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2020, Vol.20, No.1

  • 1.

    Historical Changes of ‘East Sea’ Names from the Maps of Japanese Foreign Ministry

    Kyeong Park | 2020, 20(1) | pp.1~12 | number of Cited : 2
    As interest in the naming of the East Sea has increased since the UNCSGN held in 1992, research on the naming of the ‘East Sea’ has been conducted with various viewpoints, and a number of papers and books have been published. However, it is not well known that the boundaries of ‘Japan Sea’ is different from ‘East Sea’, and Japan Sea includes waters from the west end of Jeju Island via the sea off the coast of Jindo to off the coast of Busan. This study analyzed the maps included in the draft of fourth edition of IHO S-23 document ‘Limits of Oceans and Seas’. Compared with the 1st to 3rd editions, naming rule of the 1986 and 2002 draft is hierarchical. Author aims to refresh that the Korea Strait was included in the ‘Japan Sea’ and to verify the hypothesis how Korea Strait was regarded as a part of Japan Sea. It seems victory in Korea Strait changed to the victory of the Battle of the ‘Sea of Japan’ in Russo-Japanese War in 1905 by the Japanese naval leaders. If the hypothesis is clearly proved through review of the historical documents of Japan and the IHO in the future, it may become a turning point in the East Sea/Japan Sea naming problem.
  • 2.

    Issues and Improvements about Request by Google, Taking Digital Maps Out of the Korea: Focusing on the Legislative Revision by Extractive Application

    JungKyun Moon , Seonbong Yu , Changwoo Jeon | 2020, 20(1) | pp.13~24 | number of Cited : 0
    This study provides a legislative alternative to eliminate or reduce the military and security threat factors regarding Google’s request to export digital imagery outside Korea. Accordingly, a case analysis was conducted on the Capital Defense Command, one of the most important military facilities in Korea, to investigate if Google’s export of local mapping data would act as an additional threat factor in military and security aspects. As a result of the investigation, it was found that Google’s satellite imagery overlapped with exported digital images could be used for various military purposes such as infiltration paths, supply lines, and travel routes. Therefore, this study suggests legislation to introduce extraterritorial application as a legislative alternative where an entity requesting to export digital images out of the country is obliged to make individuals or organizations at home and abroad comply with the laws related to security processing to remove or reduce military and security threat factors. This alternative will impose responsibility on overseas individuals and organizations using Korean digital map images to follow the security processing-related laws, and the Korean government can evaluate the results through inspection agencies. If overseas individuals, corporations, and their branch offices fail to comply with the obligation in Korea, they should face Korean laws according to the punishment regulations: Article 109 of the Law on the Establishment and Management of Spatial Information (EMSD), Article 24 of the Protection of Military Bases and Installations Law (PMBI), and Article 7 of the Spatial Data Industry Promotion Law (SDIP). Besides the legislative alternative, an intergovernmental negotiation on the “E-commerce Trade Law” began recently (Oct. 2019). The paradigm shift toward “digital trade” is expected to occur. Eventually, it is expected that follow-up studies will investigate measures to expand economic exchanges with balanced perspectives while eliminating extra military and security risk factors
  • 3.

    Participatory Mapping Using Low-cost Drone and Open Source Software

    Hong Il Young , CHUN, BO AE | 2020, 20(1) | pp.25~36 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we tried to collect and utilize local information through the process of making participatory maps using low-cost drone and open source software. Case studies such as environmental survey, land use change survey, and terrain characteristics survey were conducted by classifying the level of drone utilization and user participation. Through the case study, differences in cartography using drones could be identified according to the level of participants. Results show that low-cost drone can easily and quickly collect local data and open source software can promote automation and convenience. Therefore, commercial drones using open source software are expected to have an important role to monitor community changes in participatory mapping.
  • 4.

    The Change of Characteristics about Tax Office Names in South Korea: Focused on the Comparison among Principal Periods

    Song Hoyul | 2020, 20(1) | pp.37~65 | number of Cited : 4
    It has been 86 years since tax offices had performed their intrinsic functions in our country. However, there has been neither professional nor academic studies about tax office names. This study compared and analyzed major characteristics of change of tax office names focused on the major period of change in our country from 1934 to 2019. The results are as follows. In word type analysis, ‘Sino-Korea word’ was 100%. In syllable analysis, mean number of syllable was 2.04 to 2.26 and syllable of tax office names has exponential distribution. In name source analysis, tax office names related to administrative district name was outstanding with over 80%; the major of that accounted for by tax office names related to city or district name. Over 20% of total tax office names was renamed. Incongruent tax office names in 2019 showed the portion with 31.2%. Seven of 125 tax office names were very inappropriate.
  • 5.

    The Occurrence Characteristics and The Index Analyses of Gentrification in Seoul

    Jongsung Kim , Kirl Kim | 2020, 20(1) | pp.67~79 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Gentrification has been actively studied since the term was first used. In this process, the concepts and approaches of the phenomenon have changed, and recently, it has become social and academic popular issues in Korea. However, the gentrification phenomenon varies according to time and place. The overseas existing studies have been targeted at the deteriorated inner-city regeneration of the developed countries, so called Global North. In other words, it is difficult to unilaterally adopt the results of overseas gentrification research to Korea. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to identify the occurrence characteristics and explanatory factors by analyzing the gentrification index in Seoul through quantitative analyses. For this, first, the process of concept change in gentrification and the existing studies were examined. Second, the occurrence characteristics of gentrification in Seoul were investigated in the terms of spatial distribution. Third, the gentrification index was manipulated and the independent variables were selected for multiple regression. This study identified that the current status of the gentrification in Seoul was regarded as commercial gentrification.
  • 6.

