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pISSN : 1226-8496 / eISSN : 2288-3819

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2020, Vol.47, No.2

  • 1.

    2-Step Needle Insertion Technique to Reduce Pain in Children during Local Anesthesia

    Suyoung Park ORD ID , LEE, SANG-HO ORD ID , LEE NAN YOUNG ORD ID and 1 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.99~108 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2-step needle insertion technique to reduce pain during local anesthesia in children. Local anesthesia was performed bilaterally using conventional technique and a 2-step technique, and to compare the degree of pain using the 2-step with that using the conventional technique during local anesthesia using a pain scale. The pain scores were significantly different between the conventional technique and the 2-step insertion technique at 5.82 ± 2.14 and 2.57 ± 2.09, respectively (p < 0.001). The subjective degree of pain based on gender, age, and Frankl’s behavior rating scale was significantly lower in the 2-step insertion technique (p < 0.001). Subjective pain levels in the area of maxilla and mandible, anterior and posterior parts were lower in the group treated using the 2-step insertion technique (p < 0.001). The 2-step insertion technique is a simple and effective way to reduce pain during local anesthesia not only in children with a positive attitude to dental treatment, but also in children with negative attitudes, and is thought to be more effective if combined with application of topical anesthesia or distraction.
  • 2.

    The Effectiveness and Side Effects of Conscious Sedation using Chloral hydrate, Hydroxyzine, and Nitrous oxide

    Gyeongmin Kim ORD ID , Jaesik Lee ORD ID , Kim, Hyun - Jung ORD ID and 1 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.109~119 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This retrospective study assessed the effectiveness and side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate, hydroxyzine, and N2O/O2 in the sedation of 149 pediatric patients over 188 sedation sessions, and to identify associated variables. The effectiveness of the sedation was evaluated using the Houpt scale, and was considered effective for scale categories of excellent or good. Effectiveness and side effects were assessed every 15 minutes. The effectiveness decreased and side effects increased over time. The effectiveness of sedation during 60 minutes was 57.4%, and one or more side effects occurred in 18.1% of sessions. Effectiveness of sedation increased with body mass index (BMI). When patients were sedated at the beginning of the procedure, the effectiveness was greater. Side effects increased with patient age. When sedation was divided into two sessions, the number of sedation did not affect the effectiveness or side effects. It can be suggested that sedation should be performed over two separate sessions, as a single prolonged session may lead to reduced effectiveness and increased side effects. To maximize effectiveness and minimize side effects, several variables such as BMI, whether to sedate at the beginning of the procedure and age should be considered thoroughly before sedation.
  • 3.

    Antimicrobial Effect of Photodynamic Therapy Using Plaque Disclosing Agent

    Junhee Kho ORD ID , Howon Park ORD ID , LEE JU HYUN ORD ID and 2 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.120~127 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using plaque disclosing agent, 10 - 20 mM erythrosine, as a photosensitizer. Multispecies cariogenic biofilms containing Streptococcus mutans , Lactobacillus casei and Candida albicans were formed on hydroxyapatite disc. 20 μM, 10 mM and 20 mM erythrosine were applied as a photosensitizer for 3 minutes, and then light-emitting diode (LED) irradiated for 24 seconds. Colony-forming unit (CFU) were measured and biofilms were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CFU were significantly decreased in the PDT groups using 10 - 20 mM erythrosine (10 mM, 20mM) and the results were also confirmed by CLSM. This study confirms the high antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy using plaque disclosing agent as a photosensitizer.
  • 4.

    Association between Developmental Anomalies of Permanent Lateral Incisors and Tooth Eruption Disturbances

    Minji Kim ORD ID , Ji-Soo Song ORD ID , Shin Teo Jeon ORD ID and 5 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.128~139 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of developmental anomalies of permanent lateral incisor and eruption disturbances and analyze the association between two components. Panoramic radiographs of 3984 patients (aged 5 to 13 years) who visited the Department of Pediatric Dentistry of Seoul National University Dental Hospital between November 2016 and October 2017 were screened. The prevalence of developmental anomalies of permanent lateral incisors was 10.2%. The most common developmental anomalies were congenitally missing teeth(66.1%), followed by peg lateralis(33.5%). The prevalence of eruption disturbances was 16.5%. Among the patient with developmental anomalies of permanent lateral incisors, associated eruption disturbances were appeared on 31.1% of patients. Peg lateralis(p < 0.001), underdeveloped lateral incisors(p < 0.001) and dens invaginatus(p = 0.004) were associated significantly with eruption disturbance of permanent teeth. Eruption disturbance in patients with peg lateralis and dens invaginatus was most prevalent in maxillary canine. For patients with underdeveloped lateral incisor, eruption disturbance of maxillary central incisor was most frequent. It is important for patients with developmental anomalies of lateral incisors to detect associated eruption disturbance early through regular checkup. Diagnosis and treatment plan in view of such relationships is important in order to treat appropriately at the optimal time.
  • 5.

