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2010, Vol.20, No.2

  • 1.

    Effects of Root of Cibotii Rhizoma on Neuronal Damage of Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats

    Won-Sang Park | Eun-Seok Kim | Jung-Won Shin and 4other persons | 2010, 20(2) | pp.1~15 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was performed to evaluate the effects of root of Cibotii rhizoma(CR) ethanol extract on the tissue and neuronal damage of the spinal cord injury(SCI). Methods :SCI was induced by mechanical contusion following laminectomy of 10th thoracic vertebra in Sprague-Dawley rats. CR was orally given once a day for 7 days after SCI. Tissue damage and nerve fiber degeneration were examined with cresyl violet and luxol fast blue(LFB) histochemistry. HSP72(as neuronal damage marker), MAP2(as nerve fiber degeneration marker), c-Fos(immediate early gene), and Bax(pro-apoptotic molecule) expressions were examined using immuno-histochemistry. Individual immuno-positive cells expressing HSP72, MAP2, c-Fos and Bax were observed on the damaged level and the upper thoracic and lower lumbar spinal segments. Results :1. CR reduced degeneration of nerve fibers and motor neuron shrinkage in the ventral horn of the lower lumbar spinal segment, but generally it did not seem to ameliorate the tissue injury following SCI. 2. CR reduced demyelination in the ventral and lateral funiculus of the lower lumbar spinal segment. 3. CR reduced HSP72 expression on the neurons in the peri-central canal gray matter adjacent to the damaged region. 4. CR strengthened MAP2 expression on the motor neurons in the ventral horn and on nerve fibers in the lateral funiculus of the lower lumbar spinal segment. 5. CR reduced c-Fos positive cells in the peri-lesion and the dorsal horn of the damaged level and in the ventral horn of the lower lumbar spinal segment. 6. CR reduced Bax positive cells in the peri-lesion and the dorsal horn of the damaged level and in the ventral horn of the lower lumbar spinal segment. Conclusions :These results suggest that CR plays an inhibitory role against secondary neuronal damage and nerve fiber degeneration following SCI.
  • 2.

    Effects of Gwanjul8-bang on Collagen Induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mice

    Jong-Kook Kim | Minseok Oh | 2010, 20(2) | pp.17~34 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was carried out to know the effects of Gwanjul8-bang (here in after reffered to GJ8) on the inhibition of arthritis induced by collagen on DBA/1J mice. Methods :For this purpose, GJ8 was orally administered to mouse with arthritis induced by collagen Ⅱ. Cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, arthritis index, value of immunocyte in draining lymph node(DLN) and paw joint, cytokine in serum were measured in vivo. Results :1. The arthritis index was decreased significantly. 2. In total cell counts of DLN and paw joint, the cells in DLN increased significantly while there was a significant decrease in paw joint. 3. In lymph nodes, CD19+, CD3+, CD4+/CD25+ cells increased significantly, and B220+/CD23+ cells decreased significantly. 4. In joints, CD3+, CD4+ and CD11b+/Gr-1+ cells decreased significantly. 5. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, MCP-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in serum was significantly decreased compared with control. 6. Anti-collagen Ⅱ in serum was significantly decreased compared with control. 7. The degree of arthritis induced damage of joint of GJ8 group is slight compared with control group in histopathologic observation(hematoxylin & eosin(H&E), Masson-Trichrome(MT) staining). Conclusions :Comparison of the results for this study showed that GJ8 had immunomodulatory effects. So we expect that GJ8 should be used as a effective drugs for not only rheumatoid arthritis but also another auto-immune disease. Therefore there seems to be many clinical research needed in the future.
  • 3.

    The Inhibitory Effects of So-yangin Biman-bang on the Obese-Mice Induced by High-Fat Diet

    In-Sun Park | Yoon il ji | 2010, 20(2) | pp.35~50 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives :In order to investigate the effects of So-yangin Biman-bang(here in after referred to BM) on the obese gene and obese inhibitory, C57BL/6 mice were distinctively induced by high fat diet. Methods :C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups(normal, high fat diet with control, high fat diet with Reductil(here in after referred to RDT), high fat diet with BM extract) and have been fed for 8 weeks. Through observing the process, the weight change of the adipocytes in body and liver, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, leptin change in the serum, the expression of β3AR and leptin gene in 3T3-L1 cell and primary adipocyte cell. Results :The following results have been found in this study. 1. Losing weight have significantly been shown. 2. The weight change of the body adipocyte and liver have been decreased but no significance has been found. 3. With close observation on the change of blood, HDL-cholesterol has positively been increased in numbers but the level of glucose, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride have distinctively been decreased. 4. The manifestation of β3AR in 3T3-L1 cell and primary adipocyte cell have shown a definite increase in numbers but the manifestation of leptin has shown certain decrease in its amount. Conclusions :As results of this, So-yangin Biman-bang is thought to be effective in metabolic syndrom and lipid metabolism disorder that can possibly be occurred by obesity control and treatment. The clinical research will be needed in order to apply to So-yangin constitution in the future.
  • 4.

