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2009, Vol.19, No.2

  • 1.

    Effects of Yanghyuljanggeungunbo-tang(Yangxuezhuangjinjianbutang ) and Electrical Acupuncture on the Spinal Nerve Injury and the Motor Function

    설재욱 | 추민규 | 김선종 and 3other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.1~25 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Yanghyuljanggeungunbo-tang(Yangxuezhuangjinjianbu-tang, YGKT) and electrical acupuncture treatment in spinal cord injury(SCI)-induced rats. Methods : The subjects were divided into 5 groups ; Normal, Control-no treatment after SCI, Experimental Ⅰ(Exp. Ⅰ)-taken with YGKT 500 ㎎/㎏ 0.5 ㎖ daily after SCI. Experimental Ⅱ(Exp. Ⅱ)-taken with electrical acupuncture after SCI and Experimental Ⅲ(Exp. Ⅲ)-taken with YGKT 500 ㎎/㎏ 0.5 ㎖ and electrical acupuncture after SCI. After each operation, the present author observed cytological changes, the motor behavior recovery and nerve regeneration by analysis of the motor behavior tests, EMG, hematological(AST, ALT, WBC), histological and immunological changes. Rats were tested by Motor behavior test at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st day. Results : 1. All the experimental groups were improved compared with control group in the motor behavior tests including Tarlov test, Basso-Beattle-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale, modified inclined plane test, open field test, grid walk test and narrow beam test. Especially Exp. Ⅲ was significantly improved among other groups. 2. In EMG test, H and M wave were significantly increased in Exp. Ⅲ. 3. All the experimental groups were significantly decreased compared with control group in AST, ALT and WBC. 4. NGF, BDNF and Trk B of spinal cord gray matter in all the experimental groups were increased compared with control group. Especially, Exp. Ⅲ was more effective. 5. In histological observations, muscle contraction and denaturation of gastrocnemius muscle of all the experimental groups were inhibited. Especially, those of Exp. Ⅲ was more effective. On the observations of liver and kidney, cell atrophy and apoptosis of all the experimental groups were decreased compared with control group. Especially, those of Exp. Ⅲ was more effective. Conclusions : It can be suggested that YGKT and electrical acupuncture may improve motor behavior, EMG, hematological, histological and immunological findings in SCI-induced rats. Especially, combination of these two treatments will be somewhat better in spinal nerve recovery and motor function improvement.
  • 2.

    Effects of Yanghyuljanggeungunbo-tang(Yangxuezhuangjinjianbu-tang) and Cervi Cornu Parvum Pharmaco-Acupuncture on the Motor Function Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Rats Induced Spinal Cord Injury

    박지용 | 설재욱 | 김선종 and 2other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.27~49 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Yanghyuljanggeungunbo-tang(Yangxuezhuangjinjianbu-tang) and Cervi Cornu Parvum pharmaco-acupuncture in Spinal Cord Injury(SCI)-induced rats. Methods : The subjects were divided into 5 groups ; Normal, Control no treatment after SCI, Experimental Ⅰ taken with Yanghyuljanggeungunbo-tang (Yangxuezhuangjinjianbu-tang) 500 ㎎/㎏ 0.5 ㎖ daily after inducing SCI. Experimental Ⅱ taken with Cervi Cornu Parvum pharmaco-acupuncture at Taegye(KI3) and Yangnungchόn(GB34) after inducing SCI and Experimental Ⅲ taken with Yanghyuljanggeungunbo-tang(Yangxuezhuangjinjianbu-tang) 500 ㎎/㎏ 0.5 ㎖ and Cervi Cornu Parvum pharmaco-acupuncture at KI3 and GB34 to SCI-induced rats. After each operation, the present author observed the motor behavior recovery and nerve regeneration by analysis of the motor behavior tests, EMG, hematological(AST, ALT, WBC), histological and immunological changes. Rats were tested at modified Tarlov test at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th day, and Motor behavior test at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st day. Results : Results are as follows. 1. All the experimental groups were improved compared with control group in the motor behavior tests including Tarlov test, Basso-Beattle-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale, modified inclined plane test, open field test, grid walk test and narrow beam test. Especially Experimental Ⅲ was improved significantly among other groups. 2. In EMG test, H wave appeared weak only in Experimental Ⅲ. And M wave was increased significantly in Experimental Ⅲ. 3. All the experimental groups were significantly decreased compared with control group in serum AST, serum ALT and serum WBC tests. 4. significantly decreased in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α test compared with the first day of SCI. 5. Muscle contraction and denaturation of all the experimental groups were inhibited in histological observations of gastrocnemius muscle. Especially, those of experimental Ⅲ was more effective. 6. NGF and BDNF of spinal cord gray matter in all the experimental groups were increased compared with control group. Especially, those of experimental Ⅲ was more effective. Conclusions : As above, it can be suggested that Yanghyuljanggeungunbo-tang(Yangxuezhuangjinjianbu-tang) and Cervi Cornu Parvum pharmaco-acupuncture may improve motor behavior, EMG, hematological, histological and immunological findings in Spinal Cord Injury(SCI)-induced rats. Especially, effects will be somewhat better in combination of these two treatments.
  • 3.

