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2008, Vol.18, No.4

  • 1.

    Neuroprotective Effects of Scrophulariae Radix on Cerebral Ischemia in Mongolian Gerbils

    LEE JUN HWAN | Mi-Yeon Song | Jongsoo Lee and 3other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.1~11 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives : Cerebral ischemia resulting from transient or permanent occlusion of cerebral arteries leads to neuronal cell death and eventually causes neurological impairments. Scrophulariae radix is the roots of Scrophularia buergeria. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of Scrophulariae radix on apoptotic cell death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. Methods : For this study, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. Results : The present results showed that apoptotic cell death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly increased following transient global ischemia in gerbils. Treatment with the aqueous extract of Scrophulariae radix suppressed the ischemia-induced apoptosis in the dentate gyrus and thus facilitated the recovery of short-term memory impairment induced by ischemic cerebral injury. Conclusions : Here in this study, we have shown that Scrophulariae radix has a positive effect on-and possesses protective qualities against ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death, and it can be used for the treatment of ischemic brain diseases.
  • 2.

    Effect of Poncirus Trifoliata on Colonic Motility in Spinal Cord Injured Rats

    최철원 | Min Cheol Joo | Moon Young Lee | 2008, 18(4) | pp.13~24 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Poncirus Trifoliata(PT) on improvement of fecal impaction in spinal cord injured(SCI) rats. Methods : Fifteen adult Sprague-Dawley female rats were used weighing 200~250 g. A complete spinal cord transection was performed surgically at the T10 cord level. Experimental groups were assigned into 3 groups: Control(n=5), SCI+vehicle(n=5) and SCI+PT(n=5). PT was administered 100 mg/kg in 0.5 ml every 24 hours from 1st operation day to 7th day. We measured the body weight and food intake as well as the number and the weight of fecal pellet every morning. After 1 week of operation, whole colon was divided into proximal and distal segments under anesthesia. Each segment of colon was mounted with longitudinal direction in a organ bath. We measured spontaneous contraction and compared the area under the curve in each segments. Enhanced responses were observed by acetylcholine(10-6 M), 40 mM KCl solution, L-NAME(10-4 M). Results : The fecal number and weights were significantly higher in the group of SCI+PT than SCI+vehicle group(p<0.05). In organ bath study, area under the curves of the spontaneous contraction in SCI+vehicle and SCI+PT groups were significantly increased compared to control group. Contractility of distal colon in response to acetylcholine or KCl in SCI+vehicle group was significantly decreased compared to other groups(p<0.05). Conclusions : These results suggest that PT might be useful to promote bowel emptying in spinal cord injured rats.
  • 3.

    The Effects of Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshunqi-san) and Electrical Acupuncture on Nerve Regeneration after Crush Injury in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    양미성 | Misook Shin | 안혜림 | 2008, 18(4) | pp.25~37 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Objectives : Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshunqi-san) has been used for many years as a treatment for sciatica in oriental medicine. And electrical acupuncture also has been used as a treatment for sciatica in recent study. By the way, it is hard to find the study that apply two treatments in the same time. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshunqi-san) and electrical acupuncture on nerve regeneration after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve in the same time. Methods : This study was designed with 4 subgroups to evaluate the effects of Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshunqi-san) and electrical acupuncture on nerve regeneration. As control groups, group Ⅰ has not been treated during 3 weeks after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve. Group Ⅱ has been treated Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshunqi-san), Group Ⅲ has been treated electrical acupuncture, and Group Ⅳ has been treated both during 3 weeks. This study has been estimated sciatic function index and change of GAP-43 immunoreactivity about sciatic nerve regeneration. Results : 1. The test for nerve regeneration had significantly good result of sciatic function index in the experimental groups as compared with control groups(p<.05). Especially, Group Ⅳ has the greatest result of sciatic function index. 2. GAP-43, the marker of nerve regeneration, more increased in the experimental groups as compared with control groups. Especially, Group Ⅳ has the greatest result of GAP-43. Conclusions : Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshunqi-san) and electrical acupuncture have good effects on nerve regeneration after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve.
  • 4.

