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2013, Vol.23, No.2

  • 1.

    Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 on Early-stage Inflammatory Response in Spinal Cord Compression of Rodents

    정벌 | Jongsoo Lee | 2013, 23(2) | pp.1~15 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives :In present study, we investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on early-stage inflammatory response in spinal cord compression of rodents. Methods :Spinal cord injury(SCI) was induced by a vascular clip method(30 g, 5 min) on the spinal cord of mice. Rg3 was treated orally at 1 hour prior to the SCI induction. Messenger ribonucleic acid(mRNA) expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) was measured by the real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Microglia in the spinal cord tissue, neurophils and COX-2 in the peri-lesion and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) expression in the ventral horn of SCI induced rats were measured by immunohistochemical stain. Results :1. Rg3 significantly reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 in the spinal cord tissue compared with SCI group(p<0.05, p<0.01). 2. Rg3 significantly reduced the total number of activated microglia and proportion of phagocytic form in the total activated microglia compared with SCI group(p<0.05, p<0.01). 3. Rg3 significantly reduced myeloperoxidase(MPO) positive neurophil in the peri-lesion compared with SCI group(p<0.05). 4. Rg3 reduced the COX-2 expression in the tissue and motor neurons compared with SCI group. 5. Rg3 significantly reduced iNOS positive motor neurons in the ventral horn compared with SCI group(p<0.01). Conclusions :In conclusion, we demonstrated at first that treatment of ginsenoside Rg3 could reduce significantly the levels of inflammatory mediators in a spinal cord compression model of rodents. Therefore, these results suggested that ginsenoside Rg3 may be a useful antimiflamatory therapeutic candidate for SCI.
  • 2.

    Effect of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture and Scolopendra Subspinipes Pharmacopuncture on Functional Recovery and Anti-inflammation after Sciatic Crushed Nerve Injury in Rats

    이길재 | SONG YUN KYUNG | Lim Hyung Ho | 2013, 23(2) | pp.17~31 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objectives :Peripheral nerve injuries are commonly encountered clinical problems and often result in serve functional deficit. Bee venom and scolopendra subspinipes have been traditionally used in oriental medicine to treat several inflammatory diseases and chronic pain conditions. Methods :In the present study, the effects of bee venom pharmacopuncture and scolopendra subspinipes pharmacopuncture on functional recovery, severity of pain, and expressions of neurofilament, cycloxygenease-2(COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) following sciatic crushed nerve injury in rats were investigated. For this study, walking tract analysis, plantar test, western blot for COX-2 and TNF-α, and immunohistochemistry for neurofilament were performed. Results :In the present results, sciatic functional index(SFI) in walking tract analysis was significantly decreased following sciatic crushed nerve injury, and pain severity in plantar test was significantly increased. COX-2 and TNF-α expressions were increased whereas neurofilament expression was decreased by sciatic crushed nerve injury. On the other hand, bee venom pharmacopuncture and scolopendra subspinipes pharmacopuncture improved SFI in walking tract analysis and suppressed the pain severity in sciatic crushed nerve injury. Bee venom pharmacopuncture and scolopendra subspinipes pharmacopuncture suppressed COX-2 and TNF-α expression and enhanced the neurofilament expression in sciatic crushed nerve injury. Conclusions :In the present study, we have shown that treatment with bee venom or scolopendra subspinipes is the effective therapeutic modality to ameliorate the symptoms of sciatic crushed nerve injury. The efficacies of bee venom and scolopendra subspinipes were similar.
  • 3.

    Effect of Aqueous Extract of Sukjiyanggeun-Tang(shú dˋl yǎngj l̄n-tāng) on Functional Recovery and Expressions of Inflammatory Mediators after Sciatic Nerve Crushed Injury in Rat