    Effects of Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san )and Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture on Pain Reduction and Nerve Regeneration after Crush Injury in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    정문재 | 이정한 | Seung-ryong Yeom and 4other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.51~72 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture on pain reduction and nerve regeneration after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve. Methods : Animal model was produced through crush injury of right sciatic nerve and they were divided into four groups; Group I: no treatment control group; Group II: experimental group treated with Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san); Group III: experimental group treated with Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture; Group IV: experimental group treated with Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture. For the assessment of pain, this study was observed the paw withdrawal latency(PWL) and immunoreactivity on the substance-P. For the assessment of nerve regeneration, the sciatic functional index(SFI) and immunoreactivity on the BDNF were measured. Results : 1. In the assessment of pain, the PWL of experimental groups was significantly higher than control group and group IV was significantly higher than other groups at the all days. 2. In immunohistochemical response of substance-P, as time passes, the immunoreactivity of all groups were decreased gradully. Especially, group IV had the lowest immunoreactivity. 3. In the assessment of SFI, the SFI of experimental groups were significantly higher than control group. 4. In immunohistochemical response of BDNF, the BDNF immunoreactivity of all groups was significantly higher than control group and especially, group IV had the highest immunoreactivity at the 14 days after injury. 5. H & E stain was used on the liver and kidney to investigate toxic effect of Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture and Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san) on on 21 days after injury. However there were no any toxic effects both control group and experimental groups. Conclusions : On the basis of these results, we propose that Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture were related to pain reduction and motor nerve recovery, also decreased substance-P expression and increased BDNF expression after crush injury of sciatic nerve, especially these two treatments could be more effective when they were combined simultaneously.
  • 4.

    Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Alpha-synuclein Mutation and Activated Neurotrophins in Nigrostriatal Region of MPTP-induced Parkinson Models

    Jaesung Park | Jeonghwan Kim | YOON, SungJin | 2009, 19(2) | pp.73~88 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives : Neuronal changes that result from treadmill exercise for patients with Parkinson's disease(PD) have not been well documented, although some clinical and laboratory reports suggest that regular exercise may produce a neuroprotective effect and restore dopaminergic and motor functions. However, it is not clear if the improvements are due to neuronal alterations within the affected nigrostriatal region or result from a more general effect of exercise on affect areas and motivation. In this study, we demonstrate that motorized treadmill exercise improves the neuronal outcomes in rodent models of PD. Methods : We used a chronic mouse model of parkinsonism, which was induced by injecting male C57BL/6 mice with 10 doses(Every 12 hour) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (30 mg/kg) and probenecid (20 mg/kg) over 5 days. These mice were able to sustain an exercise training program on a motorized rodent treadmill at a speed of 18 m/min, 0° of inclination, 40 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. At the end of exercise training, we extracted the brain and compared their neuronal and neurochemical changes with the control(saline and sedentary) mice groups. Synphilin protein is the substance that manifestly reacts with α-synuclein. In this study, we used Synphilin as a manifest sign of recovery from neurodegeneration. We analyze the brain stems of the substantia nigra and striatum region using the western blotting technique. Results : There were no expression of synphilin in the saline-induced groups. The addition of MPTP(1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) greatly accelerated synphilin expression which meant an aggregation of α-synuclein. But, the MPTP-induced treadmill exercise group showed significantly lower expression than the MPTP-induced sedentary group. This means treadmill exercise has a definite effect on the decrease of α-synuclein aggregation. Conclusions : In this study, our results suggest that treadmill exercise promoted the removal of the aggregation of α-synuclein, resulting in protection against disease development and blocks the apoptotic process in the chronic parkinsonian mice brain with severe neurodegeneration.
  • 5.