    Studies of the Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation at Huatuo Jiaji(EX B2) Points on Axonal Regeneration of Injured Sciatic Nerve in the Rats

    김대필 | 박영회 | Keum Dong-ho | 2008, 18(4) | pp.39~61 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : The present study was performed to investigate whether acupuncture stimulation in the rats affected regeneration properties of the injured sciatic nerve. A differential effect of acupuncture stimulation on the one point near the spinal nerve root controlling sciatic nerve activity and the other point in the peripheral area subordinated by injured nerve was compared. Materials and Methods : Rat sciatic nerves were injured by crush, and the effects on axonal regeneration on injured sciatic nerves were evaluated by acupuncture stimulation at two different regions. In proximal acupuncture stimulation group, acupuncture stimulation was performed on Huatuo Jiaji(EX B2) points located from L5 to S1 vertebral levels to stimulate the nearest spinal nerve root that innervates sciatic nerves. In distal acupuncture stimulation group, acupuncture stimulation was performed on Zusanli(ST 36) and Weizhong(BL 40) points to stimulate at peripheral area dominated by injured sciatic nerves. Acupuncture stimulation was given every other days for 1 or 2 weeks. Sciatic nerve tissues collected from acupuncture stimulation experimental groups, injury control group, and intact animal group were used for protein analysis by Western blotting or Hoechst nuclear staining. To determine axonal regeneration, DiI fluorescence dye was injected into the sciatic nerve 0.5 cm distal to the injury site in individual animal groups and DiI-labeled cells by retrograde tracing were measured in the DRG at lumbar 5 or in the spinal cord. DRG sensory neurons prepared from individual animal groups were used to measure the extent of neurite outgrowth and for immunofluorescence staining with anti-GAP-43 antibody. Results : Animal groups given proximal or distal acupuncture stimulation showed upregulation of GAP-43 and Cdc2 protein levels in the sciatic nerve at 7 days after injury. Cdk2 protein levels were strongly induced by nerve injury, but did not show changes by acupuncture stimulation. Phospho-Erk1/2 protein levels were elevated by acupuncture stimulation above those present in the injury control animals. These increases in regeneration-associated protein levels appeared to be related with increased cell proliferation in the injured sciatic nerves. Hoechst 33258 staining of sciatic nerve tissue to visualize nuclei of individual cells showed increased Schwann cell number in the distal portion of the injured nerve 7 and 14 days after injury and further increases by acupuncture stimulation particularly at the proximal position. Measurement of axonal regeneration by retrograde tracing showed significantly increased DiI-labeled cells in proximal acupuncture stimulation group compared to distal acupuncture stimulation group and injury control group. Finally, an evaluation of axonal regeneration by retrograde tracing showed increased number of DiI labeled cells in the DRG at lumbar 5 or in the ventral horn of the spinal cord at lower thoracic level at 7 days after nerve injury. Conclusions : The present data show that the proximal acupuncture stimulation at Huatuo Jiaji(EX B2) points governing injured sciatic nerves was more effective for axonal regeneration than the distal acupuncture stimulation. Further studies on functional recovery or associated molecular mechanisms should be critical for developing animal models and clinical applications.
  • 5.

    The Effect of Ecklonia Cava on Expressing of Blood Lipids and UCP-1 of Brown Adipose Tissue(BAT) in Zucker Rats

    김현우 | Hojun Kim | 박영회 and 2other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.63~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was designed to examine the effect of Ecklonia cava on expressing of blood lipids and UCP-1 of brown adipose tissue(BAT) in zucker rats. Methods : Experimental groups were divided into 3 groups: normal group, control group and sample group for 7 separate rats as expriment. Control and sample groups were genetrically modified obesity. All groups didn't impose restrictions on food and water. And we gave a ecklonia cava to sample group for 6 weeks. Ecklonia cava was examined in effects of blood glucose, insulin concentration and UCP-1 in brown adipose tissue. Results : 1. Control and sample groups were increased in weight. But, sample group was decreased as compared to control group. 2. Sample group was decreased significantly as compared to control group with insulin concentration, HOMA, TG, FFA. 3. Sample group was increased significantly as compared to control group with UCP-1 mRNA. Conclusions : Based on these results, it was proved that Ecklonia cava on obesity effects in decreasing blood lipids, increasing UCP-1 of brown adipose tissue.
  • 6.

