This study aims to establish a procedure of producing multilingual world maps (French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Arabic) based on the world map that was published in Korean and English by the National Geographic Information Institute in 2011. To that end, an analysis on the general characteristics of existing world maps is undertaken. Then, a method to draw up the multilingual list of geographical names is established. Finally, the list of multilingual geographical names is compiled, and some challenges and implications are derived. It is found that there are some difficulties to resolve to represent a wide range of information about the world in multiple languages. It is learned that, in order effectively to label worldwide geographical names in multiple languages, detailed guidelines should be made and an organization or a department of it needs to take a full responsibility for these tasks with supportive efforts by other organizations.
This paper dealt with the Spanish matrix making process of multilingual matrix based on the standard matrix of the world map and the map of Korea and vicinity published by the National Geographic Information Institute in 2011. It investigated the characteristics of Spanish geographical name notation elicited from the matrix making process and reviewed the geographical names written in Spanish of Korea, China, and Japan that have not been confirmed officially. Spanish notation for foreign geographical names has continued since the early 16th century, it has been transformed into Spanish user friendly pronunciation, and has characteristics that notate the meaning of Spanish for users’ understanding of geographical names. Even though geographical names have some chaos, the geographical names written in foreign language have a tendency of Spanish. Korea followed the Korean pronunciation for geographical names. The transform of geographical names of Korea into Spanish were based on Spanish atlas, and the data and the Internet sites of UNGEGN and the mapmaking institutes of Spanish spoken countries were used. The detailed geographical names without Spanish notation followed Roman notation and Spanish notation guideline on geographical name produced by Korean Language Institute.
There have been many scientific efforts to establish and manage the geographical names databases in response to an increasing recognition of the importance of geographical names. However, we still suffer from the lack of awareness about geographical names services and thus have not been able to respond effectively to the conflicts among countries regarding geographical names and make corrective efforts for geographical names errors on major websites. In this paper, we seek to identify major characteristics of a web-based multilingual geographical names service on the basis of a comparative analysis of currently working geographical names services across the countries. As a result, we suggest a guideline for building and operating a web-based multilingual geographical names service whose major components include the management of the geographical names database, the accessibility of users, and the scalability of geographical names service.
The purpose of this paper is to improve color design of flow maps of middle school atlases from a user-centric perspective. For this, firstly, we surveyed student’s color preference for the thematic maps of the middle school atlases. Secondly, we extracted color palettes from famous paintings in middle school art textbook, and students selected colours for flow map. Thirdly, 20 polar-opposite word pairs related with impression on map color and requirements for the map design are selected. Semantic differential technique is applied for measuring emotional content in where these word pairs used to describe students’ perception. In conclusion, students preferred hues that gave an attractive and strong impression. The significance of these findings show a continual user-centered map design research is required when color preferences are concerned because colors on map can motivate geography learning.
The user's convenience and efficiency in the production of thematic maps have been improved owing to the development of computer technology and the pervasiveness of GIS software. However, it can be said that the diversity of cartographic techniques is rather lacking due to the limited features offered by the softwares. The proportional symbol maps that can be produced with commercial software are limited to only a few types despite of the usefulness of thematic map making. The purpose of this study is to select the types of proportional symbol maps which could not be easily made using the current software considering these factors and to suggest an alternative plan to produce them. Although countable symbol maps and semi-circle maps are widely used, GIS softwares such as ArcGIS are not appropriate in these map making. In this research, we proposed new methodology in making countable symbol maps and semi-circle symbol maps using attribute data manipulation.
This study investigated whether and how gender and academic major affected students’ self-assessment of spatial habits of mind in GIS (Geographic Information Systems) learning. Research has noted the potential of GIS as an educational tool to develop students’ spatial thinking, but little discussion has occurred as to the relationship between GIS learning and spatial habits of mind. Extending prior research in which positive effects of GIS learning on spatial habits of mind were reported, this study examined the role of gender and academic major in the development of spatial habits of mind in a GIS course. There are two main findings. First, GIS students did not show gender differences. However, both males and females improved in their self-assessment of spatial habits of mind from pre-test to post-test. When considering participants’ improvement by sub-dimension, variations appeared. Second, the effects of academic major appear to be more powerful than those of gender. No gender difference in the GIS group probably occurred because the female students in the GIS course (mostly geography or geography-related majors) were not representative of the larger population. This argument is plausible because gender differences were found for the two control groups in which students with various majors were included.
