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2008, Vol.18, No.1

  • 1.

    Curcumin's Effect on ICAM-1 VCAM-1 Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    김경수 | Young Dal Kwon | SONG YUNG SUN and 2other persons | 2008, 18(1) | pp.1~13 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    목 적 : 동맥경화 유발에 있어서 중요한 역할을 수행하는 부착분자는 혈관내피세포가 염증성 물질에 자극 받아서 생성된다. 본 연구는 항염증성 curcumin이 혈관내피세포 부착분자 발현에 미치는 효과를 조사하였다. 방 법 : 혈관내피세포는 HUVEC을 사용하였고, 염증성 물질 TNF-α로 자극하였다. 결 과 : Curcumin은 부착분자 VCAM-1 및 ICAM-1 발현을 억제시켜, 혈관내피세포에 백혈구가 부착되는 것을 억제하였다. Curcumin은 ICAM-1 및 VCAM-1 promoter 활성을 억제하였고, 또한 억제 kB의 인산화를 차단하였다. Curcumin은 NF-kB p65의 핵내 이동을 차단하였고, 세포내 ROS 양을 감소시켰고, JNK 및 p38 인산화를 억제시켰다. 그러나 curcumin은 TNF 수용체 I 및 II에 어떠한 영향도 미치지 못했다. 결 론 : Curcumin이 NF-kB 비활성화 및 p38과 JNK의 기능저하를 매개로 VCAM-1 및 ICAM-1의 발현을 억제할 수 있음을 알 수 있었다.
  • 2.

    Effects of Gamisoyeoum-tang(Jiaweixiaoyan-tang) on the Monosodium Iodoacetate-induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

    김용문 | kim Sun Jung | Seo,Il-bok and 1other persons | 2008, 18(1) | pp.15~32 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was to investigate the effects of Gamisoyeoum-tang(Jiaweixiaoyan-tang) on the monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Methods : Monosodium iodoacetate induced arthritic rats were divided into control and treated group. Control group was taken distilled water for 20 days. Treated group was taken extracts of Gamisoyeoum-tang(Jiaweixiaoyan-tang) by orally for same duration. Normal group was injected with normal saline and was taken distilled water. Body weights were measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 days after injection. At the end of experiment, gross and histopathological examination on the articular cartilages of the knee joints were performed. Contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 in synovial fluids and proteoglycan contents of articular cartilages were analysed. COX-2 and iNOS immunohistochemical examination on the knee joints were performed. Results : 1. Body weights of the treated group were significantly increased compared with control group at 20 days after injection. 2. Grossly, the severity of osteoarthritis in the treated group were alleviated compared with control group. 3. PG contents in articular cartilages of the treated group were significantly increased compared with control group. 4. Histopathologically, degenerative and necrotic lesion of articular cartilages in the treated group were alleviated compared with those of the control group. 5. IL-1β contents in synovial fluids of the treated group were significantly decreased compared with control group. 6. Positive reactions of COX-2 in chondrocytes and synovial membranes of the treated group were decreased compared with the control group. Conclusions : On the basis of these results, we concluded that Gamisoyeoum-tang(Jiaweixiaoyan-tang) has anti-arthritic effects on the monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. And it's effects were related with reduced secretion of IL-1β and COX-2 from osteoarthritic chondrocytes and synovial membranes.
  • 3.