    장건 | SONG YUN KYUNG | Lim Hyung Ho | 2013, 23(2) | pp.33~48 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives :Peripheral nerve injuries are commonly encountered clinical problems and often result in severe functional deficits. Sukjiyanggeun-Tang(shúdˋlyǎngj l̄n-tāng ), in oriental medicine, has been used to treat various musculoskeletal disorders. Methods :In the present study, the effects of aqueous extract of Sukjiyanggeun-Tang(shúdˋlyǎngj l̄n-tāng ) on functional recovery, severity of pain, and expressions of neurofilament, cycloxygenease-2(COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) following sciatic crushed nerve injury in rats were investigated. For this study, walking tract analysis, plantar test, western blot analysis for COX-2 iNOS, and TNF-α, and Immunofluorescence test for neurofilament were performed. Results :In the present results, sciatic functional index(SFI) in walking tract analysis was significantly decreased following sciatic crushed nerve injury, and pain severity in plantar test was significantly increased. COX-2, iNOS and TNF-α expressions were increased whereas neurofilament expression was decreased by sciatic crushed nerve injury, In contrast, treatment with Sukjiyanggeun-Tang(shúdˋlyǎngj l̄n-tāng ) improved SFI in walking tract analysis and suppressed the pain severity in sciatic crushed nerve injury. Sukjiyanggeun-Tang(shúdˋlyǎngj l̄n-tāng ) treatment also suppressed COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α expressions and enhanced the neurofilament expression in sciatic crushed nerve injury. Conclusions :In the present study, we have shown that Sukjiyanggeun-Tang(shúdˋlyǎngj l̄n-tāng ) is the effective therapeutic modality to ameliorate the symptoms of sciatic crushed nerve injury.
  • 4.

    Articular Cartilage Protective Effects of Kangwhaldoche-tang(Qiānghuoˊdǎozhˋl-tāng) Aqueous Extracts on the Adjuvant-induced Rat Rheumatoid Arthritis

    권오곤 | Hee Duk An | 2013, 23(2) | pp.49~61 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was conducted to determine whether or not Kangwhaldoche-tang(Qiānghuoˊdǎozhˋl-tāng) (KDT) aqueous extracts can protect articular cartilage losses on the Freund’s complete adjuvant(FCA)-induced rat rheumatoid arthritis. Methods :520, 260 or 130 mg/kg of KDT were orally administered once a day for 14 days from 14 days after FCA treatments, and 15 mg/kg of dexamethasone was intraperitoneally administered as reference drug in this experiment. Changes on the body weight, knee circumferences, gross arthritis score, inflammatory tissue prostaglandin(PG) E2 levels were monitored with cartilage collagen components and glucosaminoglycans(GAGs) compositions – chondroitin sulphate, heparin sulphate and hyaluronic acid in the present study. Results :As results of FCA treatment, classic rheumatoid arthritis featuring dramatic decreases of the body weights, cartilage collagen and GAGs contents with increases of the knee circumferences, gross arthritis scores and inflammatory tissue PGE2 levels, were demonstrated in the present study. However, these changes from FCA - induced rheumatoid arthritis were clearly inhibited by treatment of dexamethasone and all three different dosages of KDT. Although overall anti-inflammatory effects of KDT 520 mg/kg were lowered than those of dexamethasone 15 mg/kg treated rats, KDT 520 mg/kg showed more favorable preserve effects on the cartilage GAGs and KDT 260 mg/kg treated rats showed similar preserve effects as compared with dexamethasone 15 mg/kg in this experiment. Conclusions :The present results supported that over 75 mg/kg of KDT showed favorable anti-arthritic effects on the FCA-induced arthritis mediated by suppression of PGE2, representative inflammatory mediator, and may help improve rheumatoid arthritis.
  • 5.

    The Comparative Study on the Frequency of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    박현건 | Jongsoo Lee | 2013, 23(2) | pp.63~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives :The aim of this study was to investigate difference of the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) with different frequencies in participants having delayed onset muscle soreness(DOMS). Methods :We recruited 36 healthy participants, but 3 of them were dropped out. They were randomly divided into 3groups : 3 Hz TENS(n=11), 100 Hz TENS(n=11) and sham TENS(n=11). DOMS of the both triceps surae muscle induced by repetitive concentric, ecentric exercise. The result measurements were pain perception(visual analogue scale, VAS), mechanical pain threshold(MPT) by pressure algometer, electrical contraction and fatigue by surface electromyography. The measurements were on first visit, before and after treatment except first. This study was prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial. Results :In 100 Hz TENS group, VAS was significantly decreased during whole session compared with 3 Hz and control group, and after each treatment, too. In 3 Hz TENS group, VAS was significantly decreased during whole session compared with control group, and after 2nd, 3rd treatment, too. In 100 Hz TENS group, MPT increased the most among 3 groups during whole session and after 1st treatment, but there were no statistical significances. Conclusions :Both 3 Hz and 100 Hz TENS improved delayed onset muscle soreness, but 100 Hz TENS group is more effective than 3 Hz TENS group.
  • 6.