    Inhibitory Effects of Gamidaeganghwal-tang(Jiaweidaqianghuo-tang) on Rheumatoid Arthritis Induced by Type Ⅱ Collagen

    김민기 | Minseok Oh | 2009, 19(2) | pp.89~102 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was carried out to understand the immunity responses and anti-oxidation effect of the Gamidaeganghwal-tang(GDT) on rheumatoid arthritis by using the THP-1 cells and the serum of CIA mice. Methods : For this purpose, GDT was orally administerd to mice with rheumatoid arthritis induced by collagen Ⅱ. To investigate the immunity responses, value of cytokine and gene expression in the THP-1 cell, levels of cytokines in the serum of CIA(collagen type II induced arthritis) mice, number of immunocyte in PBMC of CIA mice were measured. Then, anti-oxidant activity, scavenging activity on DHHP(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical and SOD(Superoxide dismutae)-like activity of GDT was observed. Results : 1. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 at 100, 50 ㎍/㎖ of GDT were significantly reduced in the THP-1 cell. 2. The levels of TNF-α, COX-2 mRNA expression at 100, 50 ㎍/㎖ of GDT and IL-1β, IL-6 at 100 ㎍/㎖ of GDT were significantly reduced in the THP-1 cell line. 3. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly reduced in the serum of CIA mice. 4. The absolute number of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were significantly induced, CD3+/CD69+, CD3+/CD49+, CD19+, B220+/CD23+ cells were significantly reduced in PBMC. 5. Scavenging activity on DPPH free radical and SOD-like activity were significantly induced in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusions : Taking all these observations, GDT considered to be effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore we have to survey continuously in looking for the effective substance and mechanism in the future.
  • 6.

    Effect of Korea Red Ginseng Extract on PC12 Cell Death Induced by Serum Deprivation

    이상현 | Yun Yong-Gab | 2009, 19(2) | pp.103~112 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was to evaluate the pharmacological effect of Korea Red Ginseng aqueous extract (KRGE) on serum-deprived apoptosis of neuronal-like pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and to investigate its underlying action mechanism. Methods : KRGE was prepared by extracting Korea Red Ginseng with hot water and concentrating using a vacuum evaporator. Cell viability was determined after incubation of cells with KRGE or chemical inhibitor in serum-deprived medium for 60 h by counting intact nuclei following lysing of the cell membrane. Caspase activities were measured using chromogenic substrates and signal-associated protein phosphorylation and cytochrome c release were determined by Western blot analyses using their specific antibodies. Results : Serum deprivation induced PC12 cell death, which was accompanied by typical morphological features of apoptotic cell, such as nuclear fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and cytochrome c release. This apoptotic cell death was significantly inhibited by KRGE and caspase-3 inhibitor, but not by the addition of NMA, ODQ, and PD98059. KRGE promoted phosphorylation of Akt and Bad, and this phosphorylation was inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor LY92004. In addition, this inhibitor also reversed KRGE-mediated protection of PC 12 cells from serum deprivation. These results suggested that KRGE protects PC12 cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis through the activation of PI3K/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation and cytochrome c release, resulting in caspase-3 activation. Conclusions : KRGE should be considered as a potential therapeutic drug for brain diseases including stroke induced by apoptosis of neuronal cells.
  • 7.

