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2018, Vol.18, No.3

  • 1.

    A Cartographic Analysis of the Kaisei Nihon Yochi Rotei Zenzu

    Choi, Sun-woong | 2018, 18(3) | pp.1~21 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The Kaisei Nihon yochi rotei zenzu, is considered to have left a great footprint in Japan’s cartographic history. Nagakubo Sekisui, a cartographer and scholar of Chinese classics, completed this map after studying the historical materials for over twenty years. Since its first publication in 1779, the map was reprinted many times for about a century until the early Meiji period of the 1870s. In this study, I have discussed the map’s position in Japan’s cartographic history, looked into the life and works of Sekisui and the production process of the map, cartographically analysed its contents and features, and examined Ulleungdo and Dokdo represented in the map’s different editions. I have discovered that the Kaisei Nihon yochi rotei zenzu described Ulleungdo and Dokdo as belonging to the territory of Chosen until its fifth edition, published in 1840.
  • 2.

    A Voyage of British Merchant Ship, the Argonaut, to the East Sea and its Discovery of a ‘Doubtful Island’

    Saangkyun Yi | Jong-Geun Kim | 2018, 18(3) | pp.23~32 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Previous researches on Argonaut island has been limited to revealing basic information about the discovery of the island off the coast of Ulleungdo in the summer of 1791. This study aims to concretize the nautical life of the British explorer James Colenett, who found the ‘doubtful island’ Argonaut, and the background of his journey to the East Sea and his discovery of the Argonaut island. The results of this study are as follows: first, Colnett’s the second fur trade voyage was aimed at selling fur to China at the same time as it build a permanent foothold in Nootka, the hub place of fur trade on the northwest Pacific coast. Second, when the Colnett’s fleet entered Macao with sea otter fur on board, they turned to Korea and Japan to find a new market as the Chinese government imposed a fur trade ban. Third, Colnett tried to trade with natives of Korea and Japan, but his trial failed. However, when he tried to find out a trade port along the east coast of Korean peninsula, he found an island near Ulleungdo Island. And this discovery was reflected in various maps made in the West, and was disseminated for more than half a century. Fourth, the map of Aron Arrowsmith, which was produced in 1798, marked only the breaking point of the rudder of the Argonaut, but from the map of Arrowsmith of 1811, Argonaut island was drawn permanently. Consequentially, during the mid-19th century, Japan had coped the nautical charts produced in UK, and Takeshima and Matushima were put in the place of Argonaut island and Dagelet island in this process. Consequently, from the mid-19th century, the meaning of Matsushima have changed from Dokdo island to Ulleungdo island in Japan.
  • 3.

    The Essence and Practicality of Dual Naming: Considerations Toward the East Sea/Sea of Japan Dual Naming

    CHOO SUNGJAE | 2018, 18(3) | pp.33~43 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This paper aims to elaborate the topic of dual naming; its nature, typology, motivations, methods, and most importantly, ways to pursue it, with specific focus on the naming of the sea between Korea and Japan. Beginning by a review of the definition of dual naming and circumstances under which dual names appear, it takes note of motivations of dual naming, including recognizing different identities without taking the risk of claiming one at the expense of the other, achieving universal human values by keeping balance between two names, reflecting the reality that both names are already used, and satisfying the rule in multi-lingual areas. Various methods of dual naming are listed in consideration of the relative status given to each name. It is pointed out that what matters will be how acceptable each of the methods is to each party concerned. Three items are suggested to discuss further: responses to barriers to dual naming, institutional framework to activate dual naming, and benefits that each party and the international society will receive by achieving dual naming.
  • 4.

    The Incongruity of Metropolitan Transit Station Names related to Physical and Socio-cultural Place Names in South Korea

    Song Hoyul | 2018, 18(3) | pp.45~66 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This report aims to examine the incongruity of metropolitan transit station(MTS) names related to physical place name and socio-cultural place name in South Korea. Although lineal distance on map was the main criteria of the incongruity, also other factors including inclusion, characteristics of physical features and relevance to adjacent stations were considered. Result of study shows that 56.0% of station names related to physical place name was incongruent and most of them were related to mounts and streams. 24.3% of station names related to socio-cultural place name was incongruent. Examining incongruity ratio of station names related to socio-cultural place name in detail, 21.7% of station names related to remains and relics, 47.9% of station names related to education and research facilities, 15.8% of station names related to culture·sports·tourism facilities, 10.2% of station names related to traffic, 9.1% of station names related to government office and 29.4% of station names related to other facilities in public facilities were incongruent. Therefore, if MTS station names are newly named or revised, problems revealed from this report should be considered to decrease incongruity ratio of station names.
  • 5.