    Effect of Foeniculum Vulgare extract on inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide exposed rats

    허성규 | 이은 | 박원형 and 1other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.73~83 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was performed to investigate the effects of Foeniculum Vulgare(FV) extract on the anti-inflammatory of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) exposed rats. Methods :We divided LPS exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups. They were control group, feed with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg FV groups. They were administered for 6 weeks. We measured the concentration of plasma interleukin-1β(IL-1β), plasma interleukin-6(IL-6), plasma tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), plasma interleukin-10(IL-10), the concentration of liver IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. Results :1. Plasma IL-1β, plasma IL-6 and plasma TNF-α concentration increased rapidly at 2hours after LPS injection and maintained high levels at 5hours after LPS injection. The concentration of these cytokines in the FV extract groups showed lower values than control group(P<0.05). 2. The concentration of Plasma IL-10 in FV extract groups showed higher values than control group at all times(P<0.05). 3. The concentration of liver IL-1β and IL-6 in FV extract groups showed lower values than control group(P<0.05). The concentration of liver TNF-α in FV extract groups showed a tendency to decrease and that of liver IL-10 in FV extract groups showed a tendency to increase; however, these values showed no significantly different. Conclusions :In inflammatory response by LPS derivation, the FV gives positive effect.
  • 7.

    The Analysis of Pattern Identification of Low Back Pain, Which is Used in Thesis both in Korea and China

    Min-Woo Kim | Youn-Seok Ko | Lee Jung-han and 9other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.85~94 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study aims to contribute to developing new pattern identification based on searches regarding pattern identification of low back pain, which is used in thesis both in Korea and China. Methods :First of all, we searched thesis concerning pattern identification of low back pain from RISS, OASIS, Korean traditional knowledge portal, CNKI. Results :1. There were overall 34 thesis, consist of 18 Korean thesis(13 clinical papers and 5 analytical papers) and 9 Chinese thesis(7 clinical papers and 9 analytical papers). 2. 10 of 11 Korean thesis used more than 9 patterns for pattern identification, 9 of 14 Chinese thesis used less than 4 patterns for pattern identification of low back pain. 3. Patterns, which were repeatedly used in Korea, were 腎虛腰痛(Kidney deficiency low back pain), 濕熱腰痛(Dampness-heat low back pain), 寒濕腰痛(Cold-dampness low back pain), 痰飮腰痛(Phlegm-fluid retention low back pain), 風腰痛(Wind low back pain), 食積腰痛(Food accumulation low back pain), 濕腰痛(Dampness low back pain), 挫閃腰痛(Sprain low back pain), 瘀血腰痛(Static blood low back pain), 氣腰痛(Qi low back pain). 4. Patterns, which were repeatedly used in China, were 腎虛腰痛(Kidney deficiency low back pain), 濕熱腰痛(Dampness-heat low back pain), 寒濕腰痛(Cold-dampness low back pain), 氣滯血瘀腰痛(Blood stasis due to qi stagnation low back pain). Conclusions :Based on these results, it is considered that an advanced type of pattern identification of low back pain should be made or existing type needs to be practically and objectively improved.
  • 8.

    Research Trends of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Literature

    Youn-Seok Ko | 박상훈 | Lee Jung-han and 9other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.95~104 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study is to analyze internal research trends of work-related musculoskeletal disorders(WMSDs) and provide problems of researches forward. Methods :6 Korean databases were searched for articles of WMSDs published from 2000 to 2012, and 264 research were systematic reviewed. An analytical method was used descriptive statistics, an actual number and percentage. Results :The results of distribution by year were reported more than 20 articles after 2004, and 45 articles in 2009. Industrial classification distribution of research subjects the manufacturing industry was many most at the 84. Research contents in most description were 147 whether it was risk factor and relation. Research design type of articles was most description survey research 226. In the research field 89 articles were reported to the journal related to technologies. Conclusions :It is considered to be necessary that ergonomic approach would cooperate with other approaches such as integrated health management system as well as industrial medicine considering psychosocial factors.
  • 9.