    The Study of Saamchimbeop's Method of Reinforcement and Reduction

    안정란 | InSeon lee | 2009, 19(2) | pp.113~123 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is what Saamchimbeop's method of reinforcement and reduction. Methods : 1. We reffered to the Bo-Sa method of DongeuiBo-gam(東醫寶鑑), Uihakim-mun(醫學入門), Uihakjeong-jeon(醫學正傳), Chimgugyeongheom-bang(鍼灸經驗方), Biaoyou-fu(標幽賦) in Cimgudaeseong(鍼灸大成), Nei-Jing(內經). 2. We make a conjecture that Zheng(正), Ying(迎), Sui(隨), Xie(斜) Yingzheng(迎正), Duo(奪), Zhenghuoxie(正或斜), Wen(溫), Liang(凉), JongYang-Inyin (從陽引陰) in Saamchimbeop are another expression of method of reinforcement and reduction and compared with the method of reinforcement and reduction of DongeuiBo-gam(東醫寶鑑), Uihakim-mun(醫學入門), Uihakjeong-jeon(醫學正傳), Chimgugyeongheom-bang(鍼灸經驗方), Biaoyou-fu(標幽賦) in Cimgudaeseong(鍼灸大成), Nei-Jing(內經). Results : 1. Zheng(正) and Xie(斜) are angle of acupuncture manipulation. The descending inserting of Yang-meridian is acupuncture manipulation for the Tonifying effect(補法) and the direct inserting of Yin-meridian is the Dispersing effect(瀉法). 2. JongYang-Inyin(從陽引陰) is the contralateral acupuncture. 3. Ying(迎) and Sui(隨) in the Saamchimbeop are same meaning the method of reinforcement and reduction(補瀉手技法). 4. Saamchimbeop's the final aim is the Wen-Liang(溫凉) according to the disease strong and weak in the Ohaeng-seo of Saam-acupuncture. Conclusions : Saamchimbeop's method of reinforcement and reduction is reinforcement-reduction by lifting and thrusting the needle, breathing reinforcement-reduction method, reinforcing and reducing achieved by rapid and slow insertion and withdrawing of the needles, reinforcement and reduction by opening and closing of needles with contralateral acupuncture by Yin-meridian or Yang-meridian. Saamchimbeop's the final aim is the Wen-Liang(溫凉) according to the disease strong and weak.
  • 8.

    An Analysis of the Study Tendency on Rheumatoid Arthritis -Focusing on Domestic Theses for a Degree and Journal Since 2004-

    최용훈 | Yoon il ji | 2009, 19(2) | pp.125~156 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Objectives : To research the trend of studies related to rheumatoid arthritis and to indicate the hereafter direction for its study in oriental medicine and its treatment. Methods : I reviewed 75 domestic oriental medical journals, and 50 medical journals about rheumatoid arthritis published after 2004, and comparative analysis was made. And these theses were classified by college, year, field of study, subject. Results : The following are the results of this study. 1. Classified by oriental medical college, Dae-jeon college published the most theses, followed by Dong-guk, Kyung-hee, Se-myung and Dong-shin college. Han-yang college published the most theses among college of medicine. 2. Classified by type of thesis, experimental theses(70 pieces, 94%) showed higher rate than that of clinical theses(4 pieces, 5%) in oriental medical studies. However, in medical studies, clinical theses(34 pieces, 68%) showed higher rate than that of experimental theses(15 pieces, 30%). 3. Analyzed by subject, the most dealt subject in oriental medicine was herb medication, followed by herbal acupuncture, single herb, electroacupuncture, sasang & gene, acupuncture & moxibustion, complex accordingly. The most dealt subject in medical clinical journals was standards of diagnosis & prognosis, followed by medication, gene analysis, pathogenesis, clinical pattern, operative treatment and complication accordingly. 4. In theses related to herb medication, most of the subject was to evaluate anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects of herb medication with geopungseup, jibitong, hwalhyeolgeoer function. The tendency of experimental methods was focusing on understanding anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory mechanisms through molecular biologic methods by analyzing cytokine and gene. 5. Most of theses related to herbal acupuncture were experimental studies verifying ant-inflammatory and immnoregulatory effects through methods observing change of cytokine and immunoregulatory factors. Regarding remedies for herbal acupuncture, Ulmus davidiana Planch was most preferred, followed by bee venom. 6. In theses related to single herb, Boik-yak was most prefered, followed by Geopungseup-yak and Hwalhyeolgeoer-yak. Regarding methods of research, there were tendency of shifting from methods verifying travail, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects through a test of behavior, morphometry, serology and temperature measurement of the rectum and the skin into verifying anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects through observing inflammatory cytokine in the joint and cells of spleen. 7. In theses related to electroacupuncture, ST36 and adjuvant were most preferred as acupoints and induced factor. The tendency of experimental methods was turning from verifying mechanism of travail effect to analyzing inflammation and pain inducing factors. 8. Diverse medical clinical studies were published. Subjects such as diagnosis and prognosis, medication, gene analysis, clinical pattern, operational treatment, complication and pathogenesis were published. Especially, studies about standards of early diagnosis, and research on possible parallel medications with methotrexate were actively inquired. 9. Most of theses related to medical experimental studies was about mediators and receptors related to inflammatory induction and osteoclasia mechanism. Also, it was presented blockage of them can be effective on rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusions : The oriental medicine studies have merit in its diversity of treatment, but it clinical studies is lacking compared to experimental studies. Also, more diversity of subjects is necessary. Therefore, complementary measures are needed. Hereafter, oriental medicine research about rheumatoid arthritis needs more clinical research verifying the effectiveness and safety in clinical field. Also, we require oriental medical standard of diagnosis and researches on pathological generation which would make early checkup and prognosis possible.
  • 9.

