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2012, Vol.22, No.4

  • 1.

    The Effects of ST36, GB34, GB39 and Hyeopcheok Points on Nerve Regeneration in Spinal Cord Injury Rat Model

    Mi-Sung Yang | 기영범 | 강대희 and 3other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.1~21 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ST36, GB34 and GB39, Hyeopcheok points, electrical acupuncture and acupuncture on nerve regeneration and neuromuscular synaptic reorganization in rat model of spinal cord injury(SCI). Methods :The subjects were divided into 5 groups; control group with no treatment after inducing SCI, experimental group Ⅰ taken with acupuncture of Hyeopcheok points after inducing SCI, experimental group Ⅱ taken with acupuncture of ST36, GB34 and GB39 after inducing SCI, experimental group Ⅲ taken with electrical acupuncture of Hyeopcheok points after inducing SCI and experimental group Ⅳ taken with electrical acupuncture of ST36, GB34 and GB39 after inducing SCI. After each operation, the present author observed cytological changes, the motor behavior recovery and nerve regeneration by analysis of the motor behavior tests, histological and immunological changes. Rats were tested at modified Tarlov test at the 1st day, Basso, Beattle, Bresnahan locomotor rating scale(BBB scale) at the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21 days. Results :1. Experimental group Ⅳ were improved compared with control group, experimental group Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ in the motor behavior test(BBB scale). 2. BDNF(brain-derived neurotrophin factor) expression degree in the SCI tissue of all the experimenral groups were increased compared with control group. Especially, those of experimental group Ⅳ was more effective. 3. Muscular atrophy in gastrocnemius were restored only in experimental group Ⅳ. 4. NT-3(neurotrophin-3) expression degree in the SCI inducing rats of all the experimenral groups were increased compared with control group. Especially, those of experimental group Ⅳ was more effective. Conclusions :It can be suggested that electrical acupuncture of ST36, GB34 and GB39 may improve motor behavior, histological and immunological findings in SCI-induced rats compared with acupuncture of ST36, GB34 and GB39, acupuncture or electrical acupuncture of Hyeopcheok points.
  • 2.

    Acupuncture's Efficacy and Safety in Axial Spondyloarthritis within 4 Weeks Session : a Randomized, Double-blind, Sham-controlled Trial

    조종현 | 권정주 | Yun-Kyung Song and 2other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.23~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives :To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in patients with axial spondyloarthritis. Methods :A randomized, double-blinded, sham controlled, parallel group trial. Random allocation was done under blocked randomization with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. Participants Conducted between November 2011 and February 2013, participants were recruited from the outpatients of department of rheumatology in Gil hospital who were diagnosed with axial spondyloarthritis by rheumatologists under ASAS(assessment in ankylosing spondylitis) classification criteria. Intervention Active acupuncture and sham control group were made. Each participant in that group took 8 sessions of acupuncture in 4 weeks, twice per a week. Usual medical treatments were attained independently during whole session. Results :10 participants were analyzed. 6 were allocated in treatment group and 4 went sham control group. Acupuncture showed significant reduce on visual analogue scale of low back pain at 4th week.(p=0.021) but failed to show superiority on control. Harms 1 participant(16.5%) from acupuncture group complained of mild local pain. Conclusions :Acupuncture is able to reduce low back pain with axial spondyloarthritis but it could be placebo effect.
  • 3.

    Effects of Kamchobuja-tang(Gancaofuzi-tang ) on Papain-Induced Osteoarthritis in Mice