    Strategic Approaches to Occupational Health in Korean Medicine by Reviewing Research Trends

    Lee Jung-han | Dong-Chan Jo | Youn-Seok Ko and 9other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.105~115 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study was aimed to review the trend of occupational health in korean medicine and to suggest the strategic approach. Methods :We collected 40 articles on occupational health in the internet site OASIS using the keyword ‘workplace', ‘worker'. Then we analyzed them. Results :There were 40 papers that were published between 2000 and 2012. Published papers on the korean journal of oriental preventive medicine were more than the other journals. Affiliation of the first author of the published papers was concentrated to one. Clinical research papers accounted for 90% of the total study. Papers on health management were more than half. Conclusions :Related to occupational health, high quality and large amount of research and development is needed and the active policy of the government should be supported in Korean medicine.
  • 10.

    The Trends of Korean Medical Study on Stress in the Industrial Worker

    Cha Yun Yeop | Youn-Seok Ko | Lee Jung-han and 8other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.117~128 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study is to explore the trends of Korean medical study on stress in the industrial worker. Methods :We received numbers of the studies about stress in the industrial worker from 6 Korean web databases, using key words such as ‘Industry AND Stress’, ‘Oriental medicine AND Stress’, ‘Worker AND Stress’, ‘Workplace AND Stress’. We received 12 research papers and they were analyzed and the journals, the authors, the contents of 3 classification of those research papers. Results :Among them, we had 6 reviews of Dept. of preventive medicine and Dept. of third medicine, college of Korean Medicine, Won-kwang University, and the rest of them were 6 reviews. We had 4 reviews of Korean Journal of Oriental Preventive Medical Society, 2 reviews of the Journal of Traditional Korean Medicine, 2 reviews of Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry and so on. According to the contents of reviews, we had 7 reviews of correlation of industrial worker and stress, 4 reviews of cause on the industrial worker’s stress and 1 case report. Conclusions :We reviewed the trends of Korean medical study on stress in the industrial worker. The stress in the industrial workers were related with the type of occupation, social psychology, drinking, smoking, the satisfaction of job, the harmony of organization. And we knew that the musculoskeletal pain was related to the industrial worker’s stress. In the future, abundant case studies, follow-up trials and RCTs should be done about the industrial worker’s stress.
  • 11.

    A Study of the Relationship between Straight Leg Raising, Valsalva Test and Size, Position of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    엄태웅 | Won-jung Choo | Cha-Ro Lee and 2other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.129~138 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives :This study investigated the relationship between straight leg raising(SLR), valsalva test and size, position of lumbar disc herniation. Methods :We took SLR and valsalva test on 105 patients with lumbar disc herniation. According to the result of MRI findings, this study classified three groups of 105 patients with lumbar disc herniation, bulging, protrusion and extrusion. According to the position of lumbar disc herniation, 72 patients that were diagnosed protrusion and extrsuion were sorted 4 groups, lateral, lateral postero-lateral, central postero-lateral, central. The association size, position of lumbar disc herniation and SLR, valsalva test were analysed. Results :The bigger size of disc herniation, the more positive result of SLR and valsalva test, the lower angle of SLR test. There was not significant association between the position of lumbar disc herniation and the angle of SLR test. Conclusions :The SLR and valsalva test is an useful physical examination to speculate about the degree of lumbar disc herniation.
  • 12.

    Analysis of Lumbosacral-Pelvic Parameters in Low Back Pain Patients

    이진현 | Dong-Chan Jo | 김창곤 and 6other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.139~149 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objectives :The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristic of low back pain(LBP) and lumbosacral-pelvic alignments, and the relationship between them, depending on the presence and the duration of LBP. Methods :Ninety six patients were classified into the no LBP group(n=31), the acute LBP group(n=33) and the chronic LBP group(n=32), based on the presence and duration of LBP. In each group, lumbosacral-pelvic indicators were measured. The data were analysed by one way analysis of variance(ANOVA) and pearson correlation. Results :1. The chronic LBP group showed the lower mean value in Ferguson angle, Lumbar lordosis angle, Pelvic Incidence and difference between left and right iliac height, being compared to acute LBP group. 2. There was not significant correlation between lumbosacral-pelvic alignments and LBP in every group. 3. A positive correlation was found among period of LBP and visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry disability index(ODI). Conclusions :For presence and duration of LBP, there were different characteristic values in descriptive statistics. And period of LBP is the most important factor for the degree of LBP. These results show that the lumbosacral-pelvic alignments and LBP have distinctive relationships depending on the duration of LBP.
  • 13.