    Effects of Samhwang-tang(Sanhuang-tang) on Obese Rats Induced by High Fat Diet, MSG and Ovariectomy

    민홍규 | Sohn YoungJoo | Jung Hyuk-Sang and 3other persons | 2008, 18(1) | pp.33~46 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives : Obesity is a metabolic disease resulted from various causes including nutritional disproportion, hormonal imbalance, and hypothalamic nuclei disorder. Samhwang-tang(Sanhuang-tang, SHT) is composed of 5 herbs (Ephedrae Herba, Scutellariae Radix, Typhae pollen, Acori Rhizoma and Ansu Semen) and is frequently used for obese patients. This study investigated anti-obesity effects of SHT on the rats. Methods : Obesity was induced by high fat diet (HFD), monosodium L-glutamate injection (MSG) and ovariectomy (OVX) in the Sprague-Dawley rats. Water extract of SHT was treated for 2 weeks, then changes of body weight gain and epididymal fat cell size were measured. In OVX animals, c-Fos and neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressions in hypothalamic nuclei were observed with immunohistochemistry. Results : SHT treatment demonstrated significant decrease of body weight gain in obesity induced by HFD and OVX, but not in obesity induced by MSG. SHT treatment demonstrated significant decrease of fat cell size in obesity induced by HFD, but not in obesity induced by MSG. On c-Fos and NPY expressions in hypothalamic nuclei, SHT treatment resulted significant decrease of immuno-reactivity of c-Fos and NPY in obesity induced by OVX. Conclusions : These results suggest that SHT has a weight loss effect against obesity induced by nutritional disproportion of diet intake and hormonal imbalance, especially without central nervous system disorder.
  • 4.

    Effects of Eucommiae Cortex on Myofiber Type Transition and MyoD Expression in Hind Limb Muscle Atrophy of Rats

    윤덕영 | Jongsoo Lee | Seong-ha Park | 2008, 18(1) | pp.47~63 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives : Eucommiae cortex is reported that it helps bone and skeletal muscle stronger. In case of bone, many report is presented, but reports related to skeletal muscle are rarely existed. So in order to investigate effects of Eucommiae cortex on the skeletal muscle atrophy following stroke, cerebral infarct was induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the rats. Methods : In order to induce MCAO rats, nylon suture was advanced and then blocked middle cerebral artery(MCA). Water extract of Eucommiae cortex was treated for 15 days, once a day orally, after the MCAO. Effects were evaluated with muscle weights, muscle fiber type composition, cross-sectioned area of muscle fibers in soleus and gastrocnemius of the unaffected and affected hind limbs. And MyoD protein expression in gastrocnemius was demonstrated with immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results : In the affected hind limb of the MCAO rats, muscle weight loss of gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were attenuated by Eucommiae cortex treatment. In soleus muscle of the affected hind limb of the MCAO rats, increase of type-I fibers and decrease of type-II fibers were induced by Eucommiae cortex treatment. In soleus muscle of the affected hind limb of the MCAO rats, decrease of cross-sectioned areas of type-I fibers was attenuated by Eucommiae cortex treatment. In gastrocnemius muscle of the affected hind limb of the MCAO rats, increase of type-I fibers and decrease of type-II fibers were induced by Eucommiae cortex treatment. In gastrocnemius muscle of the affected hind limb of the MCAO rats, decreases of cross-sectioned areas of type-I and type-II fibers were attenuated by Eucommiae cortex treatment. In gastrocnemius muscle of the affected hind limb of the MCAO rats, MyoD positive cells were increased by Eucommiae cortex treatment. In gastrocnemius muscles both of the affected and unaffected hind limb of the MCAO rats, MyoD expressions were increased by Eucommiae cortex treatment. Conclusions : These results suggest that Eucommiae cortex has a protective effect against muscle atrophy, through the inhibition of the muscle cell apoptosis, following the central nervous system demage.
  • 5.

    Effects of Lumbricus on the Change of Cerebral Hemodynamics in Rats

    이정우 | SONG YUNG SUN | Young Dal Kwon and 1other persons | 2008, 18(1) | pp.65~74 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives : This experimental study was designed to investigate the effects of Lumbricus extract (LE) on the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in normal rats, and further to determine the mechanism of action of LE. Methods : The changes of rCBF were observed by Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and the changes of MABP were recorded by a data acquisition system assembled with MacLab and Macintosh. Results : LE significantly increased rCBF in a high dosage(10.0 mg/kg, i.p), but MABP was somewhat increased as compared with baseline. This result suggests that LE significantly increased rCBF by dilating pial arterial diameter. Increase of LE-induced rCBF was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, but was not significantly inhibited by pretreatment with methylene blue (10 μg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Conclusions : LE increased rCBF by dilating pial arterial diameter, and the action of this response was mediated by cyclooxygenase
  • 6.

