Color is a very important visual variable for map-making, and perceptions of colors of map symbols are affected by surrounding colors. So color contrast is the basis of a good color communication. Maps without color contrast are difficult to read and to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to consider the use of color contrast in map-making. For this, firstly, we examined the effects of color use in map making and its semiosis. Secondly, the definition and typology of color contrast by Itten are considered in liaison with cartographic application. Thirdly, for application, the methods for appropriate hue selection and color schemes are explored. Finally, future directions for the creative color map-making are discussed.
Geographical names of certain area can be divided into endonym and exonym by the creater and users of the names. The most influential exonyms for Korea are the ‘conventional English names’ given by western powers in 19th century. The roles of British geographical societies, Royal Geographical Society and Scottish Geographical Society, on the formation of conventional English names are investigated in this study. The reports on the newly explored area by the soldiers and foreign office officials were read in the meeting of geographical societies. Exploring activities on newly colonized area also funded by the geographical societies. Geographical names and informations are collected, studied and distributed by the societies and the results of these activities were used for the British government’s activities for standardization of the geographical names through PCGN. The activities of PCGN affected the global standardization geographical names and publication and limits of sea and the ocean by IHO. The information reported to geographical societies is based on the results from coastal survey activities of the Royal navy, documents and books collected from China and communication with local people in Korea. Further research activities are needed for the information on geographical names of Korea used by foreign travellers and cartographers.
Vector and raster data model often base their conceptual framework on discreteness and continuity. Although the distinction makes sense in practice, more fundamental argument needs to be drawn on the fact that the continuous nature of geographic reality is not technically compatible to the discrete representation in the physical computer systems. The discrepancy between conceptual basis for perceiving geographic reality and physical limitation for concrete representation of it has derived the problem which has been referred to as modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) in geographical analysis context. In the literature of geographical information science, the two dichotomous distinction of geographic reality and physical bound is remarked to object and field debates. In this paper, ontological argument is provided on realigning the distinction between discreteness and continuity to object and field to revisit the framework of vector and raster representation of geographic reality. The argument is intrinsically associated with the fundamental question of how to define geographic boundary, which is the foundational source of conceptual dilemma in vector and raster debate. It is expected that the argument in ontological perspective provides theoretically sound conceptual base for re-illuminating MAUP in geographical analysis.
Factor analysis is broadly used for analyzing complex and voluminous flow data such as travel to work data. The purpose of this paper is to review the effectiveness of the factor analysis for flow data in methodological aspect. By factor analysis, destinations (origins) can be regionalized based on the similarity of the variables, and the flow between the grouped destinations (origins) and their main origins (destinations) can be identified. Interpretation of the main destinations and origins identified in this process have to be done with caution and the fact that significant flows in absolute value might be hidden has to be considered when the standard score and the correlation of variables are used. If the orthogonal rotation of factor is done in case factors are correlated, it makes the interpretation of the analysis more complicated. There are attempts to zone functional regions according to the result of factor analysis; however factor analysis does not have adequate logical basis for identifying functional regions when functional region’s conception reflects regionalization by minimizing inter-flow and maximizing the intra-flow.
Efficient methods for the development of alternative-fuel refueling infrastructure are essential in accelerating the transition to a new energy economy. This paper develops a prototype spatial decision support system (SDSS) that integrates a location model into a GIS. The model locates refueling stations to refuel maximum volume of vehicle flows that may be on deviation paths. The extensible SDSS helps decision makers explore the effects of various alternative-fuel vehicle demand scenarios on the optimal station locations. The SDSS provides ample flexibility in combining different assumptions on alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) drivers’ deviation behavior, spatial variation of AFV demand, vehicle range, and existing facilities. It provides multiple views of the results, including interactive maps and descriptive statistics while suggesting a best solution given the constraints.
This research investigates current and potentially desired opportunities available for children’s afterschool activities in the U.S. Buffalo metropolitan area. By analyzing and geographically visualizing travel paths, excluded children’s activity space, and existing activity opportunities in the 3D view using GIS, the study looks at how children’s activity opportunities are limited by any socio-spatial factors such as racial distribution, median income, current transportation system and geographical distribution of activity opportunity. Especially, it focuses on finding out if there have been children’s unequal activity opportunities between the city and the suburban area. There is an abundance of research that has looked at accessibility to opportunities based on the transportation system. However, only few studies have focused on children’s mobility even though their mobility is typically constrained and tied to those of adults in the household. With more direct engagement with children and representation of their activity space in GIS, this article is intended to discuss transport exclusion and related socio-spatial constraints from the perspective of children.