    최재영 | Minseok Oh | 2012, 22(4) | pp.37~57 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study intends to clarify how Kamchobuja-tang(Gancaofuzi-tang, here in after referred to KBT) affect mice of C57BL/10 whose osteoarthritis was induced by papain. Methods :Osteoarthritis was induced into mice by injecting papain in its knee joint. Mice are divided into a total of 4 groups(n=6). Normal group are not treated at all without inducing osteoarthritis whereas control group(OAC-control) were induced for osteoarthritis by papain and oral medicated with 200 ul of physiological saline per day. Positive comparison group(OAC-Joins®) was injected with papain and after 7 days, 100 mg/kg of Joins® was medicated with 200 ul of physiological saline mixed. Experimental group(OAC-KBT) was injected with papain and after 7 days that was medicated with 400 mg/kg of KBT mixed with 200 ul of physiological saline. OAC-Joins® and OAC-KBT were oral medicated for each substance a total of 4 weeks with one time per day. After experiments(from 1 week after injection of papain to 4 weeks elapsed), the functions of liver and kidney, inflammation cytokine values within serum, degree of revelation for inflammation cytokine genes, immune cells within blood, metabolism of arachidonic acid and amount of cartilage were measured and histopathological variations for knee joint structures were observed. Results :1. Functions of liver and kidney were not affected. 2. IL-6((interleukin-6), IL-1β(interleukin-1β), MCP-1(monocyte chemoattra- ctant protein-1) and TNF-α(tumor necrosis factor-α) are meaningfully reduced. 3. After analyzing inflammation cytokine in joints with mRMA(messenger ribonucleic acid), revelation of IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS-Ⅱ(inducible nitric oxide synthase-Ⅱ) were all meaningfully reduced. And revelation of TNF-α and COX-2 gene were also reduced but meaningless. 4. Neutrophil and monocyte for WBC(white blood cell) within serum were meaningfully reduced. 5. PGE2(prostaglandin E2), TXB2(thromboxane B2) and LTB4(leukotriene B4) were meaningfully reduced. 6. Destruction of cartilage on micro CT(computed tomography)-arthrography was meaningfully reduced. 7. In terms of histopathology, infiltration of inflammation, proliferation of synovial membrane, subsidence of cartilage and bone due to penetration of excessive formation of synovial cell and destruction of cartilage were small(H&E(hematoxylin and eosin), Safranine-O staining). Conclusions :Based on all results mentioned above, KBT is believed to be meaningful for suppressing the progress of osteoarthritis and its treatments because of its anti-inflammatory effects and alleviation of pain with histopathological effective efficacy.
  • 4.

    Anti-OsteoArthritic effects of Mahwangbuja-tang(Mahuangfuzi-tang ) on Papain-Induced OsteoArthritic mice model

    장효길 | Dongseok Heo | 2012, 22(4) | pp.59~77 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was to investigate the anti-osteoarthritic effects of Mahwangbuja-tang(Mahuangfuzi-tang, MBT) on the papain-induced osteoarthritis. Methods :Arthritis was induced by injection of papain into knee joints of rats. Arthritic rats were divided into four groups(Normal, control, JoinsⓇ, MBT). Control group was taken distilled water for 4 weeks and the MBT group, extracts of MBT by orally for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment(5 weeks after papain injection), micro CT arthrography and histopathological examinations on the articular structures of knee joint were performed. The effect on inflammatory cytokine, immunological cell in synovial fluid was measured. Gene expressions of inflammatory cytokine in synovial fluid were measured by PCR. Volume of cartilage was measured by micro CT arthrography. Injury of synovial tissue was measured by H&E, safranin-O imunofluorescence. Results :1. IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α were decreased significantly and IL-1β was decreased in MBT group. 2. Thromboxane B2, Leukotriene B4, prostaglandin E2 were decreased significantly in MBT group. 3. Neutrophil was decreased significantly and white blood cell, monocyte was decreased in MBT group. 4. IL-1β mRNA, iNOS-Ⅱ mRNA were decreased significantly and IL-6 mRNA, TNF-α mRNA, COX-2 mRNA were decreased in MBT group . 5. Through micro CT arthrography, volume of cartilage was increased significantly in MBT group. 6. Histopathologically, injury on synovial membrane of MBT group was decreased and proteoglycan content of MBT group was increased. Conclusions :According to this study, Mahwangbuja-tang has inhibiting effect on the progression of arthritis in papain-induced osteoarthritis model. And it is related to inhibiting the activity of inflammatory cytokine and its gene expression in osteoarthritic chondrocytes and injury of volume in cartilage.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Bee Venom Therapy with Different Dose in Neuropathic Pain Rat Model

