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2009, Vol.19, No.3

  • 1.

    Effect of Gastrodiae Rhizoma on Apoptosis in Cerebral Infarction Induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats

    윤유석 | Jongsoo Lee | 2009, 19(3) | pp.1~13 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study evaluates neuroprotective effect of Gastrodiae Rhizoma on apoptosis in the cerebral infarct. Methods : Cerebral infarct was induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 hours with intraluminal thread method in Sprague-Dawley rats. Then ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma was administered orally for 3 days. Infarct area and volume were evaluated with TTC staining. Neuronal apoptosis was identified with TUNEL labeling. Apoptosis modulatory effect was observed with immunohistochemical Bax, Bcl-2, iNOS, and MMP-9 expressions in penumbra. Results : 1. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced infarct size partly and volume significantly of in the MCAO rat brain. 2. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced TUNEL positive cell ratio in the penumbra of MCAO rat brain significantly. 3. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma suppressed Bax, iNOS and MMP-9 expression in the penumbra of MCAO rat brain significantly. 4. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma did not change Bcl-2 expression in the penumbra of MCAO rat brain. But expression ratio of Bcl-2 against Bax was increased in the Gastrodiae Rhizoma group. Conclusions : These results suggest that Gastrodiae Rhizoma plays an anti-apoptotic neuroprotective effect through suppression of Bax, iNOS, and MMP-9 expressions and relative up-regulation of Bcl-2 in the ischemic brain tissue.
  • 2.

    The Effects of Dokhwalgisaeng-tang(Duhuoqisheng-tang) and Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture on Pain Control and Nerve Regeneration in the Crush-induced Sciatic Nerve Injury of the Rat Model

    이상규 | 원재균 | Seung-ryong Yeom and 3other persons | 2009, 19(3) | pp.15~32 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this Study was to identify the effect of Dokhwalgisaeng-tang(Duhuoqisheng-tang) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture on pain control and nerve regeneration after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve. Methods : Neuropathic pain was induced by crush-induced model of right sciatic nerve. Animal groups were divided as follows; Group Ⅰ: no treatment control group, Group Ⅱ : experimental group treated with Dokhwalgisaeng-tang(Duhuoqisheng-tang), Group Ⅲ : experimental group treated with Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture, and Group Ⅳ : experimental group treated with Dokhwalgisaeng-tang(Duhuoqisheng-tang) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture. To evaluate pain intensity, each group was observed paw withdrawal threshold and immunoreactivity on the c-fos before and after respective treatments in five hours, first, third, and fifth day. To evaluate nerve regeneration, those were observed SFI(Sciatic Functional Index) and GAP-43(Growth Associated Protein 43) after each treatment in seventh and thirteenth day. Results : 1. Paw withdrawal threshold to the mechanical stimuli made the significant difference between group Ⅳ and the control group after five days of the experiment. 2. Paw withdrawal threshold to the thermal stimuli made the significant difference between group Ⅰ and Ⅲ, Ⅰ and Ⅳ, Ⅱ and Ⅳ. 3. In immunohistochemical response of c-fos, as time passes, the immunoreactivity of all groups was decreased gradually. Especially, group Ⅳ was observed the lowest after three days. 4. The differences of sciatic function indexes in each group were significantly between group Ⅰ and Ⅲ, Ⅰ and Ⅳ, Ⅱ and Ⅳ after 14 days, and between group Ⅰ and Ⅲ, Ⅰ and Ⅳ, Ⅱ and Ⅳ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ after 21 days. 5. In immunohistochemical response of GAP-43, all groups had higher GAP-43 immunoreactivity at the 14 days from post-injury and group Ⅳ showed highest immunoreactivity. Conclusions : Based on above the results, it is proposed that Dokhwalgisaeng-tang(Duhuoqisheng-tang) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture may be helpful as a treatment in neuropathic pain and nerve regeneration in rat model.
  • 3.

    Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Herbal Medicine for Treatment of Human Obesity

    박정현 | 남종경 | Hojun Kim and 2other persons | 2009, 19(3) | pp.33~46 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Objectives : The objective of the study was to summarize randomized clinical trials(RCTs) that have assessed the effectiveness of herbal medicine on treatment of obesity and to propose better process of study. Methods : NLM Medline(pubmed), EMBASE, the Cochrane library, Science Direct, EBSCO, 4 Korean medical databases were systematically searched and 4 Korean medical journals were manually searched for clinical trials investigating the efficacy of herbal medicines on treatment of overweight or obese people from 1998 to 2008. The methodological quality was assessed using a Jadad score and validity was assessed using Oxford Pain Validity Scale(OPVS). Results : 14 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. The methodological and ethical quality of the trials was generally low. The mean score by Jadad was 2.6 and the mean score of validity was 11.2. Complex herbal medicine was used in 8 RCTs and single herbal medicine was used in 6 RCTs. Except 1 RCT, the other RCTs reported positive effects of herbal medicine on treatment of obesity. Herbal medicines didn't seem to affect toxicity. In general adverse events relevant with the therapy were minor, but more than half of RCTs did not report about the safety or adverse events of herbal medicine, questioning their reliability. Conclusions : Although most RCTs concluded the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines on treatment of obesity, the quality of trials was low in general. Further rigorous clinical trials using complex herbal medicine should be performed.
  • 4.

    A Comparative Study of Clinical Papers about Pharmacopuncture in Korea and China - Focusing on Papers about Musculoskeletal and Nervous Diseases -

    Han-Gil Lee | 홍서영 | 2009, 19(3) | pp.47~67 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives : To research the trend of the study related to pharmacopuncture about musculoskeletal and nervous diseases in China and to make a comparison with clinical application on pharmacopuncture about musculoskeletal and nervous diseases in China and Korea. Methods : I reviewed and analyzed four Chinese Journals relating pharmacopucture from 2004 to 2008 and two Korean Journals relating pharmacopuncture from 1999 to 2008. Results : The following results were obtained in this study. 1. The pharmacopuncture was often used for diseases of spines and joints. 2. In the medicine of pharmacopuncture, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, Angelicae Gigantis Radix were mainly used in China, and Bee-venom in Korea. 3. As a method of needling, local acupoint and Ashi-point were mainly ueed in both China and Korea. 4. In combined treatments, acupuncture, electronic acupuncture, Chuna, heating acupuncture were mainly used in China, and acupuncture, herb medicine, physiotherapy in Korea. 5. In the case of control group study, compared with other treatments pharmacopuncture was not verified the superiority of effectiveness in China, but in Korea, the effectiveness of a pharmacopuncture could be compared with that of others and the effectivenss of different pharmacopuncture could be compared. Conclusions : As seen above, in Korea, clinician should carry out clinical application about musculoskeletal and nervous diseases with various herbal injections besides Bee-venom. And I think that it will be starting point to use Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and Angelicae Gigantis Radix that were often used in China.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Core Stability on Postural Control, Balance and Upper Motor Function in Patients with Stroke

    LEE, BYOUNGHEE | 김성렬 | 이종수 | 2009, 19(3) | pp.69~80 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of core stability training on postural control and balance of hemiplegia patients who are difficult to control posture due to stroke. Methods : Subjects of the study were consisted of 25 adult hemiplegia patients(experimental 12, control 13) who were receiving rehabilitation therapy in hospital. Its group had a core stability training program by a physical therapists for 40 minutes, five times a week for nine-week period. Measurements of postural assessment scale for stroke(PASS), berg balance scale(BBS) and manual function test(MFT) were evaluated at initial presentation(pretest) and after completion of the each therapy program(posttest). Independent t-test and paired t-test was utilized to detect the mean difference between the groups. Results : Firstly, the result of PASS showed that postural control was significantly increased after the completion of core stability training(p<.01). Secondly, the result of BBS showed that balance control was significantly increased after the completion of core stability training(p<.01) and general physical therapy(p<.01). Lastly, the result of MFT showed that upper extremity's motor function was significantly increased after the completion of core stability training(p<.001). Conclusions : This study showed that core stability training is an effective treatment strategy on postural control, balance and upper extremity's motor function.
  • 6.