    The Study on the Eastern and Western Medical Literatures for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    김동은 | 유덕선 | 이정한 and 3other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.157~185 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives : The aim of this study is to suggest approach of oriental medical management and necessity by research of eastern and western medical literatures for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome(CRPS). Methods : We reviewed the clinical and experimental literatures of eastern and western concerned with CRPS which is related causation, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, etiology and management. Results : 1. CRPS is divided into type Ⅰ and Ⅱ by nerve injury. Two types of CRPS have been recognized: type I, corresponds to RSD and occurs without a definable nerve lesion, and type II, formerly called causalgia refers to cases where a definable nerve lesion is present. These conditions can be charaterized clinically by the sensory abnormalities, vascular abnormalities, oedema, sweating abnormalities, motor or trophic changes. 2. CRPS are well known to patients and physicians relatively, but the pathophysiology, causation and treatments are still unclear. 3. CRPS is needed to take the early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach for significant effect. 4. CRPS can be regarded for obstruction syndrome of Ki and blood(痺證), blood stasis(瘀血), Wei symptom(痿證), numbness(痲木) in the oriental medical management of CRPS. Conclusions : Above the results, it is suggested that further studies and active approach of management of CRPS will be conducted precisely in oriental medicine.
  • 10.

    The Efficacy of Adjusting Leg Length Inequality by Chuna Manual Treatment for Post-Stroke Hemiplegia

    권오곤 | 장우석 | 우창훈 and 1other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.187~202 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of adjusting leg length inequality(LLI) by chuna manual treatment for post-stroke hemiplegia. Methods : 39 patients with stroke-originated hemiplegia who had leg length inequality were included in this study. Chuna manual treatment at pelvic girdle was applied to 20 patients and they had been treated by general oriental rehabilitation therapy(test group). The other 19 patients had been treated by general oriental rehabilitation therapy only(control group). Outcomes were assessed by Modified Barthel Index(MBI), Berg Balance Scale(BBS), lower extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment(FMA) at the point of beginning and end of the study. Results : 1. In terms of activity of daily living(ADL), test group showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group(p<0.05). In subacute group(onset had been past under 6 months), test group didn't showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group. In chronic group(onset had been past over 6 months), test group didn't showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group. 2. In terms of lower extremity function and balance, test group showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group(p<0.05). In subacute group, test group didn't showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group. In chronic group, test group showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group(p<0.01). 3. In terms of lower extremity function of hemiplegic side, test group showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group(p<0.05). In subacute group, test group didn't showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group. In chronic group, test group showed statistically meaningful differences compared to control group(p<0.05). Coclusions : Adjusting LLI by chuna manual treatment is efficacious for rehabilitation of stroke-originated hemiplegia, in terms of ADL, balance and lower extremity function, and is especially efficacious for chronic patients.
  • 11.