    박민정 | Seung-ryong Yeom | Young Dal Kwon | 2012, 22(4) | pp.79~89 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    목적 :본 실험은 신경병증성 동통에 대한 농도별 처치 조건에 따른 봉독 약침의 치료 효과를 알아보기 위한 연구이다. 방법 :L5 신경을 결찰하여 신경병증성 동통이 유발된 75마리의 흰 쥐 모델을 대상으로 동통 유발 후 7일째부터 이틀에 한번씩, 총 18일 동안 環跳穴(GB30)에 정해진 용량의 봉독약침을 주입하는 방식으로 이루어졌다. 실험을 위해 대조군은 신경병증성 동통 유발 후 동량의 생리식염수만 처치한 군(n=25), 봉독 처치군 Ⅰ은 점진적으로 일정하게 농도를 증가시켜 처치한 군(n=25, 1.67×10-3 mg/kg 부터 8.35×10-3 mg/kg까지, 총 주입량 3.22×10-2 mg/kg), 봉독 처치 군 Ⅱ는 일정하게 농도를 유지시켜 처치한 군(n=25, 3.58×10-3 mg/kg, 총 주입량 3.22×10-2 mg/kg)으로 나누었다. 치료효과를 알아보기 위해 기계적, 열적 자극에 대한 회피반응 역치뿐만 아니라 신경전도속도 검사, 척수후각의 c-Fos 면역조직화학적 반응이 분석되었다. 결과 :실험 결과 기계적, 열적 자극에 대한 통증행동학적 평가와 c-Fos 면역조직화학적 반응에서 봉독 처치군 I은 봉독 처치군 Ⅱ에 비해 봉독약침 처치 초반부터 더 나은 진통효과를 나타냈고, 신경전도속도 검사에서 봉독 처치군 Ⅱ는 봉독 처치군 I에 비해 봉독약침 처치 초반부터 더 나은 신경전도의 회복을 나타냈다. 그러나 처치 후반에는 두 봉독 처치군 모두 비슷한 진통효과를 나타냈다. 결론 :봉독약침 치료는 신경병증성 동통에 매우 효과적임을 알 수 있었고 봉독의 총 처치량이 같은 상태에서 일정하게 봉독의 농도를 증가시키는 방법과 일정하게 봉독의 농도를 유지시키는 방법은 유사한 치료 효과가 있었음을 알 수 있었다.
  • 6.

    A Study for Meta-analysis of the Efficacy of Acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain for Oriental Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline

    Man-Jin Jeong | 권오곤 | Chang-Hoon Woo and 1other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.91~98 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives :The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for low back pain for oriental medicine clinical practice guideline. Methods :Five studies were selected from research information service system(RISS), Koreanstudies information service system(KISS), national discovery or science leaders(NDSL), and oriental medicine advance searching integrated system(OASIS) database. They were analyzed by meta-analysis method. The selected studies contained only acupuncture treatment for low back pain and used a reported statistical value for VAS(visual analogue scale) to measure the size of effects. Results :Normal model mean effect size was 1.7337(test for homogeneity Q value was 53.1184>9.49). Random effect model mean effect size was 1.5908(test for homogeneity Q value was 5.5159<9.49). Conclusions :Acupuncture treatment for low back pain had large mean effect size. More studies and meta-analysis are needed to oriental medicine clinical practice guideline.
  • 7.

    The Latest Trends of Chuna Treatment on Low Back Pain in PubMed

    최희승 | 엄봉군 | 김주영 and 3other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.99~113 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study is to explore the latest trends of Chuna(chiropractic) treatment on low back pain. Methods :We investigated the latest studies on Chuna(chiropractic) treatments for low back pain via searching PubMed. 19 research papers were analyzed and the journals, the authors, countries, methods, periods, techniques of chiropractic, instruments of assessment, and ethics approvals of those research papers were examined. Results :Studies on Chuna(chiropractic) treatments were mainly published via J Manipulative Physiol Ther. The technique of chiropractic that most frequently adopted in the researchs was high-velocity low-amplitude thrust technique(HLVA). Numeric rating scale(NRS), oswestry disability questionnaire(ODI), and Roland-Morris disability index(RMDQ) were used as primary outcome assessments. There were no ethical problems found on the studies investigated. Conclusions :Reviewing the latest trends of studies on Chuna(chiropractic) treatments for low back pain and figuring out the strong points and weak points of those treatments are necessary to future studies. It is anticipated that this review would benefit the in-depth treatments for low back pain in terms of Korean medicine.
  • 8.

    A Comparative Study of Improvement of Pain and Physical Function According to Cervical Spine Curvature in Patients of Neck Pain Caused by Traffic Accident

    김선민 | 김지용 | 전병철 | 2012, 22(4) | pp.115~122 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives :The aim of this study was to compare improvement of pain and physical function according to cervical spine curvature on neck pain patients induced in traffic accident. Methods :We investigated patients of 78 cases with neck pain induced in traffic accident. Based on Cobb's method[C1-C7], 78 subjects were divided into hyperlordosis group, normal group, hypolordosis group. We treated each group by the same therapies acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, herbal medicine. To compare the treatment effects of three groups, we used numeric rating scale(NRS), neck disability index(NDI). Results :Improvement in NRS of neck pain and NDI, there were no significant difference among the groups. Conclusions :There was no relation between improvement of neck pain and physical function and cervical curvature.
  • 9.

