Location and spatial characteristics of urban regions have close relationships with mountain geomorphology. Also, urban regions and mountains are interacting with each other with evolutionary changes. Urban location and internal structures were formed and changed from the effects of mountain geomorphology. However, notwithstanding the importance of the relationships between urban regions and mountains, there were few quantitative research on it. For this reason, the purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of spatial relationship between urban regions and mountain geomorphology theoretically, and then is to explore the relationship empirically. For this, the capital cities in the world were analyzed with urban size, altitude, and nearest neighbor distance. In addition, the spatial characteristics of cities in Japan, China, United States were explored with urban size, altitude, gradient, and landuse. In the case of capital cities, the correlation between urban size and altitude was found. In addition, we found the urban altitude, population and nearest neighbor distance partly correlated in the case of cities in Japan, China, and the United States, and the urban landuse patterns related to altitude and gradient in the case of Beijing, Kyoto, and Salt Lake City.