    Effects of GCP Treatment on the Monosodium Iodoacetate-induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

    이승헌 | kim Sun Jung | Seo,Il-bok and 1other persons | 2008, 18(1) | pp.75~94 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was to investigate the effects of GCP treatment on the monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Methods : Arthritis was induced by injection of Monosodium Iodoacetate(0.5mg) into knee joints of rats. Arthritic rats were divided into control(n=8) and treated(n=8) group. Control group was taken distilled water for 20 days. Treated group was taken extracts of GCP by oraly for same duration. Normal group(n=8) was injected with normal saline and was taken distilled water for 20 days. Body weight was measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 days after injection. Macroscopic examination and histopathological study on articular cartilage of knee joint were operated at 20 days after injection. Proteoglycan(PG) content of articular cartilages of knee joint was represented by safranine O staining, was measured at 20 days after injection. Tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-6 in synovial fluid were measured with ELISA kit at 20 days after injection. Immunohistochemical staining of COX-2, iNOS in knee joints were observed at 20 days after injection. Results : 1. Body weight of the treated group increased compare with control group at 20 days after injection. 2. Macroscopically, degree of osteoarthritis in the treated group were evaluated compared with the control group. 3. PG content in articular cartilage of the treated group was significantly increased compared with the control group. 4. Histopathologically, osteoarthritic scores of the treated group was significantly decreased compared with the control group. 5. TNF-α content in synovial fluid of the treated group was decreased compared with the control group. 6. IL-1β content in synovial fluid of the treated group was significantly decreased compared with the control group. 7. Positive reaction of COX-2 in chondrocytes and synovial membrane of the treated group was faint compared with the control group. Conclusions : On the basis of these results, we concluded that GCP has inhibiting effects on the IL-1β and COX-2 secretion of chondrocytes and synovial membrane in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced osteoarthritis model of rats.
  • 7.

    Effects of Dimethoxycurcumin, a Synthetic Curcumin Analogue,on Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Macrophage

    박성혁 | Young Dal Kwon | SONG YUNG SUN and 1other persons | 2008, 18(1) | pp.95~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    목 적 : 급성 및 만성 염증 질환은 iNOS에 의해서 생성된 과량의 NO와 관련이 있다. 따라서 이러한 질병 치료를 목적으로 NO 생성 억제물질 또는 iNOS 발현 차단물질을 개발할 가치가 있다. 본 연구는 대사 안정성을 개선시킨 dimethoxycurcumin (DiMC)이 활성화된 대식세포에서 NO 생성 및 iNOS 발현을 제어할 수 있는지 조사하였다. 방 법 : RAW264.7 세포를 DiMC (양쪽 방향성 고리에 각각 2개의 methoxy group을 가짐), curcumin (양쪽 방향성 고리에 각각 1개의 methoxy group을 가짐), bis-demethoxycurcumin (양쪽 방향성 고리에 methoxy group이 없음; BDMC) 및 tetrahydrocurcumin (양쪽 방향성 고리에 각각 1개의 methoxy group을 가지고 있지만 중앙 7개 탄소 사슬에 이중결합이 없음; THC)로 각각 전처리한 후에 LPS로 자극하였다. 이들 전처리 물질의 효과를 비교하기 위하여, NO 생성, iNOS 발현, NF-kB p65 인산화 및 p65 DNA-binding 활성을 조사하였다. 결 과 : DiMC, curcumin 및 BDMC는 NO 생성, iNOS 발현 및 NF-kB 활성을 억제하였으며, 그 세기에 있어서 DiMC가 가장 크게 관찰되었고 그 다음 curcumin 그리고 BDMC 순으로 관찰되었다. THC는 어떠한 활성도 보이지 못했다. 결 론 : DiMC는 NO 생성 억제, iNOS 발현 차단 및 NF-kB 비활성을 유도할 수 있음을 알 수 있었다. 이러한 효과는 연속된 이중결합 및 methoxy group의 증가와 관련이 있는 것으로 판단된다.
  • 8.