    A Study of the Relationship Between Fear-Avoidance Beliefs, Pain and Neck Disability Index in Patients with Neck Pain

    김성식 | Chung eun jung | Jongsoo Lee and 1other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.123~133 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study is to determine the relationship between fear-avoidance beliefs, pain and disability index in patients with neck pain as well as to identify factors that influence on fear-avoidance beliefs, pain and disability index. Methods :The subjects used in this study were 35 patients with neck pain. Each of subjects completed a fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire(FABQ) which divided into two subscales, FABQ for physical activity(FABQ-PA) and FABQ for work(FABQ-W), visual analog scale(VAS), and neck disability index(NDI). Results :Individual with radiation pain were significantly higher in FABQ-PA and NDI than individuals without radiation pain(p<0.05). And according causing neck pain were significantly difference in FABQ-W, FABQ-Total and NDI(p<0.01). In correlation analysis, the FABQ-PA were significantly correlated with FABQ-W(p<0.01) and FABQ-Total(p<0.01). FABQ-W appeared to be significantly correlated with FABQ-Total(p<0.01), VAS(p<0.05) and NDI(p<0.05). VAS was significantly correlated with NDI(p<0.05). Conclusions :This study suggest screening for fear-avoidance beliefs may be useful for identifying patients at risk of psychosocial problems as well as pain intensity and physical impairment.
  • 10.

    The Change of Cervical Curvature in Whiplash Injury Patients after Oriental Medicine Treatment

    Eun-Sill Choi | Honggyu Jang | 권오곤 and 2other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.135~145 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives :To investigate the efficacy of oriental medicine treatment for hypolordosis of the cervical spine in whiplash injury patients. Methods :A clinical study was carried out in 33 whiplash injury inpatients. The cervical curvature was measured using Jackson's angle and Cobb angle(C1-C7). Neck pain was measured using visual analogue scale(VAS) and neck pain and disability scale(NPDS). The efficacy after treatment was statistically measured by t-test and the statistical relationships were measured with Spearman's coefficient of correlation. Results :Neck pain(VAS, NPDS) had significant improvement after oriental medicine treatment. Cervical curvature had significant improvement after oriental medicine treatment. Conclusions :The result suggest that the hypolordosis of cervical spine in whiplash injury patients can be effectively improved by oriental medicine treatment.
  • 11.

    A Case Report of Oriental Medical Treatment for Obesity on Overweight and Obese Children of Broken Home

    박민정 | Young Dal Kwon | Seung-ryong Yeom and 3other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.147~156 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oriental medical treatment on overweight and obese children of broken home. Methods :From July 26 to 30, 2010 and from August 2 to 6, 2010, 17 children were treated in W oriental medicine hospital. Herbal medicine, electroacupuncture, auricular acupuncture, exercise(a gym ball, a jump rope, treadmill etc.), diet therapy and cupping treatment were done daily for four nights and five days. Swimming was done 2 times during this period. Also growth and nutrition education, audio-visual education were done. We checked the change of waist circumference using measuring tape, weight and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA) at the first and the last date of treatment time. SPSS 12.0 ver. for WindowsⓇ was used for statistical analysis of this study. The results of treatment was expressed with mean and ± standard deviation. Results :After this treatment, the weight loss was 2.37±0.76 kg and total fat mass by BIA decreased 1.62±0.87 kg. The waist circumference was decreased 2.11±1.98 cm. Conclusions :Oriental medical treatment for obesity could be effective on overweight and obese chlidren of broken home suffered from untreated. Also, this program of oriental medicine could give proper direction of obesity management.
  • 12.

    The Association of the Nutritional Status and Physique Development Degree with BMI in Health Checkup Examinees of College Students in Seongnam

    안민윤 | 염도성 | 강형구 and 3other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.157~167 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of the nutritional status and physique development degree with body mass index(BMI) in health checkup examinees of college students. Methods :A group of 1304 test subjects took their medical examination and their body composition, height, weight, blood pressure were measured and blood test was done. With these results we diagnosed obesity, and analysed relationship between obesity and percent body fat, basal metabolic rate, nutritive conditions, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, liver function, renal function and blood pressure. Results :1. Obese people showed significantly increased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein(LDL) triglyceride and significantly decreased high density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol. 2. Obese people showed significantly increased basal metabolic rate and skeletal muscle mass but showed significantly decreased percent skeletal muscle. 3. Development of upper body increased in obese people but development of trunk and lower body decreased in obese people. Conclusions :Obese people showed decreased percent skeletal muscle, liver function and increased cholesterol which indicates obesity can be considered to be a severe health risk.
  • 13.

