Aluminum nitride (AlN) powder was successfully synthesized at low temperature via carbothermal reduction and nitridation (CRN) assisted by microwave heating. The synthesis processes of AlN powder were investigated with X-ray diffraction, FE-SEM, FT-IR and TGA/DSC. Aluminum nitrate was used as an oxidizer and aluminum source, urea as fuel, and glucose as carbon source. These starting materials were mixed with D.I water and reacted in a flask at 100 o C for 20 minutes. After the reaction was finished, black foamy intermediate product was formed, which was considered to be an amorphous Al2O3 particles through intermediate product obtained by solution combustion synthesis (SCS) at the results of X-ray diffraction patterns and FT-IR. This intermediate product was nitridated at temperatures of 1300 o C and 1400 o C in N2 atmosphere by a microwave heating furnace and then decarbonated at 600 o C for 2 hours in air. It should be noticed from FE-SEM images that as nitridated particles, identified as AlN from X-ray diffraction patterns, are covered with carbon residues. After decarbonating the nitridated powders, the spherical pure AlN powders were obtained without alumina and their particle sizes were dependent on the nitridating temperature with high temperature of 1400 o C giving large particles of around 70~100 nm.
In this study, TiAl alloy was fabricated by a centrifugal casting method for turbo charge of automotive. Optimum conditions for defectless morphology using various ceramic mold were investigated. The crystal structure, microstructure, and chemical composition of the TiAl prepared by centrifugal casting were studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), microvickers hardness analyzer (HV). Two kinds of dendrite structures were observed with 4-fold and 6-fold symmetries.
The FE-SEM, EDS and HV examinations of the as-cast TiAl showed that the thickness of the oxide layer (α-case) was typically less than 50 μm.
In order to prepare porous scaffolds capable of pore control, PMMA powder serving as a pore-forming agent was added to HA powder to synthesize a slurry containing TBA as a solvent. And then, porous HA scaffolds where pillarshaped pore channels interconnected with each other were fabricated by freeze-casting and sintering. The crystal structure of the HA scaffolds according to the addition amount of PMMA powder was measured by XRD and the surface and inner cross section of the scaffolds were analyzed through SEM. It was found that removal of PMMA during sintering affects the internal structure of the scaffolds and the crystallinity of the HA powder. Furthermore, through evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, it was confirmed that the porosity, pore size and compressive strength can be controlled by controlling the addition amount of the pore-forming agent. It was also found that the HA scaffolds produced in this study were similar in structure and properties to the natural cancellous bone. This suggests that porous HA scaffolds with PMMA can be used as an alternative to autogenous bone for tissue engineering as an artificial bone scaffold.
In this study copper glaze samples were prepared with varying amount of tin oxide, and the chromatic characteristics of glazes were explained on the results of spectrophotometric, crystalline phase, and microstructural analyses.
The red color of copper glaze was dissipated with the addition of tin oxide and turned into achromatic color due to the decrease of CIEab values. Tin oxide homogeneously distributed in the glaze layer interfered with the red color generation coming from the growth of Cu nuclei, and formed an alloy with metal copper around bubbles. This resulted in the decrease of metal copper peak intensity with minor Cu2O peak. With the 3.79 % tin oxide addition the glaze was appeared as gray due to the black color CuO and Cassiterite SnO2 phases.
Using a magnetic separation process, pond ash generated in thermoelectric power plants was separated into magnetic materials and nonmagnetic materials in order to make it into a raw material of geopolymers and unburned carbon; screening characteristics according to the particle sizes and magnet strength levels of the pond ash were observed.
Based on the results of magnetic separation into fine particle (0.15~0.84 mm) and rough particle (0.84~2.4 mm) pond ash using 3000 G magnets, the weight fraction and ignition loss of nonmagnetic materials were found to be higher than those of magnetic materials, regardless of the particle size. In the case of fine particle pond ash, when the magnet strength was increased from 3000 G to 10000 G, even those materials that were weakly magnetic were separated into magnetic materials, leading to drastic increases in the weight fraction of magnetic materials, such that the ignition loss accounted for 66.9 % (22.8 wt%) of the entire ignition loss of 32.6 wt%, despite of the low ignition loss. Based on the results of measurement of the compressive strength levels of geopolymers made of magnetic-separated rough particle pond ash, the compressive strength of geopolymers made of magnetic materials containing small amounts of unburned carbon was found to be 20 MPa.
Digital ink-jet printing technology using ceramic ink, which is thermally stable at high temperature above 1000 o C, has an advantage of eco-friendly process applicable to manufacturing products with an excellent durability and various designs. Recently, replacement from conventional manufacturing process to digital process using ink-jet printing technique has been significantly accelerated in ceramic tile industry. In this study, we investigated ink-jet printability of ceramic ink on ceramic tile. Cyan, magenta, yellow, black ceramic inks, which are digital primary color of ink-jet printing, were printed on glazed surface of ceramic tiles, and their printabilities were comparatively analyzed. High temperature sintering process is generally required for manufacturing ceramic products, thus effect of sintering process on printed pattern of ceramic ink was also investigated by analyzing ink penetration depth and ink dot area.
The Co-Cr as-cast alloys are widely used in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants made with investment casting techniques because of its high strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility properties. Carbide precipitation at grain boundaries and interdendritic regions is the major strenthening mechanism in the as-cast condition. In this study, effects of GPS (Gas Pressured Sintering) heat-treatment on the microstructure and crystallinity of the as-cast Co- Cr alloy prepared by investment casting were investigated. It was confirmed that the content of metal carbide (Cr23C6) was increased in the grain boundary by using optical microscopy (OM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).
In this study, nickel hydroxide crystalline powders were synthesized by continuous reaction in the taylor fluid flow using nickel chloride, nickel sulphate and sodium hydroxide as raw materials and compared with those prepared by a conventional batch type reaction. The crystallinity of nickel hydroxide prepared by the Taylor fluid flow reaction was higher than that of nickel hydroxide obtained by batch reaction. The particle size of nickel hydroxide decreased about 2.5 to 3.6 times, and the specific surface area was increased.