The notation of East Sea is not only to be understood as a cartographic marking on a map but also is to be considered as a synthetic geographical context that implies cultural, political, and symbolic significance. This presents philosophical perspectives of dual naming in toponyms with their geographical values of place names. Thus, this paper discusses the philosophical rationales for the dual naming of the East Sea from contrasting the perspectives of modernism and post-modernism. The post-modernism approach to dual naming of geographical names can be applied to the standardization and unification of geographical names that have been reflected one object to one toponym in the standardization process of geographical naming. Utilization of electronic maps contributes to the dual naming and its multiple notations of geographical features, which enables the notation of place names through zooming in and out without extra effort on electronic maps that is impossible on paper maps. Thus, the principle of multi-naming can be suggested as a rationale for the dual naming notation of the East Sea on electronic maps. From the discussion stated above, it can be inferred that the postmodernism driven multi-toponyms can be a rationale for the dual naming of the East Sea. It is also inferred that the postmodernism perspectives of dual naming on geographical features can be used as an alternative approach that may adjust conflicts caused by the standardization processes of geographical names maintaining the claim of the one object to one name principle.
Since National Geographic Information Project began in 1995, we have seen great advances in geological mapping itself and information service on the earth surface in Korea either by paper maps or online service maps. This research suggests a plan to expand the geological information and mine-related information both to public and expert groups. We reviewed current status and strategies of geological and mine-related information service from the foreign countries and investigated the needs from potential users and experts. From the stage of information production, management, and manipulation to service, standardizations are important factors and IT technologies including mobile device and software development are absolutely necessary on the basis of users’ needs. In this study, we suggest the potential contents and methods of information service of geological information and mine-related information.
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is an acute infectious avian disease, showing high fatality rate close to almost 100%. Since 2003, we have experienced five extensive wave of HPAI outbreaks which caused enormous economic losses. Therefore, strong monitoring and surveillance efforts have been made nationally toward detecting the HPAI outbreak as quickly as possible and taking immediate actions to minimize the consequent costs. Since the bird migration route is assumed to be the primary cause of HPAI outbreak in Korea, random samples of migratory wild birds have been taken persistently targeting for domestic migrate habitats for quickly detecting HPAI virus. However, it is assumed that samples taken from adjacent geographic locations may have similar information due to spatial autocorrelation and this needs to be accounted for in the sampling process. This study intends to develop spatial sampling methodology in which similarity in sample information derived from geographic adjacency and the consequent spatial autocorrelation is systematically explained. The methodology was empirically applied for selecting sample habitats among the 196 major habitats of migratory birds, and lastly we discuss some important aspects of the spatial sampling outcomes. The methods presented are illustrated with real data.
Recently, super Wi-Fi is getting growing interest as a fundamental information infrastructure for creating new business and industry as well as for public domains. Super Wi-Fi has a great advantage of remarkably extending spatial coverage of the existing Wi-Fi technology by utilizing low-frequencies for TV white spaces. Due to this characteristic of the super Wi-Fi, it could be suitable wireless infrastructure for less accessible areas to the Internet such as rural areas. This paper addresses the optimal facility location problem of wireless regional area network (WRAN) for super Wi-Fi which has a much wider coverage than the standard Wi-Fi service. For modeling, we developed a bi-objective optimization model that enables to consider spatial efficiency and spatial equity of demand in a flexible framework. Also, we suggested several locational solutions of super Wi-Fi according to various scenarios of the potential sites including radio frequency and signal strength restrictions. The suggested spatial solutions of super Wi-Fi with wide area coverage will be viable option to mitigate spatial unevenness of wireless infrastructure effectively. Also, visualizing various solutions based on demand and location scenarios with cost and coverage aspects will be very useful for central/local government decision makers who wish to adopt the super Wi-Fi technology.
The research introduces a scenario-based methodology to set REDD reference levels that is built based on remotely sensed data and raster calculation. REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) is a global environmental policy that is geared towards lowering carbon emissions in developing and least developed countries through saving forests that are vulnerable to future threats, and a “reference level” refers to simulated baseline carbon emissions for the future under a business-as-usual scenario. Through a case study in Kampar, Indonesia, three reference levels are calibrated reflecting different land-use scenarios. Land-use and land-cover maps are produced by classifying Landsat images; the classification outcomes, accompanied by peer-reviewed biomass maps, are employed to construct the reference levels. It turns out that forest biomass loss due to forest degradation is more severe than the loss due to deforestation. Because it was designed based on internationally approved REDD guidelines the methodology invented in this research will be useful in implementing an actual REDD project.
This paper aims to do an analytical approach of Science and Technology (S&T) Capacity, which can be applied to 31 lower level local governments in Gyeonggi, map its result, provide implications, and then proper policy directions that matches the capability of each region. In order to analyze each region, G-COSTII is developed because it is in the logical line with COSTII and R-COSTII from innovation resources, activities, processes, and environments to innovation outcomes. This paper has following experimental results that S&T capacities are different by regions and areas; South regions, especially Gyeongbu and Sehaean areas show high qualities of S&T capabilities. Gyeongbu area includes high qualities of innovation resources and environments while Sehaean areas contain active innovation activities and processes. Based on these results, it is necessary to provide a region-based or zonal-based policy to each lower local government.