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms of same day. The patients were divided into 4 groups by body mass index percentile. The hand - wrist radiographs were analyzed using modified middle phalanx of the third finger method and the lateral cephalograms were categorized according to cervical vertebral maturation stage. The degree of agreement between the 2 methods of analyzing skeletal maturation was measured by calculating weighted kappa statistic according to body mass index percentile group. There was a good agreement between the 2 methods in the entire body mass index percentile group. According to the body mass index percentile group, the agreement was found to be different, and the pattern was different between boys and girls. Pediatric dentist should consider sex and weight status when evaluating growing children and adolescents because it can affect the agreement of 2 method of analyzing skeletal maturation.
  • 7.

    Evaluation of High-power Light Emitting Diode Curing Light on Sealant Polymerization

    Youngjun Park | Jewoo Lee | Jiyoung Ra | 2019, 46(1) | pp.57~63 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed to determine whether the curing times of Xtra Power and High Power modes of high-power light emitting diode (LED) curing light are sufficient for polymerization of resin sealants. The specimens were prepared and their microhardness values were measured and compared with those of specimens polymerized under conventional LED curing light. The filled sealant polymerized for 8 seconds in the High Power mode and for 3 seconds in the Xtra Power mode showed significantly lower microhardness than the control specimen (p = 0.000). The unfilled sealant polymerized for 8, 12 seconds in the High Power mode and for 6 seconds in the Xtra Power mode showed significantly lower microhardness than the control specimen (p = 0.000). The results of this study suggest that the short curing time with the Xtra Power and High Power modes of highpower LED curing light are not sufficient for adequate polymerization of sealants under specific conditions, taking into account the curing times and the type of sealant.
  • 8.

    Comparison of Crown Shape and Amount of Tooth Reduction for Primary Anterior Prefabricated Crowns

    Soyoung Kim | Youjin Lim | Sangho Lee and 2other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.64~75 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to obtain instructions for size selection of prefabricated crown and tooth reduction by 3-dimensional analysis of the size and shape of the maxillary primary central and lateral incisors and prefabricated crowns (celluloid strip, resin veneered stainless steel, and zirconia crowns). The maxillary primary central and lateral incisors of 300 Korean children was scanned with three types of prefabricated crown to create standard three-dimensional tooth models and prefabricated crowns. The shapes of the prefabricated crowns and natural teeth were compared according to four parameters (mesio-distal width, height, labio-palatal width, and labial surface curvature coefficient) and calculated the amount of tooth reduction required for each prefabricated crown. The size 2 resin veneered stainless steel crown, size 1 zirconia crown, and size 2 celluloid strip crown were most similar in shape to the primary central incisor. The size 3 rein veneered stainless steel crown, size 2 zirconia crown, and size 3 celluloid strip crown were most similar to the primary lateral incisor. The amount of tooth reduction was similar in both maxillary primary central and lateral incisors. The incisal reduction was greatest for the zirconia crown. At the proximal surface, the zirconia and celluloid strip crowns required a similar amount of tooth reduction, but more than the resin veneered stainless steel crown. The labial surface reduction was greatest for the zirconia crown. The degree of lingual surface reduction was not significant among the three prefabricated crowns. Among the assessment parameters, mesio-distal crown width was the most important for choosing a prefabricated crown closest to the actual size of the natural crown.
  • 9.

    Comparison of the Microleakage and Shear Bond Strength to Dentine of Different Tricalcium Silicate-based Pulp Capping Materials

    Miri Kim | Wansun Jo | Myeongkwan Jih and 2other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.76~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study evaluated the microleakage of three restorative materials and three tricalcium silicate-based pulp capping agents. The restorative materials were composite resin (CR), resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement (RMGI), and traditional glass ionomer cement (GIC) and the pulp capping agents were TheraCal LC® (TLC), Biodentine® (BD), and ProRoot® white MTA (WMTA). Additionally, shear bond strengths between the pulp-capping agents and dentine were compared. Class V cavities were made in bovine incisors and classified into nine groups according to the type of pulp-capping agent and final restoration. After immersion in 0.5% fuchsin solution, each specimen was observed with a stereoscopic microscope to score microleakage level. The crowns of the bovine incisors were implanted into acrylic resin, cut horizontally, and divided into three groups. TLC, BD and WMTA blocks were applied on dentine, and the shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. The microleakage was lowest in TLC + GIC, TLC + RMGI, TLC + CR, and BD + GIC groups and highest in WMTA + RMGI and WMTA + CR groups. The shear bond strength of BD group was the highest and that of WMTA group was significantly lower than the others.
  • 10.