    The Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Unconventional Radiance Distribution Appearing on the SNPP VIIRS DNB Nighttime Imagery of North Korea

    Minho Kim | 2020, 20(1) | pp.81~92 | number of Cited : 2
    The VIIRS instrument is loaded in recently-launched SNPP satellite, and it can record artificial lights intensity, radiated from the Earth’s surface at night, in DNB images. They are utilized as spatial proxy data to estimate socio-economic indices such as population and gross domestic product. However, unconventional radiance, including negative and null values, would occur on VIIRS DNB imagery. Taking it into account, this research investigated the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of abnormal radiance that could exit in the monthly VIIRS DNB images of North Korea. The unconventional radiance of North Korea could be characterized to be temporally-inequal distribution and spatially-imbalanced distribution. In addition, this study identified local striping in the monthly VIIRS DNB, which might be influenced by sensor malfunction. Such abnormal radiance would result in the biased estimate of a socio-economic index for North Korea. Therefore, future research will need to employ VIIRS DNB data analysis that considers the potential of unconventional radiance occurrence.
  • 7.

    Space-time Network Analysis of Public Bicycle Use and its Visualization Using Spatial Network Autocorrelation

    KIMHUISOO , Kim, Youngho | 2020, 20(1) | pp.93~106 | number of Cited : 2
    Many countries are running public bicycle services to promote bicycle use. Bicycle, considered as an alternative transportation mode, is a way to take care of environmental problems and traffic jam. Seoul, in particular, is running public bicycle service “Ttareongyi” for 5 years so far. Ttareongyi is now considered as one of the major modes in short distance transportation. This study insists that Ttareongyi needs improvements to enhance efficient use. For the purpose, this study analyzes the temporal patterns and the network clusters of Ttareongyi use. Getis and Ord’s  statistic is expanded to network structure and applied to find network clusters. Bootstrap permutation is applied for significance test. The result identifies several significant network clusters in Ttareongyi use in Seoul. And local analysis presents clear contrasts in Ttareongyi uses among different times within a day. Conclusion suggests that differences in Ttareongyi use patterns in both temporal and spatial perspectives must be measured and reflected for more efficient and effective Ttareongyi operation
  • 8.

    Correlation Analysis of Environmental and Ecological Assessment Rating and Atmospheric Pollutant Concentration

    Geunhan Kim , Suna Kang , Jihyun Han | 2020, 20(1) | pp.107~115 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between the environmental and ecological assessment rating of the land and the urban atmospheric pollutant concentrations measured by the urban atmospheric monitoring network provided by Air Korea of the Ministry of Environment. It also intends to examine whether the environmentally and ecologically excellent areas affect the reduction of air pollutant concentrations. This study performs the Pearson correlation analysis between the average atmospheric pollutant concentrations in each of 260 municipalities in Korea obtained by applying IDW, which is one of the interpolation techniques, using the urban atmospheric measurement network data from 2013 to 2018, and the area ratio of each environmental and ecological assess rating in the municipality from 2013 to 2018. The results of the correlation analysis showed that SO2, CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations had a higher negative correlation when the ratio of Grade 1 areas, which were considered as the environmentally and ecologically excellent areas, was higher. The negative correlation decreased as the environmental and ecological assessment rating was lowered, and the regions with a higher ratio of Grade 5 areas showed a high positive correlation. The atmospheric pollutant concentrations were lower as the ratio of Grade 1 areas was higher, and the atmospheric pollutant concentrations were higher as the ratio of Grade 5 areas was higher. The results confirmed that, even in the same green regions, the atmospheric pollutant concentrations decreased as the ratio of environmentally and ecologically excellent areas increased. Therefore, it is necessary to secure sufficient environmentally and ecologically excellent areas to reduce the atmospheric pollutant concentrations that affect the people’s health, and the urban plans should address the management of environmentally and ecologically excellent areas. Future studies include the additional correlation analysis with various factors such as the patch area and patch distribution in the environmentally and ecologically excellent areas. The analysis result should be reflected in the national policies.
  • 9.

    Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Commercial Gentrification Processes in Seoul: Focus on the Change in Coffee Shops Densities

    Hyeongmo Koo | 2020, 20(1) | pp.117~129 | number of Cited : 6
    This study explores the stages of commercial gentrification using spatial and temporal density changes in non-franchise and franchise coffee shops. The density of coffee shops provides an effective indicator to intuitively explain commercial gentrification processes because it quickly responds to a process of commercial area development. First, this study shows the effectiveness of coffee shop density as the indicator of commercial gentrification using a case study for regions that have experienced commercial gentrification. Second, a cluster analysis is conducted for Seoul based on the relative densities of coffee shops and its change, as well as density ratios. The result effectively explains the spatial and temporal boundaries of areas in commercial gentrification processes. Furthermore, exploring a gentrification process using coffee shop densities offers a more effective tool than that using socio-economic variables by capturing the changes of gentrification stages in neighborhoods with detail temporal units.