    Effects of Curcumin Analogues and Metabolite on Oxidative Stress-induced Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

    김기병 | Sukyung Lee | Young Dal Kwon and 2other persons | 2010, 20(2) | pp.51~61 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study was to investigate antioxidant effects of curcumin from Curcumae Longae Radix. Methods :Using HepG2 liver-like cells, the antioxidant effects of curcumin, one of main components from Curcumae Longae Radix, and its analogues have been evaluated by measuring their effects on cytotoxicity induced by H2O2. Results :The pre-incubation for 6 hours with curcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin, or dimethoxycurcumin protected HepG2 cells from H2O2-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. However, tetrahydrocurcumin, one of curcumin metabolites, did not protect HepG2 cells from H2O2-induced toxicity. Interestingly, curcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin, and dimethoxycurcumin were increased in the protein levels of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) at concentrations that were also effective in cellular protection. In contrast, tetrahydrocurcumin did not induce HO-1 expression. Tin protoporphyrin-IX, an inhibitor of HO-1 activity, significantly abolished cytoprotection afforded by curcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin. Conclusions :These results demonstrate that curcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin, and dimethoxycurcumin with two conjugated doble bonds on their structures may reduce H2O2-induced oxidative stress through HO-1 expression. HO-1 induction may be one of antioxidant pathways by which curcumin protects from oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.
  • 5.

    Comparative Review of Current Clinical Trials on Abdominal Obesity

    임제연 | SONG YUN KYUNG | Lim Hyung Ho | 2010, 20(2) | pp.63~77 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives :It is known that abdominal obesity increases the possibility of cardiovascular diseases, early death, and metabolic syndrome including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Clinical trials have been under way to verify the effectiveness of treatment for abdominal obesity. The objective of this study is to set criteria about how effective oriental medicine and acupuncture are in abdominal obesity. Methods :I manually search "www.clinicaltrial.gov", 4 Korean medical databases and 4 Korean medical journals of abdominal obesity. Search terms used were "abdominal obesity" or "visceral obesity". In order to see detail review, searching was performed from 01, 01, 2005 to 11, 31, 2009. And I classified all the searched studies into design, intervention, purpose, end point, diseases, condition and etc. Results :1. I could search total 67 trials in "www.clinicaltrial.gov". I found 9, 10, 13, 8, 6 clinical trial from 2005 to 2009 every year. 2. Test on both gender and adult or adult and senior have been most frequent. 3. Randomization clinical trial is 51 cases that occupied 96.2%. 38 cases use control group. 4. Body mass index(BMI) and waist circunference(WC) are major criteria of abdominal obesity clincal trial. WC, BMI, abdominal fat mass, body weight are measured at end point of abdominal obesity clincal trial. 5. I could search total 86 cases in domestic study. I found 15, 23, 23, 20, 5 cases from 2005 to 2009 every year. 6. Test on female and adult have been most frequent in domestic study. 7. Randomization clincal trial is only 2 cases that occupied 2.3%. 62 cases use control group in domestic study. 8. BMI, body fat percent, WC, visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio(VSR), waist-hip ratio(WHR) are criteria of abdominal obesity clincal trial in domestic study. WC, BMI, abdominal fat mass, body weight are measured at end point of abdominal obesity clincal trial in domestic study. Conclusions :To improve abdominal obesity study in traditional korean medicine, it is need to activate clinical trial, meta analysis, develope of clinical practice guidelines, co-works with conventional medicine and etc.
  • 6.