    Effects of Acupuncture at HT8⋅LR2 on Serum Lipid and Liver Function Induced by High Fat Diet in Rats

    최태진 | 황문현 | 임선주 and 4other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.73~83 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : In this research, it was investigated that had effects on acupuncture techniques of HT8(Shaofu) and LR2(Xingjian) acupoints in high fat rats. We recorded data of weight gain, food intake, food efficiency, total cholesterol, triglyceride, AST, ALT, r-GTP, total bilirubin on rats fed high fat diet for 10 weeks. Methods : We divided experimental groups into four. Group of high-fat diet feeding and no treatment was control, group of high-fat diet feeding and acupuncture at HT8·LR2 was Acu-1, group of high-fat diet feeding and acupuncture at HT8·LR2 and rotated counter-clockwise 36times was Acu-2, high-fat diet feeding and acupuncture at HT8(body direction)·LR2(lower limb direction) and rotated counter-clockwise 36times was Acu-3. Results : In Acu-3 group, body weight on 2 weeks after starting acupuncture, food efficiency and the level of serum total cholesterol were decreased, and the level of HDL-cholesterol was increased. In Acu-1 group, the level of triglyceride was increased but ALT was decreased. Conclusions : These results suggest that treatment of acupuncture at HT8(body direction)·LR2(lower limb direction) and rotated counter-clockwise 36times may be having the influence on high fat by controlling the level of serum total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol.
  • 7.

    The Study on Oriental-medical Understanding about Clinical Application of Craniosacral Techniques(CST)

    정택근 | InSeon lee | 2008, 18(4) | pp.85~101 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purposes of this study are to understand Craniosacral Techniques(CST) from the oriental medical point of view and to apply it clinically. Methods : The similarities of theories and techniques between CST and the oriental medicine were researched. Results : CST is similar to Doin chuna(導引推拿) which is usually used for improving the muscle and joint movement. Conclusions : CST can be applied for not only autism, ADHD, learning disability but also various diseases of the whole body in company with acupuncture, herbal medicines, chuna(推拿), etc.
  • 8.

    Review on Efficacy and Safety of Manipulation Therapy including Chuna Manipulation

    김기병 | 박태용 | 이정한 and 5other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.103~120 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study aims to educate clinical doctors of the valuable practice of Manipulative Therapy(MT) as an opportunity for evidence-based medicine. Consequently it also serves to review the effectiveness and safety of MT. Methods : The literature studies of overseas were done by Cochrane Library and Medline website; those of domestic researches were completed by utilizing the sources which are gained from KERIS, KISS, DBpia, Kisti, and domestic institutes related with MT. Results : Eight papers related to the effectiveness of MT were published in South Korea, which concluded with the positive effects of MT. None of them are, however, well-designed randomized controlled trials(RCT). On the other hand, fifteen cases of nine articles indicate the adverse reaction of MT, and numbers of the researches in overseas revealed the side effects of MT in order of cervical, lumbar, and thoracic vertebrae. A vascular adverse reaction such as vertebral and carotid artery dissection was a highly reported cervical adverse reaction; in the thoracic and lumbar regions, neurological adverse reaction in terms of disc herniation was frequently discovered. Conclusions : Henceforth, highly qualitative studies are required developing the effective outcomes and preventing any possible complications of MT. Therefore, systemic curriculums in institutions and sufficient clinical training in the filed are strongly recommended.
  • 9.

    A Literature Review on the Clinical Application of Microcurrent Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation(MENS) : articles published for recent 10 years

    류지미 | Kim Sung-Soo | 김경석 and 1other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.121~133 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : MENS was used for wound healing and pain relief using bioelectric property. There are many articles on in vivo and clinical research. This article reviews articles on MENS published for recent 10 years to consider effectiveness of MENS and other fields to applicate MENS. Articles were collected from MAR, 2008 to JUN, 2008. Methods : We searched Pubmed, KSI, KERIS, KMBASE, and National assembly library using "Microcurrent Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation" and classified the articles into subsets of foreign, Korean and wound healing, pain relief, and increasing the range of movement(ROM). Also we evaluated their values according to the Jadad scale. Results : A total of 18 articles (Foreign-9, Korean-9) reconfirmed that MENS reduces pain, increases wound healing, ROM, and strength of muscle. In addition, MENS has effect on stress-hormone and various pain like low back pain, acute lateral epicondylitis, and plantar fascitis. And there are various styles developed. However, there is no standard protocol so the user is usually in trouble at clinic. Conclusions : MENS may be have application to various pain diseases, and further studies analysing its effectiveness are needed.
  • 10.