    The Effect of Double Application of Functional Electrical Stimulation in Patients with Dysphgia after Stroke

    Chungyong Yang | BokHee Chong | Shin, Byung Cheul | 2008, 18(1) | pp.111~123 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : The objective of this study was to investigate the outcomes of functional electrical stimulation (FES) which was applied twice a day in patients with dysphagia after stroke. Methods : Eleven patients with dysphagia after stroke were participated. The electrical stimulator with two channels was employed for forty minutes daily or forty minutes twice a day for fifteen days. Participants were divided into two groups by random method; The FES was performed twice a day for Twice-FES group (n=6), and once a day for Standard-FES group (n=5). For evaluation of dysphagia, the functional dysphagia scale by videofluoroscopic swallowing study, and swallow function scoring system by six clinical swallowing stage were assessed at pre- and post-treatment. Results : In both groups, there was a significant decrease of total functional dysphagia scales after FES treatment (p<0.05) and the results mainly affected the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. There was no significant difference between the two groups in total functional dysphagia scales, but the Twice-FES group had a decreased residue in oral cavity compared to the standard FES group. In both groups, there were significant improvements in swallow function scoring system (p<0.05). The twice-FES group had more high clinical swallowing stages. Conclusions : The results demonstrated that FES is a clinically effective intervention in treatment of stroke patients with dysphagia. Moreover, the treatment applied twice a day had relatively positive effects on the reduction of oral cavity residue and the improvement of clinical swallowing stage.
  • 9.

    The Influences of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Meridian-Electromyograph, Autonomic Nervous System and Stress in Healthy People

    남기봉 | Chung, Seok Hee | Sungsoo Kim | 2008, 18(1) | pp.125~140 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation(PMR) on stress and muscle relaxation in healthy people. Methods : Sample group of 14 healthy subjects had been treated by progressive muscle relaxation for 10 days. Control group of 14 healthy subjects were not treated during the same period. Outcomes were assessed by Meridian-Electromyograph(MEMG), Heart Rate Variability(HRV), Stress Reaction Inventory(SRI). Results : The contraction and fatigue of erector spinae muscle by MEMG had decreased significantly in Sample group. There was no significant difference between two groups in the HRV and SRI. Conclusions : Further studies analysing PMR effect on stress and muscle relaxation are needed.
  • 10.

    A Comparative Study on the Balance of Musculoskelectal System between Long-Term Employed Male Taxi Drivers and General People - through Moire Topography

    임상훈 | kim Sun Jung | 박동수 and 2other persons | 2008, 18(1) | pp.141~151 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of long-term taxi driving posture on the balance of musculoskelectal system. Methods : The author practiced Moire topography by using IBS-2000 for 30 male taxi drivers and general people. Then we measured difference of contour lines, difference of shoulder joint height, interval between vertical baseline of pelvis and vertical baseline of neck, ratio of thoracic curve and lumbar curve, difference of width between right and left through Moire topography. After we statistically analyzed difference of Moire topography's data between long-term employed male taxi drivers and general people. Results : 1. Taxi drivers, difference of contour lines in scapular, lumbar, gluteal region was bigger than general people and significant difference(p<0.05) was observed between subject group. 2. Taxi drivers, diference of shoulder joint height was more large than general people and significant difference(p<0.01) was observed between subject group. 3. Taxi drivers, diference of interval between vertical baseline of pelvis and vertical baseline of neck was more large than general people and significant difference((p<0.05) was observed between subject group. 4. Taxi drivers, ratio of thoracic curve was more large than general people and ratio of lumbar curve was more less than general people and significant difference(p<0.05) was observed between subject group. Conclusions : According to above results long-term taxi driving posture might cause musculoskelectal system unbalance.
  • 11.