    A Study on Diagnostic Validity of Spurling Test Compared to Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Diagnosing Herniated Cervical Intervertebral Disc

    문태웅 | 강명진 | 공덕현 and 5other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.203~212 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives : Spurling test is one of the most widely used physical tests to diagnose herniated cervical intervertebral disc. The purpose of this study is to analyse diagnostic validity of Spurling test. Methods : This study was carried out on 382 subjects who visited Bu-Chun Ja-Seng oriental hospital with the neck pain or radiating pain from neck to upper extremities from November, 2007 to October, 2008. All subjects underwent both Spurling test and cervical magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). The associations between Spurling test and herniated cervical intervertebral disc were analysed. Results : 1. The sensitivity of Spurling test for herniated cervical intervertebral disc was 64%. 2. The specificity of Spurling test for herniated cervical intervertebral disc was 86%. 3. The positive predictive value of Spurling test for herniated cervical intervertebral disc was 93%. 4. The negative predictive value of Spurling test for herniated cervical intervertebral disc was 44%. Conclusions : This study suggests that Spurling test is not useful in screening for herniated cervical intervertebral disc due to the test's relatively low sensitivity. Thus it is necessary to consult advanced tests such as diagnostic imaging to diagnose herniated cervical intervertebral disc.
  • 12.

    The Study on the Factors Related to the Existence of Neck Pain in Female Office Workers

    남기봉 | Chung, Seok Hee | Kim Sung-Soo | 2009, 19(2) | pp.213~225 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related on pain in female office workers. Methods : Neck pain group of 31 female subjects complained of neck and arm discomfort. Normal group of 20 female subjects had no complaints or minimal discomfort. Cervical curvature and muscle tone were assessed by whole spine x-ray, meridian-electromyography(MEMG), craniovertebral angle, and Moire. Neck pain was evaluated by Neck Disability Index(NDI) and Visual Analog Scale(VAS). The emotional and other physical factors that could effect neck pain were checked by questionnaires including Beck Depression Index(BDI), Stress Reaction Index(SRI), Holmes & Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale(SRRS), International Physical Activity Questionnaire(IPAQ), and Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale(GSRS). Results : The contraction and fatigue of upper trapezius by MEMG was significantly higher in the neck pain group. And BDI, SRI, SRRS, and GSRS were significantly higher in the neck pain group (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the Jackson's angle, Cobb's method, craniovertebral angle, and moire between two groups. Conclusions : The results suggest that neck pain is related to mental stress rather than physical stress and physical stress does not change cervical curvature significantly.
  • 13.

    The Clinical Study of the Ferguson's Angle, Lumbar Lordotic Angle, Lumbar IVD Angle of Low Bcak Pain Patients Induced in Traffic Accident

    이길재 | 박경무 | 임제연 and 2other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.227~239 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation of Ferguson's angle, Lumbar lordotic angle, Lumbar IVD angle in traffic accident patients. Methods : Total patients were classified into TA(traffic accident) inpatients and non-TA(lumbago) inpatients. We analyzed the characteristics of each group Ferguson's angle, Lumbar lordotic angle, L4-5 IVD angle, L5-S1 IVD angle on X-ray film. Results : 1. Ferguson's angle and Lumbar lordotic angle were smaller than normal range. Non-TA group's angles were smaller than TA group's angles. 2. L4-5 IVD angle of female showed smaller than that of male in TA groups. The older age was, the smaller L4-5 IVD angle was at non-TA groups. 3. L5-S1 IVD angle of female showed smaller than that of male in total groups. The older age was, the smaller L5-S1 IVD angle was at non-TA groups. 4. Ferguson's angle, Lumbar lordotic angle, Lumbar IVD angle were related with direct proportion in total groups. 5. Non-TA groups showed more effective VAS variation than TA groups. Conclusions : Lumbar angles were intimately related with each others. And lumbar angles have an effect on curative value.
  • 14.