    Monitoring of Deregulation Areas on Land Use Regulation using the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map

    Geunhan Kim | EunJung Lee | Kim, Oh Seok and 3other persons | 2018, 18(3) | pp.67~76 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Monitoring of regions of mitigated regulations in land use is necessary for sustainable land management. To extract regions of mitigated regulations in land use, the legal assessment result of Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) of 2015 and 2016, and environmental-ecological assessment result of ECVAM in 2015 and 2017 were overlayed and compared, respectively. As a result, downgraded areas from grade 1 in 2015 to grade 2 and grade 3 in 2016 of legal assessment result occupied 2,731 km2 and 1.050 km2, which occupied 4.80 and 1.85% of the total areas of change in grade, respectively. The result of environmental-ecological assessment result of such areas included areas maintaining grade 1 and areas upgraded, mostly distributed in forest near developed area. Therefore, environmental-ecological outstanding areas should be monitored to prevent imprudent development of land. Such monitoring of land use and environment will contribute to sustainable management of land environment.
  • 6.

    A Spatial Statistical Approach to the Estimation of School-age Net-migration

    Jihee Park | 2018, 18(3) | pp.77~90 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The school-age population is decreasing due to the declining birth-rate, but the problem of oversized schools and overcrowded classes still exists. This is caused by the difficulty in predicting the number of students, and is fundamentally due to the uncertainty of migration of school-age population. This makes it difficult to plan establishment or relocation of schools. It should be performed to analyze the trend of net migration of school-age population, in order to predict the number of future students. So this study analyzed the migration trend of students by region over the last 16 years using national migration data, and estimated net migration of 11-year-old population based on Kriging methods. As a result, the net migration of school-age population decreased with age. The result of Kriging shows the net migration of 11-year-old population is high in Seoul, Daegu, Gyeonggi, and Incheon etc. In addition it draws the trend of net migration to new development areas such as Song-do, as well as famous areas for education fever such as Gangnam-gu in Seoul and Suseong-gu in Daegu. The long-term nationwide trend in the migration of school-age population is identified in this study, which can be contributed to make a national education plan.
  • 7.

    Exploring the Spatial Heterogeneity of Particulate Matter (PM10) using Geographically Weighted Ridge Regression (GWRR)

    Changwoo Jeon | Cho Daeheon | ZHU LEI | 2018, 18(3) | pp.91~104 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Recently, people are giving more attention to the high concentration of particulate matter (PM10). The distribution of PM10 depends on spaces and the occurrence is also different according to regions. In spite of these, the government does not take the difference into account and implement identical policies in order to reduce the concentration of PM10, Therefore, there is a need for a research which reflects the spatial heterogeneity. This research analyzes spatial patterns of PM10 concentration considering both natural and human factors using OLS, GWR, and GWRR. The findings are as follows. First, the OLS analysis has found, in case of natural factor, low precipitation, atmosphere stagnation, and low ambient are the major contributors causing the high concentration of PM10. In case of human factors, they are relevant to the amount of PM10. Second, GWRR analysis shows that factors influencing on the distribution of PM10 and the degree vary according to sub-regions. Third, by comparing the three methods, GWRR shows the best performance and it has been identified that GWRR can be applied for not only PM, but also various atmospheric pollutants.
  • 8.