    Clinical Study for Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation on Change of Magnetic Resonanse Imaging after Conservative Treatment

    권혁준 | 정해찬 | Hojun Kim and 3other persons | 2009, 19(3) | pp.81~90 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objectives : To analyze the therapeutic outcomes of back pain modalities in patients with disc herniation according to the change of Magnetic Resonanse Imaging(MRI) whom were treated with herbal medicine, chuna, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture. Methods : Clinical outcomes of 35 patients diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation by MRI examination, treated conservatively, were analyzed according to MRI follow-up change. Patients underwent MRI examaintion at baseline and after 24th week of treatment. Patients are divided into three groups ; improved, unchanged, worsened. 35 patients with lumbar disc herniation were treated with chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture once a week and took herbal medicine after a meal two times daily. The patients' clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, 12th week, 24th week by Visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry disability index(ODI). Results : 1. MRI follow-up exams on regression of disc herniation resulted on 42.86% of cases by conservative treatment. 2. VAS(low back pain and sciatica) and ODI of disability of daily activities showed significant decrease in "improved" and "unchanged" groups compared to "worsened" group(P<0.05). 3. VAS(low back pain and sciatica) and ODI change after treatment did not show any relationship with MRI follow-up change(P<0.05). Conclusions : This study suggests that "improved" and "unchanged" groups compared to "worsened" group on MRI follow-up in patients with lumbar disc herniation were more effective when treated with herbal medicine, chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture. MRI follow-up change does not affect clinical changes in patients with lumbar disc herniation.
  • 7.

    The Characteristics of Sasang Constitution from the Result of Regular Medical Inspection

    강준호 | Cha Yun Yeop | 김유진 | 2009, 19(3) | pp.91~100 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to find the characteristics of Sasang Constitution, Soeumin, Soyangin and Taeumin, Using Regular Medical Inspection. Methods : Subjects of our study were 325 cases who took regular medical inspection. We collected the data of body composition analysis, 7-zone-diagnostic system, blood analysis, and analyzed by Sasang Constitution, Soeumin, Soyangin and Taeumin. Results and Conclusions : 1. In body composition analysis, Taeumin was significantly higher than Soeumin and Soyangin about soft lean mass, body fat mass, waist-hip ratio, body water index, body mass index and basal metabolic rate. In blood analysis, Taeumin was significantly highest about total protein, albumin, GPT, hemoglobin, WBC, triglyceride. In 7-zone-diagnostic system, Taeumin had the highest level at Zone 1, 2. 2. Taeumin had more significant differences than other Sasang constitutions about the parameters of regular medical inspection. 3. Body composition analysis had the most parameters that showed differences among the constitutions, followed by blood analysis and 7-zone-diagnostic system.
  • 8.

    The Utilization of Physical Therapies in the Korean Medicine Clinics : A Survey for National Health Insurance Planning