    Retrospective Study on the Survival Rate of Preformed Metal Crowns in Permanent First Molars

    Nayoung Oh ORD ID , NAM Soon-Hyeun ORD ID , Jaesik Lee ORD ID and 1 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.140~147 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed the longevity of preformed metal crowns (PMCs) in first permanent molars and evaluated factors influencing their survival during a long-term follow-up period. In all, 115 first permanent molars treated with PMCs between June 2008 and June 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The overall combined success rate for the study group was 84.3%. The 5-year survival rate was 82.8%. Multivariate Cox regression analyses identified distal cavities and mandibular PMC placement as risk factors for restoration failure. Careful placement of PMCs at the final try-in stage augments the longevity of the crown.
  • 6.

    Comparison of Partial Pulpotomy in Permanent Molars Using Different Pulp Capping Agents and Restoration Materials

    Jimi Lee ORD ID , LEE NAN YOUNG ORD ID , LEE, SANG-HO ORD ID and 1 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.148~156 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of two pulp capping materials, BiodentineTM and RetroMTA®, used for partial pulpotomy in permanent molars after carious exposures and to compare the final restorative outcome of using composite resin to that of using a stainless steel crown. We studied children who were diagnosed with dental caries of permanent molars and underwent partial pulpotomy. The patients were followed up for more than 1 year. Clinical and radiographic evaluation were used to evaluate the success of each treatment. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the outcomes of two groups. For pulp capping agents, the success rate of using RetroMTA® was lower than that of using BiodentineTM(p < 0.05). Final restoration with composite resin was less successful than restoration with an stainless steel crown(p < 0.05). In combination of pulp capping agents and final restoration material, RetroMTA®- composite resin shows the lowest success rate(p < 0.05).
  • 7.

    Retrospective Study of Infants who Visited Pediatric Dentistry

    Yearang Oh ORD ID , Lee KoEun ORD ID , Kim Mi Sun ORD ID and 5 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.157~166 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The first dental visit is recommended at the time of the eruption of the first tooth and no later than 12 months of age. However, even before the age of 1, children can visit the dental hospital for various reasons. The purpose of this study was to analyze the reasons for the dental visit of infant. From January 2006 to December 2015, medical records of infants who visited the Department of Pediatric Dentistry of Kyung Hee University were analyzed. The total number of patients was 419 (238 males and 181 females). The reasons for the dental visits were trauma (47.5%), natal/neonatal tooth (19.8%), dental caries (8.1%), teething problem (4.3%), abnormal frenum (3.6%), soft tissue swelling (3.6%), Bohn’s nodule (3.3%), cleft lip and palate (2.9%), gingival neoplasm (1.9%), tongue ulceration (1.7%), oral examination (1.4%), enamel hypoplasia (1.2%) and abnormal temporomandibular joint sound (0.7%). According to this study, there were various oral diseases that could occur in infants. Since infants are usually cared by caregivers, pediatricians, and obstetricians, education of oral diseases of infants is needed to manage the oral symptoms properly.
  • 8.

    Evaluation of Palatal Rugae Following Orthopedic Treatment Using Rapid Maxillary Expander and Facemask

    Sehee Park ORD ID , Choi Nam-Ki ORD ID , Kim Seon Mi ORD ID | 2020, 47(2) | pp.167~175 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the palatal rugae could be used as an appropriate reference area for serial model superimposition following Rapid maxillary expansion(RME) and facemask treatment. A total of 52 pediatric patients who had undergone RME and facemask treatment were selected. Palate and palatal rugae in the pre- and post- treatment casts from the patients were measured. In spite of dentoalveolar changes occurred by RME and facemask, anteroposterior changes in palate and palatal rugae were not significant. Anatomical changes of palate and palatal rugae were mostly shown in the transverse dimension. The soft tissue of the palatal rugae stretches in adaptation to hard tissue movement. Among the evaluated landmarks, the medial point of the third palatal rugae seemed to be the most stable. The observed alterations in the palatal rugae demonstrated the potential of medial points of third palatal rugae as a reference point in model superimpositions to evaluate dental movement within the maxillary arch following RME and facemask treatment.
  • 9.