    Clinical Study for Characteristics of Heart Rate Variability in Low Back Pain Patients

    류지미 | Kim Sung-Soo | Chung, Seok Hee | 2009, 19(2) | pp.241~250 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives : To study autonomic nervous system dysfunction of Low Back Pain(LBP) patients, using spectral analysis of Heart Rate Variability(HRV). Methods : HRV of 190 patients was measured and seperated into two groups, those with LBP(n=95) and healthy controls(n=95). HRV was measured by SA-6000(Medicore, Korea) for 5 minutes after 5 minutes’ resting. Results : 1. Mean heart rate(MHRT) of the experimental group was slightly higher than that of the control group, but did not show significant difference(P=0.428). The square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals(RMSSD), logarithmic very low frequency power(Ln VLF) and low frequency power/high frequency power ratio(LH/HF ratio) were not significantly low between experimental group and control group(P=0.16, 0.130, 0.537). 2. The standard deviation of all the normal-to-normal intervals(SDNN), logarithmic total power(Ln TP), logarithmic low frequency power(Ln LF) and logarithmic high frequency power(Ln HF) were significantly low between experimental group and control group(P=0.03, 0.005, 0.001, 0.007). 3. Ln LF of acute group was significantly low compared with those of chronic group(P= 0.039). Conclusions : This study suggests the activity and imbalance of autonomic nervous system in LBP is low. Also sympathetic nervous system of acute LBP is lower than that of chronic LBP. Further study of HRV related to LBP is needed in the clinical medicine.
  • 15.

    Reliability and Validity of the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities(WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    고태성 | Jongsoo Lee | Seong Yeol KIm | 2009, 19(2) | pp.251~260 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    Objectives : To investigate reliability and validity of Korean translation of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities(WOMAC) osteoarthritis index. Methods : The reliablity, construct validity of the Korean WOMAC Index in the patient of knee osteoarthritis was investigated. Test-retest reliability was quantified with pearson's correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was quantified with Cronbach's α. and construct validity with pearson's correlation coefficient by correlating of the Visual Analog Scale(VAS). Results : Test-retest reliability of Korean WOMAC Index for pain was 0.76 to 0.95, stiffness was 0.89 to 0.94, and physical function was 0.71 to 0.95. Intraclass correlation coefficient for pain was 0.76 to 0.94, stiffness was 0.54 to 0.89, and physical function was 0.70 to 0.95. Internal consistency were 0.94 and 0.94 for the first and second time, respectively. Construct validity for pain was 0.79, for stiffness was 0.66, and physical function was 0.67. Conclusions : The Korean translation of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities(WOMAC) osteoarthritis index is reliable, valid assessment tool in knee osteoarthritis.
  • 16.

    The Effects of Sobi-eum(Xiaofei-yin ) Mesotherapy on Abdominal Fat Distribution

    이아라 | 양유정 | Mi-Yeon Song and 2other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.261~273 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was performed to figure out the effects of herbal mesotherapy on abdominal fat in obese women. Methods : Forty obese women those who were diagnosed abdominal obesity had been recruited during February, 2008. They were randomly assigned experimental or control group under block-randomization. Experimental group were treated with Sobi-eum(Xiaofei-yin) injection during 6 weeks (2 times a week) and placebo group were treated with normal saline injection under same procedures. Anthropometry, body impedance analysis, fat computed tomography, blood test, and questionnaires had been administered before and after the treatment. Results : Four subjects were dropped out (voluntary give up), so 18 in experimental group and 18 in placebo group were evaluated. There were significant changes after treatments in both groups. Although no significant differences have been found in the result of anthropometry, body impedance analysis and fat computed tomography between two groups, in the experimental group, the changes of total fat area had a highly significant relationship with all part of abdominal fat. While the placebo group had highly significant relationships with subcutaneous fat area, superficial and deep subcutaneous fat area but not with visceral fat area. Conclusions : Compaired with saline group, herbal mesotheraphy Sobi-eum(Xiaofei-yin) is effective in reduction of visceral fat after adjusting TFA.
  • 17.