    신미숙 | Shin, Byung Cheul | 이명종 and 5other persons | 2009, 19(3) | pp.101~109 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Objectives : This study aimed to investigate the present status of physical therapies provided in the Korean medicine clinics, and to find out the priorities among and the estimated fees of physical therapies for the National Health Insurance plan. Methods : We administered nationwide survey to Korean medicine doctors using the on-line survey system. 16 physical therapies were listed in the Web-based questionnaires, and responders were asked to mark the therapies they used for their patients, and, for each therapy they marked, to fill in the form including the frequencies of service, service fees, target diseases, and priorities for health insurance coverage, etc. Results : Of 488 respondents, 93.7% provide more than one physical therapy for their patients, and each responder uses 5.9 physical therapies on average. 60-90% of physical therapies are being given to patients for free because they are not covered by the National Health Insurance. There is little evidence that the specialties of Korean medicine doctors are related with the use of physical therapies, but, in some therapies, the doctors with longer career years use the physical therapy more frequently. Most physical therapies are applied to the patients with musculoskeletal diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and nervous diseases, etc. Conclusions : Physical therapies are widely used among Korean medicine doctors without proper compensation. This could be the one of the main factors distorting the profit structure of Korean medicine clinics, and it encourages the National Health Insurance to cover physical therapies provided in the Korean medicine clinics.
  • 9.

    A Case Report of Prescribing Doinseunggi-tang(Taorenchenqi-tang) for the Patient with Thoraco-Lumbar Compression Fracture

    조희근 | 추민규 | 박수곤 and 5other persons | 2009, 19(3) | pp.111~121 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives : The Purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical application of traditional Korean herbal therapy to a patient with thoraco-lumbar compression fracture. Methods : The patient who had sudden low back pain, back pain and ambulation disorder due to pain caused by an accidental fall, we prescribed Doinseunggi-tang (Taorenchenqi-tang) for her with acupuncture therapy. And we adopted several scales to estimate to progress of her symptoms. Results : Soon after taking herbal medication with other treatments, the patients pain was controlled and was able to ambulation without pain. Conclusions : In this case, we assume that Doinseunggi-tang(Taorenchenqi-tang) play an important role in improvement of the patient's symptoms. So, the present results suggest that traditional Korean herbal therapy has the positive effect to reduce the pain and shortening the period of treatment.
  • 10.

    Effect of Myofacial Releasing of Abdominal Muscles on Chronic Cough by Oriental Medical Treatment ; 2 Cases Report

    Kim, Yujin | Cha Yun Yeop | 2009, 19(3) | pp.123~134 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives : We supposed that abdominal muscles are related to chronic cough, because abdominal pressure and respiratory muscles are influenced by abdominal muscle function. We have evaluated the effect of myofacial releasing of abdominal muscles with oriental medical treatment by experimenting two patients suffering from chronic cough. Methods : One patient was treated with acupuncture therapy and muscle stretching exercise for myofacial releasing of abdominal muscle. The other patient was treated with hot pack therapy and abdominal respiration training for myofacial releasing of abdominal muscle. Results and Conclusions : After oriental medical treatment of abdominal muscles in two cases, We figured out that the patients were on the mend. These results suggest that myofacial releasing of abdominal muscles using oriental medical treatment was effective in improving chronic cough.
  • 11.

    A Case of Live Leech(Hirudo Medicinalis) Therapy with Herbal Medication on Regional Rheumatoid Arthritis

    유창길 | 이윤주 | 2009, 19(3) | pp.135~146 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to report the effect of live leech(hirudo medicinalis) therapy with oriental medication on the patient with regional rheumatoid arthritis. The patient had resistant to DMARDs so she was in the debilitating condition and suffered from edema, pain, stiffness of joint and purpura before live leech(hirudo medicinalis) therapy. Methods : The regional rheumatoid arthritis patient had edema, pain, stiffness of joint and purpura on right foot. We treated the patient with live leech(hirudo medicinalis) therapy and oriental medicine. Results : The symptoms of regional rheumatoid arthritis was improved through live leech(hirudo medicinalis) therapy and oriental medicine. The patient maintains her condition with oriental medicine treatment after stopped all DMARDs such as MTX(methotrexate) and NSAIDs. After this treatment the patient's walking difficulty has been improved. Conclusions : This study shows that live leech(hirudo medicinalis) therapy and oriental medicine can elevate the regional rheumatoid arthritis patient's quality of life with continuous health care and treatment for major problem. For more accurate studies, further studies would be needed with more cases.