    Validity, Reliability and Reproducibility of Space Analysis using Digital Model taken via Model Scanner and Intraoral Scanner: An In vivo Study

    Seohyun Park ORD ID , Jong-Soo Kim ORD ID , Sohee Oh ORD ID | 2020, 47(2) | pp.176~187 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate validity, reliability and reproducibility of tooth width (TW), arch length (AL) and arch length discrepancy (ALD) measured on a digital model taken via 3-dimensional model scanner and intraoral scanner compared to a plaster model. A total of 30 patients aged 12 to 18 were eligible for the study. 3 types of models were acquired from each patient: a conventional plaster model (P), a model scanned digital model (MSD) taken via Freedom UHD® and an intraoral scanned digital model (ISD) taken via CS3600® in-vivo. The reliability of TW and AL in each group was evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, while the reproducibility was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficient. The validity of space analysis was assessed by paired t-test. As a result, all measurements of P, MSD and ISD groups showed favorable reliability and reproducibility. Most of measurements for space analysis in MSD group and TW in ISD group also presented high validity. AL and ALD presented statistically significant difference between P and ISD group. The validity of measurements of space analysis in ISD group was short in doubt to valid, but clinically acceptable. Both MSD and ISD are clinically acceptable to use for space analysis but clinician should be aware that errors can be found using a digital model.
  • 10.

    Surface Roughness and Microbial Adhesion After Finishing of Alkasite Restorative Material

    Choa Park ORD ID , Howon Park ORD ID , LEE JU HYUN ORD ID and 2 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.188~195 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the surface roughness and microbial adhesion to alkasite restorative material (Cention N), resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), and composite resin. And to examine the correlation between bacterial adhesion and surface roughness by different finishing systems. Specimens were fabricated in disk shapes and divided into four groups by finishing methods (control, carbide bur, fine grit diamond bur, and white stone bur). Surface roughness was tested by atomic force microscope and surface observation was performed by scanning electron microscope. Colony forming units were measured after incubating Streptococcus mutans biofilm on specimens using CDC biofilm reactor. Cention N surface roughness was less than 0.2 μm after finishing procedure. Control specimens of resin and Cention N specimens were significantly (p = 0.01) rougher. Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC = 0.13) indicated a weak correlation between surface roughness and S. mutans adhesion to the specimens. Compared with resin specimens, RMGI and Cention N showed lower microbial adhesion. Surface roughness and bacterial adhesion were not significantly different, regardless of the finishing systems.
  • 11.

    Fluoride Release and Recharge Properties of Several Fluoride-Containing Restorative Materials

    Dongyun Lee ORD ID , Jong-Soo Kim ORD ID , HAN MI RAN ORD ID and 1 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.196~204 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of the study is to compare the fluoride release and recharge properties of glass ionomer cements and ‘alkasite’. Specimens of two glass ionomer cements (Fuji Ⅸ GP and Riva Self Cure), ‘alkasite’ restorative material (Cention N) and composite resin (FiltekTM Z350XT) were prepared. The fluoride release of each specimen was measured for 28 days. Thereafter, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel was applied to experimental groups. No treatment was performed on control groups. The fluoride release was measured for additional 7 days to evaluate the fluoride recharge properties of each materials. The fluoride release was highest in Riva Self Cure, followed by Fuji Ⅸ GP, Cention N (p < 0.05). Fluoride release of Cention N was measured to be approximately 49% of Fuji Ⅸ GP’s. After the application of 1.23% APF gel, increases in fluoride release were observed in Riva Self Cure, Fuji Ⅸ GP and Cention N (p < 0.05). Fluoride recharge was observed in Cention N as well as in glass ionomer cements. Further studies are required to evaluate the anti-cariogenic properties of Cention N at clinical conditions.
  • 12.