    The Effect of Core Program Exercise on Dynamic Balance of the Patient with Post-Stroke Hemiplegia

    Kwang-Soo Kim | Hyun-Du Seo | Byounghee Lee and 2other persons | 2010, 20(2) | pp.79~87 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study is to analyze and to compare the difference and the change between dynamic balance exercise group and dynamic balance exercise with core program exercise group. Also, based on this data, to prescribe effective exercises for hemiplegic patients and the pubis in order to achieve more effective dynamic balance exercise rehabilitation and better dynamic balance exercise in the field of therapeutical exercise. Methods :Twenty subjects(Core program exercise plus Dynamic balance exercise group, CP: 10, Dynamic balance exercise group, NCP: 10) were chosen among hemiplegic patients. Measurements of dynamic balance were evaluated at initial presentation(pretest) and after 4, 8, 12 weeks'. Paired t-test and Repeated measured ANOVA was utilized to detect the mean difference between the groups. Results :Firstly, after 4 weeks' and 8 weeks' and 12 weeks' CP exercise and NCP exercise, there were all significant difference to increase dynamic balance (p<0.05). secondly, after 4 weeks' and 8 weeks' and 12 weeks' CP and NCP exercise, there was significant difference to increase dynamic balance more CP group than NCP group. Lastly, among 4 weeks' and 8 weeks' and 12 weeks' CP exercise, there was progressively significant difference to increase dynamic balance(p<0.05). Conclusions :This study showed that dynamic balance exercise with core program exercise is an effective treatment strategy for hemiplegic patients than dynamic balance exercise rehabilitation.
  • 7.

    The Study on Static Alignment Classification based on the Full Spine AP X-ray of Adults aged 30-39

    박지현 | Seo-Young Hong | 2010, 20(2) | pp.89~99 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was designed to analyze the pattern of asymmetrical alignment. Methods :This study was carried out with the data from comprehensive medical testing. 91 subjects aged 30-39 were evaluated by full spine AP X-ray. For pelvis, innominate measurement(IM), off centering measurement(OCM), ilium shadow measurement(ISM), major axis of obturator foramen(MaF), minor axis of obturator foramen(MiF) were analyzed. Spinal curvature and height of shoulder girdle were analyzed. Results :1. In pelvis, lt. posterior-inferior and lt. inflare combination pattern was 38 cases(42.8%). 2. In spinal curvature, "reverse S" curve was 45 cases(49.4%) and "reverse C" curve was 30 cases(33%). 3. In shoulder girdle, rt. superior pattern was 42 cases(46.1%) and lt. superior pattern was 39 cases(42.9%). 4. In whole body analysis, lt. posterior-inferior and lt. inflare pelvis, "reverse S" spinal curvature and lt. superior shoulder girdle combination patten was 11 cases(12.1%). This pattern is similar to Kendall's right handedness pattern and Zink's common compensatory pattern. Conclusions :Results from this investigation showed asymmetrical alignment in 30-39 years-old adults. This results are expected to contribute to classifying the alignment pattern in clinic and systemic treatment.
  • 8.

    The Study of Differences between Traffic Accident and Non-traffic Accident Patients in the Early Stage - by Analysis of Heart Rate Variability(HRV) and Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) -

    Jung-Min Lee | Seo-Young Hong | 2010, 20(2) | pp.101~111 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between traffic accident and non-traffic accident patients in the early stage, by analysis of the heart rate variability(HRV) and visual analogue scale(VAS). Methods :This study carried out on 38 patients who complained of nuchal or lower back pain. They have received hospital treatment in Dae-Jeon Univ. Cheonan Oriental Hospital. In the TA(Traffic accident) group, the pain caused by TA and in non-TA group, the pain caused by other reasons. We measured HRV and VAS twice(pre-treatment(Tx.) and post-Tx.). Then we analyzed the data. Results :As time goes by, patients who complained of pain showed the inclination to improve ability to balance autonomic nerve system. And fatigue and pain were improved. But they showed the inclination to increase stress index. At pre-Tx., TA group had more stress and worse ability to balance autonomic nerve system, but showed lower fatigue index than non-TA group. But, as time goes by, in TA group the fatigue and autonomic balance got worse. At pre-Tx., non-TA group complained of more severe pain than TA group, but at post-Tx., TA group complained of more severe pain than non-TA group. In other words, in TA group, the decreasing rate of pain was lower than non-TA group. Conclusions :Results from this investigation showed that TA have a negative effect on stress index, ability to balance autonomic nerve system, fatigue index and decreasing rate of pain. These results are expected to consider characteristics of patients who complained of pain caused by TA.
  • 9.