    A Clinical Study on the Effect of Korean Medical Treatments for Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    윤유석 | Jongsoo Lee | SHIN HYUN DAE and 2other persons | 2008, 18(1) | pp.153~161 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objectives : To investigate therapeutic outcomes of back pain modalities in patients with disc herniation; Korean medical treatments(Herbal medicine, chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture.). Methods : Operation(OP) recommended 20 patients with lumbar disc herniation were treated with chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture one times a week and took herbal medicine after a meal two times daily. The patients' symptoms were assessed 1 week, 2 week, 4 week, 6 week, 8 week by Visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry disability index(ODI), 36-Item short-form health survey(SF-36). Results : 1. VAS(LBP and Sciatica) score was significantly improved after 8 weeks (P<0.05). 2. ODI, SF-36 score was significantly improved after 8 weeks (P<0.05). 3. There were significant changes in physical functioning(PF), bodily pain(BP), social functioning(SF), role emotinal(RE), mental health(MH) score of SF-36 after 8 weeks (P<0.05). Conclusions : This study suggests that Korean medical treatment(Herbal medicine, chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture) can be applicable to improve symptoms in patients with lumbar disc herniation.
  • 12.

    The Effects of Intervention on Thoracic Vertebral Region's Du mai(督脈) and Jia ji xue(夾脊穴) for Shoulder Pain ; 4 Clinical Case Report

    InSeon lee | 김봉현 | 김민규 | 2008, 18(1) | pp.163~172 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was performed to evaluate the effects of thoracic vertebral region's Du mai(督脈) and Jia ji xue(夾脊穴) intervention on active range of motion(ROM) restricted shoulder pain. Methods : 1. Measurement : The unpleasantness of pain was measured by visual analogue scale(VAS), and ROM was measured by using Goniometer and scratch test. 2. Intervention : Use Acupuncture and bee venom injection in thoracic vertebral region's Du mai(督脈) and Jia ji xue(夾脊穴) that display main tender points. Results : The pain and ROM were improved after thoracic vertebral region intervention. Conclusion : Thoracic vertebral region intervention was effective to active ROM restricted shoulder pain, to reduce the pain and to improve ROM. And this study shows that active ROM restricted shoulder pain and thoracic vertebral region's tender points are connected to each other. Also, region that suggest main tender points previews region of thoracic vertebrae 5-8.
  • 13.

    Effect of Bong Chuna Manual Treatment Combined with Oriental Medical Treatment on Posterior Inferior Ilium Deviation ; 3 Cases Report

    오원교 | Shin, Byung Cheul | 2008, 18(1) | pp.173~185 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of Bong (a type of stick which is called bong) Chuna manual therapy (CMT) on the correction of posterior inferior (PI) ilium deviation, and evaluate changes of pain intensity and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for the treatment of low back pain. Methods : We measured leg length inequality (LLI), as an indicator of correction of PI ilium, before and after the Bong CMT twice immediately, and also checked the change of LLI in the course of 10 times of treatment. Ten times of Bong CMT with oriental medical treatment, such as acupuncture and bee venom pharmacopuncture, were performed not only to correct the PI ilium deviation but also to alleviate pain. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswetry Low-back Pain Disability Index (ODI) score were scored to evaluate the pain and function of low back. Results : In this study, LLI was decreased in general while we performed correction of PI ilium deviation immediately, also effectively decreased comparing between before and after 10 times of Bong CMT. Bong CMT with oriental medical treatment improved pain and function of low back. Conclusions : These results suggest that Bong CMT may be an effective method for the correction of PI ilium deviation. However more rigorous study should be followed because of small cases report.