    Fracture Strength and Translucency of CAD/CAM Zirconia Crown for Primary Anterior Tooth

    Seung-Hwan On ORD ID , Jong-Soo Kim ORD ID , Kim Jongbin ORD ID and 2 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.205~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity of primary anterior zirconia crown made with Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology by analyzing fracture strength and translucency parameter. Zirconia crown was designed with CAD software, using 3D scanned data of #61 tooth model. Crown fabrication was performed with CAM machine using zirconia block. Zirconia crowns were divided into 3 groups according to thickness(0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mm), and fracture strength was compared with 1.0 mm thickness of resin strip crown. The compressive force was applied with universal testing machine at 30° along the incisal edge at increments of 1 mm/min. For translucency evaluation, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mm thickness of zirconia specimens were fabricated and translucency was measured with spectrophotometer. Among zirconia groups, there was a significant increase in fracture strength as thickness increased (p < 0.05). The fracture strength of zirconia crown was significantly higher than resin strip crown in all groups (p < 0.05). Translucency parameter was highest in 0.3 mm group, and significantly decreased as thickness increased to 0.5 and 0.7 mm (p < 0.05). Thin primary anterior zirconia crown can be designed and fabricated according to individual needs by using CAD/CAM. Restoration with thin crown would reduce the amount of tooth reduction, risk of pulp exposure, and make more esthetic restoration possible.
  • 13.

    Autotransplantation of Premolars and Esthetic Rehabilitation in a Traumatized Teenage Patient with Challenging Oral Problems: A Case Report

    Junhee Kho ORD ID , Howon Park ORD ID , LEE JU HYUN ORD ID and 1 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.213~218 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The loosely structured periodontal ligament and low mineralized bone surrounding erupting teeth provide minimal resistance to an extrusive force. The maxillary central incisors are the most frequently avulsed due to trauma. The prognosis of replanted teeth is affected by extra-alveolar period and conditions. Implant-supported restorations are contraindicated in adolescent patients with poor prognosis traumatized teeth. Autotransplantation of premolar to the anterior region provides a viable treatment alternative. This case report describes the autotransplantation of premolars and esthetic rehabilitation in a teenage patient with traumatized incisors, poor oral hygiene, and severe crowding. Comprehensive and long-term treatments were performed to improve complex and challenging oral problems.
  • 14.

    Is it Impossible to Replace Chloral Hydrate in Dental Sedation of Pediatric Dentistry in Korea?

    HAN MI RAN ORD ID , Kim Jongbin ORD ID | 2020, 47(2) | pp.218~234 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Chloral hydrate (CH) has been used in sedation for over 100 years. CH was first synthesized in 1832, the sedative properties were observed in 1861. Because of its easy synthesis, its use was widespread since 1869. There is a record of the use of CH in children as early as 1894. Recently there have been many controversies about safety of CH. Because of the low cost and relatively safe experience CH has still been used for dental sedation in children. After the US FDA recommendation in 2006, US pharmaceutical companies no longer produce commercial CH. However, CH has been used in the form of suspensions prepared from raw materials in many areas of the United States, and reports of adverse events related to death have continued. CH is the most commonly used drug for sedation in Korea, and there have been some reports of side effects. Dexmedetomidine, propofol and midazolam were introduced as an alternative for CH. There are various limitations in using them in the pediatric dentistry area and there are many things to consider. The purpose of this review is to analyze the complications of CH and status of use in Korea, and to introduce alternatives to CH.
  • 15.

    Eruption Guidance of Horizontally Impacted Permanent First Molar with Primary Retention of Primary Second Molars: Case Reports

    Garam Yoon ORD ID , LEE NAN YOUNG ORD ID , LEE, SANG-HO ORD ID and 1 other persons | 2020, 47(2) | pp.219~227 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Tooth eruption involves a complex developmental process of tooth migration from the dental follicular origin to the final occlusion position in the oral cavity via the alveolar process. Disturbance of tooth eruption can occur at any point in a series of eruption stages; however, horizontal impaction of the mandibular first molar and primary retention of the primary mandibular second molar are rarely observed simultaneously. This study describes the treatment for two cases of horizontally impacted first molar with primary retention of primary molar. The primary retention of the primary mandibular second molar was extracted, and orthodontic traction was applied to the horizontally impacted primary mandibular first molar. Subsequently, displacement of the premolar tooth bud was improved and space regaining for eruption was achieved, guiding to normal eruption of the first molar.