    The Effect of Electroacupuncture on Abdominal Fat Deposit and Parameters for Obesity

    Sung-Min Song | SONG YUN KYUNG | Lim Hyung Ho | 2010, 20(2) | pp.113~127 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was performed to evaluate the effect of the electroacupuncture therapy on abdominal fat deposit without diet, exercise and herbal medication. It was also designed to check the changes of free fatty acid in blood and catecholamine in urine to observe the mechanism of the electroacupuncture efficacy. Methods :10 volunteers over 85 ㎝(male, 90 ㎝) in waist circumferences were recruited, and 10 electroacupuncture treatments were applied on their abdominal subcutaneous fat area for 4-5 weeks. We measured anthropometric factors, abdominal fat area with CT scanning, and the changes of free fatty acid in blood and catecholamine in urine before treatment and after the last treatment. Results :In this study, significant changes were shown in weight, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, body mass index and body fat percent after the electroacupuncture therapy. There were also significant decreases of visceral fat area, visceral/subcutaneous fat area ratio in CT scanning. The blood level of free fatty acid and the urine level of catecholamine were increased after treatments, but the changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions :This study showed the efficacy of the electroacupuncture therapy on the abdominal fat deposit. But significant changes couldn't be found out in free fatty acid and catecholamine. Further studies that compensate for the limitations of this study are required to confirm the mechanism of the electroacupuncture efficacy.
  • 10.

    The Study on Association between Abdominal Visceral Fat and Obesity Indices in Obese Adult

    Jin-Sook Yoo | SONG YUN KYUNG | Lim Hyung Ho | 2010, 20(2) | pp.129~143 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study examined search on how the obesity indices, that are largely used in clinics such as waist circumference(WC), body mass index(BMI) and waist-hip ratio(WHR), are related to the visceral fat that was measured from abdominal computed tomography(CT) and the ratio of visceral fat/subcutaneous fat. Then, two groups were compared in order to find out which characteristics of ordinary adults relationship with the abdominal obesity. Two groups are divided as follows; ones who are obese based on the measurement of WC and the others who are obese based on the level of BMI. Methods :A group of 63 test subjects that were gathered in the oriental medical hospital of Kyung-Won university is divided into two groups; ones (n=51, general obesity; group A) who have BMI≥25 and WC≥85, and the others (n=12, abdominal obesity; group B) who have BMI<25 and WC≥85. Then, each group’s obesity indices, abdominal CT, lipid level, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and C-reactive protein(CRP) are compared. In addition, subjects are again divided into two to examine the characteristics; ones (n=14, visceral obesity; group C) with visceral obesity based on the ratio between visceral fat and subcutaneous fat measured through abdominal CT, and the others (n=38, non-visceral obesity; group D) who are obese but not viscerally obese. Results & Conclusions :As a measurement that applies abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat, BMI and WC can be considered as an appropriate obesity index while WHR cannot appropriately apply the abdominal fat amount. Moreover, the study indicates that abdominal obesity group based on the ratio of visceral fat/subcutaneous fat has more significant difference than the abdominal obesity group based on the WC in case of blood lipid index.
  • 11.

    The Study of the External Qigong Therapy(EQT) - Based on the Survey of 100 Inpatients in Oriental Medical Hospital -

    Lee Eun Jung | Yoon il ji | 2010, 20(2) | pp.145~173 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study is to analyze remedial value of External Qigong Therapy(EQT), to investigate the primary factors influencing EQT and the demend of EQT. Methods :This study took the data analysis from the questionnaire to the patients and therapists of EQT in oriental medical hospital attached Dae-Jeon University from April to September in 2009. The therapist, who is in college of oriental medicine, Dae-jeon University, was explained of the operation of EQT, and then operated EQT to the patients. The therapists and patients took the questionnaire twice, before and after EQT. Results and Conclusions :1. Accoding to the research, the patients consider that their symptoms get better after EQT and that the unexpectable effect of EQT is stability of mind. 2. The primary factors influencing on remedy effect is patient's faith in the therapist & EQT, patient and therapist's positive expectation on EQT, patient's will to treated on EQT and therapist's effort to form the rapport with patient. 3. It is KRW 5463 that the patient group consider as resonable expense of EQT and it is 23 minutes that patient group consider as proper time of EQT.
  • 12.

    Evaluation of Interaction and Safety in Administering Herb-medicine with Warfarin

    권동현 | Hojun Kim | 이명종 and 1other persons | 2010, 20(2) | pp.175~181 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study is to investigate interaction and safety in administering herb-medicine with warfarin. Methods :For this study, we selected 19 patients who have been taking warfarin, from the ones that have been transferred from western hospital to oriental hospital. During their stay in the oriental hospital, we gave herb-medicine in addition to warfarin. Then we gathered informations and data on sex, age, main indications, and International Normalized Ratio(INR) values of selected patients through Electronic Medical Records(EMR) of Dong-Guk university hospital. Accordingly, we compiled all of the above data for a period of 10 days prior and 10 days post admission(western hospital period and oriental hospital period, respectively)Results and Conclusions :The statistical analysis of the data have revealed that there was no significant change of INR values after giving herb-medicine with warfarin(p=0.586). The result shows that administration of herb-medicine with warfarin is safe and has little drug interaction. However, this study was carried out on small sample size and the interaction with other drugs and various kinds of herb-medicine was not considered. Although we attained a restrictive result from this study, we are able to suggest the safety about co-administration of herb-medicine and warfarin.
  • 13.