    A Comparative Study with Lumbar Disc Herniation under Conservative Treatment according to the Duration

    윤유석 | Jongsoo Lee | 하인혁 and 2other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.135~145 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : To investigate therapeutic outcomes of back pain modalities in patients with disc herniation according to the duration by treated with herbal medicine, chuna, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture. Methods : We separated 36 patients with disc herniation into three group according to duration; acute patients within 4 week, subacute patients within 5-12 week, and chronic group within 13-24 week. 36 patients with lumbar disc herniation were treated with chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture one times a week and took herbal medicine after a meal two times daily. The patients' symptoms were assessed 1 week, 2 week, 4 week, 8 week by Visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry disability index(ODI), 36-Item short-form health survey(SF-36). Results : 1. ODI of disability of daily activities showed significantly decreased in acute stage group compared to subacute and chronic stage groups(P<0.05). 2. Physical functioning(PF), bodily pain(BP), social functioning(SF) score of SF-36 showed significantly increased in acute stage group compared to subacute and chronic stage groups(P<0.05). Conclusions : This study suggests that acute stage group compared to subacute and chronic stage groups in patients with lumbar disc herniation is the more effective to improve symptoms treated with herbal medicine, chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture.
  • 11.

    The Study on Relation of Obesity and Low Back Pain Based on Body Composition Using Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Isokinetic Trunk Muscle Strength

    박지현 | 안순선 | 최용훈 and 3other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.147~159 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives : In order to investigate the relation of body composition analysis and isokinetic trunk muscle strength for the screening test of low back pain. Methods : This study was carried out with the data from comprehensive medical testing. 75 subject aged 20-59 performed the segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis, isokinetic trunk muscle strength test and questionnaire. Then we analyzed the relationship of data. Results : Low back pain(LBP) prevalence in high obesity index(Body mass index(BMI), Percentage of Body Fat(PBF), Waist Hip Ratio(WHR)) group was higher than LBP prevalence in normal obesity index group(p<0.001). In LBP group, Extension Peak Torque(Ext.PT), Extension Peak Torque per Body Weight(Ext.PT/BW) were significantly lower than Non-LBP group(p<0.001). And 90% of LBP group indicated abnormal Extension-Flexion Ratio(E/F ratio)(1.0 < Normal E/F ratio <1.6). When it comes to analyze relation between obesity index and muscle strength, Ext.PT/BW was significantly decreased accoring to PBF, WHR score. And correlation coefficient in Flex.PT, Flex.PT/BW, Ext.PT, Ext.PT/BW and PBF showed decresing function. Conclusions: Results from this investigation showed positive correlation between obesity and LBP prevalence. Decreased muscle strength and inbalanced E/F ratio were shown in LBP. Trunk muscle strength was changed according to body mass composition parameters. This results are expected to contribute to prevent and diagnose LBP by application the clinical index of body composition analysis.
  • 12.

    A Comparative Study on the Changes of Pelvic Alignment between AP View of the Pelvis in Standing and Supine Position

    이경무 | 박동수 | kim Sun Jung and 1other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.161~169 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of pelvic alignment between AP view of the pelvis in standing and supine position. Methods : Sixteen healthy peoples who get 51.59±4.14 as average in SF-36 were evaluated by X-ray findings. After measuring innomiate measurement, off centering measurement, sacral ala measurement, illium shadow measurement, the area of obturator foramen, those were analyzed statistically. Results : It was not all to be corresponded to distort pelvic alignment of AP view of the pelvis in standing and in supine. Sometimes it was the opposite result. Conclusions : These results suggest that the diagnosis of pelvic alignment to go through on each position is brought about disagreement with each other.
  • 13.