Current navigation systems provide position information using the satellite signals from the American GPS(Global Positioning System), and the GPS position accuracy is gradually improving by the developments of receiver algorithm and antenna performance. However, the accuracy is very limited in dense urban areas because the GNSS(Global Navigation Satellite System) signals are blocked, reflected, or diffracted by buildings. This paper describes the development and validation of GPASS(GNSS Position Accuracy Simulation System) that can simulate GNSS position accuracy for dense urban areas using 3-D building maps, signal propagation model, and the receiver correlator model. We carried out the feasibility tests for the area around the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building famous for its skyscrapers. A good agreement was observed between our simulation results and the in-situ data: the difference of positioning rate was about 4.6%, and the difference of position accuracy was 3.0% approximately. The GPASS enables the evaluations of navigation serviceabilty on the spatial and temporal basis, which will be a useful reference for improving the service quality.
At present, the Semantic Web which is a retrieval system based on meanings and concepts is appeared to improve limitations of existing retrieval system based on keywords. Along with advancement of semantic web, the ontology expressing tool of semantic web has developed. Following development of these technologies, the construction business of Human-Oriented Geography portal system in Korea has been progressed animatedly used technologies of semantic web and ontology. However, the integrated DB and ontology KB of Human-Oriented Geography Information have not suggested verification plans each phases on the construction process. There was a verification research for classification scheme of Human-Oriented Geography Information in 2011, but it is abstract and difficult to apply in the construction process of integrated DB and ontology KB. Therefore this paper creates verification direction on the basis of audit methodology of GIS and Information System. Then reflecting the distinct characteristics of the integrated DB and ontology KB, this paper suggests that quantitative and objective verification plans for integrated DB and ontology KB.
Increased concerns of people over the possible explosion of Mt. Baekdu lay ground for the research on volcanoes in diverse academic fields, which suffered lack of volcano-related researches. Researches on volcanoes have difficulties due to the diverse eruption forms depending upon their own geological characteristics. It is quite necessary to cooperate with foreign experts due to the severe shortage of volcano scientists in Korea. We analyzed three websites including V-hub, GVM, and VOGRIPA, and interviewed many volcano experts to find the most relevant scientists to cooperate and lend their expertise to our program. Our ultimate research goal is that upcoming portal site should be different from existing ones and contributing site. V-hub is a community site among the volcano scientists; GVM is mainly for the standardization of data and researches, while VOGRIPA is for the database construction and expression of information. From the cartographical and GIS perspective, GVM site has only limited analytical tools and VOGRIPA has expression tool for the locations of volcanoes areas by web GIS. We suggest several items which Korean academic society may contribute volcano research portal site to advance to the next level in cartography and spatial information science.
This paper aims to investigate the development of Volunteered Geographic Information System in Internet environment. Firstly, due to the change of internet environment such as smartphone communication, GIS has changed from Public Participation GIS to User Centered Volunteered Geographic Information. So Big Geo Data from VGI is main issue in Geographic Information Science. Secondly, Location Based Social Networking Service Model about volunteer network has proposed for social welfare service. Social welfare GIS is a suitable Volunteered Geographic Information application.
Incorporation of efficient solution methods into a GIS environment has the potential of providing insights into the importance of spatial representation in location modeling. Heuristic algorithms based on lagrangian relaxation have solid theoretic grounds and the quality of the solutions is guaranteed to be within bounds. This paper focuses on solving the LSCP that optimizes the locations of a minimum number of facilities that can cover all the demands. The structure and characteristics of LSCP were analyzed to develop a lagrangian heuristic, which was implemented into a GIS environment. Tests on the real world data suggest that the developed system provides high-quality solutions efficiently.
A spatial separation of residential and commercial land uses is often highlighted to draw a typical image of sprawled urban expansion processes. And it is argued that the spatial structure where residential land uses are dominant in urban fringe may induce excessive automobile uses and consequently, derive many negative external effects. This study aims at examining sprawled urban expansion patterns over time characterized by land use separation. For this purpose, a quantitative measure(Separation Index: SI) is devised in a spatial statistical framework. The analysis results imply that SI can be used as an effective tool for diagnosing sprawled urban structure quantified as the degree of land use separation between residential and commercial land uses. In addition, local version of SI makes it possible to identify local regions where residential suburban expansion looks problematic. For those regions, it is worth to apply smart growth strategies promoting mixed land use. The analysis framework was demonstrated using empirical data for Erie County, Buffalo, NY in 1899-1995.