    The Clinical Study on Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue Acupuncture Treatment to Neuropathic Pain of Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    남종경 | 이명종 | Hojun Kim | 2010, 20(2) | pp.183~190 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was designed to evaluate clinical effects of Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue acupuncture treatment to neuropathic pain of patients with spinal cord injury. Methods :The clinical study was carried out 5 cases with spinal cord injury, who had been treated from December, 2008 to November, 2009 in the department of oriental rehabilitation medicine, Dong-Guk university oriental medical hospital. Results :After treating Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue acupuncture, we find out that the VAS(Visual Analog Scale) score was significantly improved after treatment. Conclusions :These result suggest that Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue acupuncture were effective to neuropathic pain of spinal cord injury patients.
  • 14.

    A Case Report of Decreased Chronic Coccygodynia from Coccygeal Subluxation after Chuna Manipulation

    Cha Yun Yeop | Tong-Hyun Nam | 2010, 20(2) | pp.191~197 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Coccygodynia is a common problem that is characterized by pain in the tailbone that radiates to the lower sacral and perineal areas. The purpose of this study is to report the pain decrease after Chuna manipulation on a chronic coccygodynia patient. We diagnosed a patient suffering from chronic coccygodynia as subluxation of Co2 below Co1. And we treated for correcting the subluxation with Chuna manipulation. The effectiveness of the Chuna manipulation was evaluated with visual analogue scale(VAS) score and the angle between Co1 and Co2. It was decreased that both VAS score and angle between Co1 and Co2. The effect was maintained for a period of at least 6 months. We concluded that Chuna manipulation has effectiveness on chronic coccygodynia from coccygeal subluxation.
  • 15.

    Roentgenographic Analysis of Cervical Lordosis and Disc Degeneration in Neck Pain Patients with or without TMD(Temporomandibular Disorder)

    Kyung-Wan Han | 이명종 | Hojun Kim and 2other persons | 2010, 20(2) | pp.199~208 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives :To study the cervical lordosis and roentgenographic analysis of cervical disc space in neck pain with or without temporomandibular disorder(TMD). Methods :Radiographic measures of cervical lordosis, cervical disc space narrowing were collected, statiscally analyzed. Results :TMD group showed a significant increase in cervical lordotic angle as compared with non-TMD group, whereas no significant change in cervical disc degeneration. Conclusions :The findings from this study suggest that the curvature of the cervical spine is related to the subject’s TMD.
  • 16.

    A Clinical Case Study on Piriformis Syndrome with Oriental Medical Treatment and Muscle Energy Techniques

    최용훈 | Yoon il ji | 2010, 20(2) | pp.209~217 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This study was performed to report the effectiveness of oriental medical treatment and muscle energy techniques on a patient with piriformis syndrome. The patient was diagnosed as piriformis syndrome and treated with acupuncture, herb medicine, physical therapy and muscle energy techniques. We have evaluated curative efficacy with measuring changes of visual analogue scale and physical examination according to period of hospitalization. After treatment, pain and visual analogue scale decreased. Physical examinations were recuperated nearly to normal findings and ambulation was improved. These results suggest that oriental medical treatment and muscle energy techniques were effective on patient with piriformis syndrome.
  • 17.

    A Clinical Case of Oriental Medical Treatments for Traumatic Thigh Subcutaneous Hematoma by Traffic Accident

    정일민 | Deok-Seon Yu | 박민정 and 2other persons | 2010, 20(2) | pp.219~225 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was performed to report the effect of oriental medical treatments in one patient with traumatic thigh subcutaneous hematoma by traffic accident. Methods :The patient was treated by acupuncture, herbal medicine, pharmacopuncture and cupping for 3 months. Results :After treatments, VAS(visual analog scale) score changed from 10 to 0. MR Imaging showed that the size of subcutaneous hematoma has decreased from 5×11×5.8 cm to 2.4×3.2×2.6 cm. And the palpation results also showed that the size of subcutaneous hematoma has gotten smaller. Conclusions :Our study suggests that oriental medical treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, pharmacopuncture and cupping may be effective in traumatic subcutaneous hematoma. More cases of controlled treatments are needed to define the effect of oriental medical treatments for traumatic subcutaneous hematoma.