    The Clinical Observation on Abdominal Fat when Carboxytherapy and Electroacupuncture were Practiced

    안순선 | Dongseok Heo | 2009, 19(2) | pp.275~287 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Objectives : In order to observe clinical effects, carboxytherapy and electroacupuncture, we analyzed relation effect and patients' character, and researched correlation among reduction of BFM(Body Fat Mass), WHR(Waist-Hip Ratio) and AC(Arm Circumference). Methods : Among outpatients who had admitted to department of oriental rehabilitation medicine, Dae-Jeon oriental medicine hospital, Dae-Jeon university from January to September, 2008 for obesity treatment and abdominal fat, 44 subjects were chosen and carboxytherapy and electroacupuncture were practiced concurrently. Results : 1. The group under the concurrent practice of carboxytherapy and electroacupuncture showed significant decrease in BFM, BFR(Body Fat Rate), WHR and AC. 2. The group under the concurrent practice of carboxytherapy and electroacupuncture did not show statistical significance but showed decrease in BFM, WHR. The degree of decrease was proportional to that of obesity. 3. As AC decreased, BFM, WHR reduction tended to increase as well in the group under the concurrent practice of carboxytherapy and electroacupuncture. 4. Compared to the group under the sole practice of electroacupuncture, the group under the concurrent practice of carboxytherapy and electroacupuncture showed less change in BFM reduction and greater change in WHR reduction. Conclusions : From the above results, the concurrent practice of carboxytherapy and electroacupuncture had an effect on obesity and reducing abdominal fat, but did not show statistically significant decrease compare to the sole practice of electroacupuncture.
  • 18.

    The Study on Relation of Obesity and Low Back Pain Based on Body Composition using Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Radiological Parameter

    박지현 | 홍서영 | 2009, 19(2) | pp.289~302 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study was performed in order to investigate the relation of body composition analysis and radiological parameter(lumbosacral angle, lumbar lordortic angle, lumbar gravity line). Methods : This study was carried out with the data from comprehensive medical testing. 75 subject aged 20-59 performed the segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis, questionnaire. And lumbosacral angle, lumbar lordortic angle and lumbar gravity line were measured in the standing position x-ray. Then we analyzed the data. Results : Low back pain(LBP) prevalence in high obesity index(Body Mass Index(BMI), Percentage of Body Fat(PBF), Waist Hip Ratio(WHR)) group was higher than LBP prevalence in normal obesity index group(p<0.01). In LBP group, lumbosacral angle, lumbar lordortic angle were significantly lager than Non-LBP group(p<0.001). And 75% of LBP group indicated abnormal lumbar gravity line ratio(0.67 < Normal lumbar gravity line ratio <1.00). When it comes to analyze relation between obesity index and radiological parameter, no-significant change was seen. Conclusions : This study carried as following research after the study on relation of obesity, LBP and trunk muscle strength. Results from this investigation showed positive correlation between obesity and LBP prevalence. But obesity index didn't indicate significant correlation with structural changes of lumbar vertebrae. When considering prior research, trunk muscle strength changes were more related to LBP prevelence in obese people. This results are expected to explain causes of LBP in obese group.
  • 19.

    The Effect of Oriental Medical Treatments on the Patients with Delirium ; 4 Cases Report

    정지은 | 정원희 | 서상경 and 2other persons | 2009, 19(2) | pp.303~313 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to report the effect of oriental medical treatments on the patients with delirium. Methods : Four patients diagnosed with delirium by DSM-ⅣTM was treated Onbaek-won(Wenbai-yuan), Jugeo-hwan(Zhouju-wan) and herb medicine. The severity of delirium was assessed by using MMSE-K. And then, we investigated and analyzed the clinical symptoms of the patients. Results : After oriental medical treatments, the symptoms of delirium were disappeared and MMSE-K score was improved. Conclusions : It could be suggested that oriental medical treatments were effective on delirium. Further study of the effect of oriental medical treatments on delirium is needed in the near future.