    Deep Learning-based Estimation and Mapping of Evapotranspiration in Cropland using Local Weather Prediction Model and Satellite Data

    Soo-Jin Lee | Kwang-Jin Kim | Yeong-Ho Kim and 5other persons | 2018, 18(3) | pp.105~116 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Evapotranspiration is an important factor for Earth energy balance which transports vapor into atmosphere in the form of latent heat using net radiation energy. Measuring the evapotranspiration is actually limited to a point, so the modeling on a spatially continuous grid has been conducted for a long time using meteorological and satellite data. In addition to the PM (Penman-Monteith) equation-based METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration with Internalized Calibration) model and the PT (Priestley-Taylor) equation-based MS-PT (Modified Satellite-based Priestley-Taylor) model, the DNN (deep neural network) as an emerging technique can be a viable option. We conducted a DNN modeling of evapotranspiration through optimization for hidden layer structure, loss function, optimizer, active function, L1/L2 regularization, and dropout ratio. The result showed a quite favorable accuracy with the RMSE of 0.326 mm/day and the correlation coefficient of 0.975. This is because we used optimal input variables associated with the mechanism of evapotranspiration from numerical weather prediction model and satellite data, in addition to the DNN optimization. However, a more delicate modeling by increasing the volume and kind of training dataset will be necessary for future work.
  • 9.

    Analysis of Travel Patterns of Seoul Tourists by Trajectory Data Mining

    Juyoon Lee | Youngok Kang | Nayeon Kim and 2other persons | 2018, 18(3) | pp.117~129 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This study developed trajectory data based on Flickr, which is one of social networking service that includes location information, and analyzed the traveling characteristics of tourists who visited Seoul. We collected 39,157 geotagged photos from 1,476 tourists who visited Seoul from January 1 of 2015 to December 31 of 2017. The tourists stayed 5.12 nights on average on their first visit and re-visited Seoul about 1.27 times. The first tourist attraction they visited in Seoul was mainly Jongno and Namsan, followed by Shinchon and Hongdae and Itaewon. According to our analysis focused on movement patterns of tourists, the results indicated that the tourists’ main destination was Jongno and Namsan, and the visitors tended to move to the neighboring areas. The data and methodology used in this study will contribute to make the tourist behavior analysis more efficient and diverse.
  • 10.

    Analysis of Relation between Five Crime Types and Physical Environmental Factors

    MinGyu Shin | Kim, Eui Myoung | 2018, 18(3) | pp.131~140 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) reduces the opportunities for crime by improving the physical environmental factors that cause crime in urban space such as architectural design and urban planning, making citizens feel less fear of crime and maintain safety. The purpose of this study was to extract the vulnerable areas of crime by analyzing the relation between physical environmental factors and crime. For this purpose, multiple regression linear analysis was performed to estimate the weight for extracting vulnerable crime areas using the number of five major crimes including murder, robbery, rape, theft, and violence as dependent variables and physical environmental factors as independent variables, respectively. By applying the estimated weights, vulnerable areas of crime in urban areas were extracted. Experiments focused on urban areas have shown that narrow road width and temporary buildings have a great impact on the occurrence of murder and violent crime. In addition, when the road width is narrow and the blind spot is large, the robbery and rape crimes are frequent, and when there are temporary buildings and unpaved roads, theft crime occurs.
  • 11.

    A Measurement of the Network Centrality of Si・Gun・Gu in Korea

    Yeong-Chang Seo | Wonhoe Choi | 2018, 18(3) | pp.141~165 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is a measurement of the network centrality of siㆍgunㆍgu in Korea. For this purpose, this study measured the size of centrality between 229 city, county or district areas across the country in the form of score using an origin-destination matrix based upon the commuting data of 229 cities, counties or districts of the ‘Population and Housing Census’ conducted by KOSTAT (Korea Statistics) in 2015. In this study the centrality scores of 229 city, county or district areas across the country were measured because previous studies have never conducted a centrality investigation on all 229 city, county or district areas across the country. The centralities measured in this study were degree centrality, eigen vector centrality and Bonacich beta centrality. Among these centralities, the Bonacich beta centrality is the generalization of degree centrality and eigen vector centrality. In this study the result values of degree centrality, eigen vector centrality and Bonacich beta centrality were compared, as a result it was appeared clearly that the relationship between areas was not complementary but competitive unlike previous studies. Especially, if the relationship between areas is not complementary but competitive, it was found that a result value of centrality with high objectivity is obtained by measuring with the Bonacich beta () centrality.