The main objective of the paper is to seek to find the best map projection for a world map centered on the Pacific Ocean. To accomplish this objective, some classification schemes and selection guidelines for map projections are reviewed and then such criteria as popularity, equivalence or compromise, and minimum of overall distortion are established for the search. After evaluated on the basis of the criteria, four candidates are selected: Eckert IV, Robinson, Winkel Tripel, and Miller cylindrical projections. They are extensively investigated and compared in terms of their cartographic characteristics. A survey targeting cartographically informed people is undertaken to inquire into different preferences among the projections. It is concluded from all these that Robinson projection is the best one. The relative superiority of the projection is contended to be better seen when the central meridian is set on the 150° E rather than when it is on the prime meridian. With a through review on the derivation of transformation equations for the Robinson projection, a general principle of implementing the projection is established and a procedure of designing a variable scale bar suitable for it is presented.
The purpose of this research is to suggest the principles and alternative of hypsometric tints for representing relief in small scale maps such as world maps and world atlases. For this, the paper examines the definition, cartographical history, types and limitations of hypsometric tints and analyzes the hypsometric tints of two world maps and three world atlases using the concept of color difference. Analysis results show that it is difficult to visually distinguish adjacent colors in a color scheme of some cases and the continuity of the terrain is lost by using violet or white to represent the highest elevation. Based on these observations, four principles are suggested; 1) using spectrum color schemes in order to improve the judgment of absolute as well as relative height, 2) considering the tradition of a society, 3) simultaneously maintaining the distinction of adjacent colors and the contiguity of the terrain, and 4) constructing light color schemes in light of adding an application of shaded relief. Then, an alternative hypsometric tint for world maps abiding by the suggested principles is provided.
Efficiency and effectiveness are greatly desired in producing world maps since it usually requires much cost and time. Recent advances in geospatial technologies and database management systems have provided new opportunities for making world maps. In this context, the paper is concerned with establishing a practical procedure of producing paper world maps with digital map data. Main results are twofold. First, some criteria of evaluating the suitability of digital map datasets for the world map production are set and, evaluated based on them, the Natural Earth dataset is recognized as the best among the available digital map datasets. Second, some topics such as the setup of a georeference system, the determination of map layers, the implementation of a map design, and maintenance and management are addressed which are necessary for producing world maps with the selected dataset. It is learned that a well-defined procedure in conjunction with an adequate dataset of digital map can facilitate an efficient and effective map making and that, in doing that, it is crucial to have affluent GIS-ready data and a GIS-based procedure of manipulating them.
Charles Joseph Minard is known as the most creative mapmaker of the nineteenth century. But research on his maps are scarcely done in cartographic domain. The objective of this paper is to investigate the cartographic characteristics of maps of Minard and their influence on the development of thematic mapping. For this, this paper begins by considering the development background of the first half of the nineteenth century thematic cartography. Minard’s figurative and approximative maps were intended for French national land policy decision-making, so they were produced to convey general message rather than cartographic accuracy. Secondly, cartographic representation techniques of flow map, choropleth map, proportional symbol map, and Napoleon’s 1812 Russian campaign were examined. Thirdly, The influence of his mapping style on thematic maps and geovisualization were considered. He is considered as the developer of flow map and pie-chart map. His mapping style was adopted by the statistical atlases of France.
The advent of Mercator's world map in 1569 and Ortelius's world map in 1570 which depicted the feasibility of northwest passage positively, the rise of the new power elites such as Robert Dudley in England, the settlement of trans-pacific trade between Mexico and the Philippines, and the deepening conflicts between Spain and England urged England to engage in the East Indies trades. Consequently, a series of the northwest voyage of Frobisher, the circum-navigation of Drake, and the northeast voyage of Pet and Jackman were executed in the late of 1570's. Meanwhile, the role of John Dee at north voyage in the 1550's was restricted to an advisor to the art of navigation, but based on the his idea of British Empire, he propagandized the special political meanings of oversea exploration in the late of 1570's. At this time, the correspondences among Mercator, Dee, Ortelius and Hakluyt occured in order to discuss the information of the Arctic area. The intellectuals and explorers needed the knowledges of Mercator due to the interest of Northern territory, and Mercator also needed the England's informations about that region which were accumulated through the many explorations.