    The Retrospective Study on Modified Fasting Therapy in Inpatients

    정순관 | 김동은 | 유덕선 and 3other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.171~187 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of modified fasting therapy on body composition, blood cell count and blood chemistry in inpatients. Methods : The modified fasting therapy program consists of three phases, a period of reducing food intakes, fasting and refeeding. Body weight, body composition, and the degree of obesity were estimated in before fasting therapy and after refeeding. Blood cell count and blood chemistry were estimated in before fasting therapy, before refeeding and after refeeding. Results : After modified fasting therapy, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, body mass index(BMI), body matabolic rate(BMR) and muscle mass was decreased significantly. WBC count and platelet count decreased significantly, RBC count and hemoglobin increased significantly and hematocrit was not changed significantly but within normal limit. AST and ALT increased significantly, especially patients group over BMI 25 within normal liver function. This study was not founded correlation between decreased muscle mass and increased liver function test. ALP, BUN, Total-cholesterol, and triglyceride decreased significantly. Creatinine increased significantly, but within normal limit. Sodium was not changed significantly, potassium decreased significantly but within normal limit. Conclusions : These results suggest that modified fasting therapy will be beneficial if several measures complement.
  • 14.

    The Relationship between Abdominal Fat and Eating Attitude in Obese Climacteric Korean Women

    이아라 | 황미자 | Chung Won Suk and 2other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.189~201 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was performed to find out the relationships between abdominal fat and eating attitude in obese climacteric women. Methods : 42 obese climacteric women were recruited in August 2007. Anthropometry has been done and abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-5 and eating attitude was measured using Korean Eating Attitude Test-26. Results : There were significant correlations between body mass index, percent of body fat and eating attitude. Total abdominal fat and visceral fat also increased with KEAT-26. Conclusions : There were relationships among eating attitude total fat, abdominal fat and visceral fat in obese climacteric women.
  • 15.

    Meridian-Electromyograph Analysis on Features of Abdominal Muscles in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    정재영 | LEE JUN HWAN | 남기봉 and 1other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.203~215 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain patients by meridian-electromyograph. Methods : Sample group of 11 with from low back pain during three months and control group of 10 subjects without low back pain have been recruited. Outcomes were assessed using meridian-electromyograph, visual analogue scale, and oswestry disability index. Results : Contraction power of external oblique abdominalis in control group was significantly higher than sample group, but there was no significant difference in muscle fatigue. Conclusions : According to above results, there are correlations between abdominal muscles and low back pain.
  • 16.

    A Survey on the Injuries of Mixed Martial Arts Athletes : for Oriental Sports Medicine

    박지훈 | 소갑석 | 박정현 and 3other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.217~230 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the type, sites and period of injuries in Mixed Martial Arts. Methods : The questionnaire composed of 26 items was used as the research tool for this study. The respondents were 84 athletes of Mixed Martial Arts who participated in Spirit MC Amateur League in September, 2007. Data analysis use chi-square examination by SPSS® 12.0 program. Results : 1. Frequently, strikers are damaged at face and waist, grapplers are damaged at knee and waist. 2. Frequently, beginers are damaged at muscle and tendon, experts are damaged at bone and joint. 3. Age, career, specialty and injured type have significant correlations. 4. Age, career, training time and concern response have significant correlations. 5. Oriental medical treatment are friendly but not well-known to the athletes. Conclusions : Injuries of Mixed Martial Arts is multifactorial, so approach of athlete's individuality is important.
  • 17.

    Two Cases Report of Spasmodic Torticollis by Acupuncture Therapy with Muscle Energy Techniques

    박현호 | 정지은 | 정원희 and 2other persons | 2008, 18(4) | pp.231~242 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of muscle energy techniques with acupuncture therapy on spasmodic torticollis Methods : The patients were diagnosed as spasmodic torticollis and treated with muscle energy techniques and acupuncture therapy and so on. We have measured cervical range of motion and visual analogue scale score before and after treatment. Results : After treatments, spasmodic torticollis was improved. Cervical range of motion and visual analogue scale score were recovered by muscle energy techniques and acupuncture therapy. Conclusions : We concluded that muscle energy techniques and acupuncture therapy was effective treatment on spasmodic torticollis.