    Cytotoxicity of Various Calcium Silicate-based Materials with Stem Cells from Deciduous Teeth

    Jihye Yun | Yong-Ouk You | Eunsuk Ahn and 2other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.85~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the cytotoxicity of 3 calcium silicate-based materials (CSMs) on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). The powder of Retro MTA® (RM), EZ-SealTM (EZ) and ENDOCEM Zr® (EN) was eluted with SHED culture media and then filtered. The SHEDs were cultured in the presence of the various concentrations of the eluate. To investigate the effect of the 3 CSMs on SHED proliferation, the MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay was performed. Flow cytometry analysis was also performed to identify any changes in the cellular phenotype. The absorbance values of the SHEDs cultured in the eluate of samples at a 10% concentration showed the following relation: RM > EN > EZ p( = 0.0439). However, the SHEDs maintained their mesenchymal phenotype regardless of product exposure. Although the 3 CSMs did not alter the SHED stem cell markers, EZ may be a less cytocompatible than RM and EN.
  • 11.

    Color Distribution Analysis of Maxillary Primary Central Incisors using a Spectrophotometer

    Seoksoon Yi | Jihye Jang | LEE DAE-WOO and 2other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.93~100 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this study was to analyze the color distribution of the maxillary primary central incisors and the relationship between the color of each tooth region by dividing tooth into incisal, middle and cervical region using a spectrophotometer. The subjects were 105 sound maxillary primary central incisors from 3 to 6 years old children. Color measurements were performed by one dentist using same protocol. CIE L* , a *, b *, C *, h * data and the best matched shades with coverage error were obtained for each region and whole labial surface. There was a significant difference in CIE L* , a *, b * according to regions and the difference in color between each region was more than the clinical acceptance. By correlating the relationship between the color of each region with L* , a *, b * values, it is possible to extrapolate the color of other region with one color or to be used as data for making restorative materials and prostheses that are more aesthetically pleasing for primary teeth.
  • 12.

    SEM/EDS Analysis of the Enamel in Mesiodens

    Nakyeong Oh | Jaesik Lee | NAM Soon-Hyeun and 2other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.101~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the microstructural properties and mineralization quality of mesiodens with permanent and primary central incisors. Fifteen mesiodens, permanent and primary central incisors were collected. The enamel rod diameter and enamel thickness were observed and measured using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Chemical composition of the enamel was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The measurements were then assessed using the one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. There was no statistically significant difference in the enamel rod diameter between mesiodens and permanent central incisors. However, enamel rods of primary central incisors were smaller than remaining two groups. The thickness of enamel was thick in order of permanent central incisors, mesiodens, primary central incisors. In the composition analysis using EDS, there was no difference in the Ca/P ratio and Ca/C ratio between mesiodens and permanent central incisors, but small in primary central incisors. In conclusion, the microstructural properties of mesiodens were more similar to those of permanent central incisors compared to primary central incisors. Futher, the mineralization quality of mesiodens did not differ significantly from that of permanent central incisors.
  • 13.

    Post-endodontic Restoration on Erupting Permanent First Molars Using Endocrown with a Polyglass Composite Resin: Report of Two Cases

    Hyuntae Jeong | Seonmi Kim | Jaehwan Kim and 1other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.111~118 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Post-endodontic restorations are both important and challenging for clinical success in endodontically treated posterior teeth. Several options have been proposed to restore endodontically treated molars. In pediatric dentistry, restoration using conventional single crowns, especially for partially erupted molars with insufficient retentive tooth structure, has proven to be difficult. However, the endocrown presents a conservative and esthetic restorative alternative to conventional crowns with post-and-core, as it acquires additional retention within the pulp chamber. The tooth preparation consists of a circular, equigingival, butt-joint margin and a central retention cavity in the pulp chamber that helps to construct both the crown and core as a single unit. This case report describes the esthetic and conservative endocrown restorations of erupting permanent first molars with extensive coronal destruction.
  • 14.

    Effects of Myofunctional Appliance in Children with Sleep-Disordered Breathing: Two Case Reports

    Hojin Shim | JEONG,TAE-SUNG | Shin Kim and 1other persons | 2019, 46(1) | pp.119~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) induces dysfunction of the orofacial muscles, leading to morphologic alteration of the face and dental malalignment. Early diagnosis and treatment of SDB is required in pediatric patients to ensure normal facial growth. Myofunctional therapy (MFT) is a modality for the treatment of SDB and prefabricated appliances can be used. Herein 2 cases of malocclusion with SDB, in which MFT with a prefabricated appliance was used for orthodontic treatment, have been described. SDB was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms taken by interview and home respiratory polygraphy. In both cases, SDB was improved using prefabricated appliance for MFT. However, resolution of crowding depended on the degree of crowding.