Geographical name of the sea between Korean peninsular and Japan has been the issue in the international community. The geographical name of the sea in this area, used in the map published by European cartographers or publishing company has been reported. However it has not been reported that which cartographic material was used by the governments or officials as major reference on the issue of geographical name. Maps and cartographic materials on Korea published before 1920's in the National Archive, UK were analyzed. These materials are the government documents or official map collections by War office, U.K. It is found that the British government collected the maps which contains the cartographic information, like geographical positions, longitude and latitude. Other maps, published by Chosen (Korean) government were not collected. British government officials or soldiers, stationed or worked in China or Japan collected and edited the geographic information on Korea. It should be mentioned that the British government has a their own standard on the value of geographic (mainly cartographic) informations based on traditional view on the 'scientific mapping' and maps. The information on the geographical names of Korea were collected and translated in Japan. A British diplomat Ernest Satow translated geographical name of Korea for British government. He also published a geographical gazetteer of Korea. Japanese navy official Kondo Makoto and Japanese geologist Koto Bunjiro also provided the information to european map publishers.
Everything in the universe has its own name to refer it. A piece of land and sea also have geographical names and marine geographical names respectively. Even each coast bordering land and sea has its own unique name. Names can be divided into two parts: specific names and attribute (generic) names. Coastal geographical names consist of attribute names such as Cape, Point Spit, Ki and Head. Some of these names have originated from nation's tragic history. This study conducts a case research on how existing coastal geographical names were designated in the first place and have retained them up to date. It also carries out an analysis on coastal geographical names used in old charts as well as nautical charts, sailing directions and topographic maps in a scale of 1:50,000 published by Governor-general during the Japanese occupation. This study also compares and reviews ocean geographical names in general and presents methods to achieve standardization of coastal geographical names around Korean waters.
The main purpose of this study is finding out the best way to delimitate the basic districts of Korea. The National Basic Districts should be used to supplement the location information in new address system, represent postal area, and support smallest area for various districts of the nation. To delimitate national basic districts, three possible methods; first, delimitating the basic districts by using the physical features of regions, second, delimitating the basic districts by considering administrative boundaries in addition to the physical features of regions, third, delimitating the basic districts by utilizing AZP (Automatic Zoning Procedure) have been suggested in this paper. Three methods have been applied to the three regions; Jongro-Gu as an urban area, Asan-Si as a combined area where urban and rural characteristics coexist, and Taean-gun as a rural coastal area, respectively. In conclusion, delimitating the area by using physical features of regions is the most suitable for delimitating the national Basic Districts in view of stability and applicability.
The advancement of network and hardware systems in mobile computing has led the rapid development of smart phones and their applications in digital geospatial and computing cartographic areas. Recently, as an interaction aspect of spatial information on smartphone environments, augmented reality has been a main research topic in academic fields including computer cartography. In this paper, we describe the development of geospatial augmented reality methods that combines general augmented reality concepts and methodological approaches. This technique makes a link between geospatial augmented reality techniques and its educational application of geographic information. By using QR code techniques that is as a basic step for augmented reality application, this paper demonstrates the usage examples of the augmented reality for geographic field survey and outdoor work. Secondly, three dimensional images converted from ArcGIS techniques are presented as an example of marker based augmented reality that integrates with current GIS environments. This marker based three dimensional visualization has the potential advantage to improve efficiency of geographical field survey, along with traditional paper map oriented indoor survey methods. It also shows that these approaches stated in this paper enable to contribute the increase of the volunteered geographic information applications implementing the QR code techniques that has integrated with augmented reality. Finally, we also expect that with the outputs proposed in this paper, the several fundamental problems of map reading, such as degree of informativevisualization, factual representation, and interpretational difficulties occurred when maps are overlaid can be tackled effectively with the QR code and marker based map by which a new modern cartographic areas are explored.
At present, Semantic Web which is bassis on RDF is widely used and spread to the general public. Linked Data is new trends in Semantic Web and it makes the paradigm change from web of document to web of data. As various wireless devices are developed, geographic inforamtion has the more importance in mobile web as location based semanic web services. In this study, the features of linked data are examined and the application policy for geographic informaion is investigated. The goverment policies for linked data at oversea are reviewed and it is proposed that geographic informaion can be utilized for linked data. Lastly, the importance of linked data is examined for geographic informaion in mobile age.