    The Analysis of 509 Admission Patients in Korean Medical Hospital due to Traffic Accident

    국길호 | Minseok Oh | 2012, 22(4) | pp.169~183 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristic of patients who had admitted in Korean medical hospital due to traffic accident. Methods :We analyzed statistical study in 509 patients, who had admitted to Dept. of oriental rehabilitation medicine, Dunsan oriental medical hospital, Dae-Jeon university from January, 2010 to December, 2010 according to medical charts. Results :1. In distribution according to age and sex, the rate of male was 35.0%, and that of female was 65.0%. Twenties numbered the most in male(9.8%) and female(16.1%). 2. In distribution according to pathway of admission, out-patient department was the most(88.8%), followed by emergency room(11.1%). 3. In distribution according to duration between time of injury and arrival at oriental hospital of Dae-Jeon university, less than 2 days was the most(58.0%), followed by 3 to 5 days(22.0%). 4. In distribution according to kinds of vehicles, car was the most(85.3%), followed by pedestrian(5.5%). 5. In distribution according to type of injury, sprain was the most(98.4%), followed by contusion & abrasion(21.67%). 6. In distribution according to traditional Korean medical physiotherapy, negative therapy was the most(96.5%), followed by hot pack(95.3%). Conclusions :This study showed that the following items take up the highest percentage from each category of patients who had been admitted to Korean medical hospital due to traffic accident - people in their 20s, females, entering hospital via out-patient department, and within 2 days since the accident.
  • 14.

    Two Clinical Cases of Heating-conduction Acupuncture Therapy and Needle-embedding Therapy Combined with Oriental Medical Treatments for Ankle Ligament Injury

    이현재 | 국길호 | Lee Eun Jung and 2other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.185~198 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study is to evaluate the effect of heating-conduction acupuncture therapy and needle-embedding therapy on acute and chronic ankle ligament injury. Methods :The patients diagnosed with acute anterior talofibular ligament injury grade Ⅲ(case 1) and chronic medial deltoid ligament with acute anterior talofibular ligament injury grade Ⅱ(case 2) were treated by heating-conduction acupuncture therapy combined with needle-embedding therapy. Painthreshold, VAS(visual analogue scale), and ROM(range of motion) were checked on a daily basis while AHS(Ankle hindfoot scale) were examined for at least every 3 days interval. Results :After treatment, the combined therapy of heating-conduction acupuncture and needle-embedding led to more significant improvement than oriental medicine treatment solely used in 7 days from admission day. In case 1, acute ankle pain was reduced from VAS 9 to VAS 1 and inversion ROM increased to the full range with better gait without cane. AHS also increased from 47 to 82. In case 2, chronic ankle pain decreased from VAS 8 to VAS 1 and ankle dysesthesia was improved. The patient showed full ROM of ankle. AHS increased from 52 to 90. Conclusions :Heating-conduction acupuncture therapy combined with needle-embedding therapy is proved to be helpful to improve the unstability and reduce the pain of ligament sprain with over grade Ⅱ.
  • 15.

    A Clinical Case of the Korean and Western Medical Treatment for the Patient with Herpes Zoster Opthalmicus

    민선정 | 박민정 | 유경곤 and 2other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.199~207 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to report the effect of Korean medical treatment in patient with herpes zoster opthalmicus. The patient was treated by acupuncture, herbal medicine, Hwangryunheadok-tang(HuanglianFiedu-Tang) and Ginseng pharmacopuncture, and western medicine from July 25th to August 8th 2012. We measured visual analogue scale(VAS) and observed the change of herpes size through the picture using digital camera. Before this treatment, he took western medicine for 8 days from onset but there was no effect. However, when this Korean medical treatment was finished, VAS score changed from 10 to 1. Korean medical treatment was effective in herpes zoster. But in treating herpes zoster antiviral agents of western medicine might be needed in early stage. And further studies are needed to figure out the effects of Korean medical treatment on herpes zoster.