    Comparison of Efficacy between Medial Branch Block and Collaborative Treatment with Acupuncture on Acute Low Back Pain

    이주일 | 나유진 | 김병헌 and 1other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.151~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives :The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of acupuncture and medial branch block(collaborative treatment) with just medial branch block regarding acute low back pain. Methods :Forty inpatients who received treatment between January 2012 and February 2013 were divided into 2 groups. The East-West treatment group(EW group, n=20) received one treatment of medial branch block and then acupuncture afterwards. The Western treatment group(W group, n=20) received one treatment of medial branch block. Both groups continued to receive manual therapy 3 times a week. Evaluations were made before medial branch block, 7 days after, and 14 days after using the Numerical Rating Scale(NRS). Results :Compared to before treatment, the NRS score of both EW and W groups after 7 and 14 days of treatment significantly decreased(p=0.0001). But only the EW group showed additional improvement between days 7 and 14(p=0.005). Regarding group comparison, the NRS score of the EW group was significantly lower than the W group at 7 days(p=0.037), and even more at 14 days(p<0.0001). Conclusions :Although medial branch block alone significantly improved acute low back pain, collaborative treatment with acupuncture was even more effective, with increased efficacy as time passed. Further research is recommended regarding the effects of collaborative treatment with acupuncture on acute low back pain.
  • 14.

    Effect of Acupuncture and Massage on Iliopsoas Muscle in Patients with Restless Leg Syndrome : Case Report

    박원형 | Cha Yun Yeop | 2013, 23(2) | pp.163~174 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Restless legs syndrome(RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move legs to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. We report a new approach to improve RLS using acupuncture and massage on iliopsoas Muscle. The patients who have RLS were treated by acupuncture and massage on iliopsoas Muscle. We measured 3~6 times IRLS(Korean Versoin of International Restless Legs Scale), VAS(visual analogue scale), and angle(between the legs and the table) during the treatment period. After treatment, RLS symptoms decreased, In case 1, IRLS changed 34 to 10, VAS changed 8 to 2, angle changed 20 to 5. In case 2, IRLS changed 22 to 12, VAS changed 10 to 5, angle changed 15 to 10. In case 3, IRLS changed 30 to 9, VAS changed 8 to 1, angle changed 25 to 5. Acupuncture and massage on iliopsoas muscle for RLS was effective. To effective acupuncture treatment for RLS, more research is needed.
  • 15.

    A Case Report of Patient with Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Treated by Korean Medicine Treatment in Combination with Electro-acupuncture and Chuna Manual Treatment

    이형은 | Dongseok Heo | 2013, 23(2) | pp.175~184 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study is to observe the effect of Korean medicine treatment combined with electro-acupuncture and chuna manual treatment on tarsal tunnel syndrome inpatient. The patient, diagnosed as tarsal tunnel syndrome, was treated by Korean medicine treatment in combination with electro-acupuncture and chuna manual treatment. We measured visual analogue scale(VAS). Neuropathic pain scale(NPS) was adopted as a method of measuring the treatment results of pain & hypoesthesia. Rt. sole numbness & pain decreased from VAS 10 to VAS 4. Rt. foot paresthesia decreased from VAS 10 to VAS 4 and Rt. ankle pain was disappeared. NPS score decreased from 80 to 62. Korean medicine treatment in combination with electro-acupuncture and chuna manual treatment is proved to be helpful to improve the symptoms of the tarsal tunnel syndrome patient.
  • 16.

    A Case of Ischemic Colitis Presenting as Bloody Diarrhea after Glycerin Enema in a Patient on Modified Fasting Therapy

    최효정 | 박현건 | 맹태호 and 3other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.185~191 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Case of ischemic colitis after enema for bowel cleansing have been rarely reported, but there has been no case report of a patient on modiefied fasting therapy. A 26-year old male patient with obesity admitted Korean medical hospital of Kyung Hee university for losing weight. He is on a special diet called modiefied fasting therapy, only took the fermented herbal drink. At 2nd day, he received an enema for bowel cleansing. A few hours after enema, he had a bloody diarrhea with lower abdominal pain. His colonoscopic and histologic findings presented ischemic colitis. He was advised to fast for two days and couldn't complete his diet program. We suggest 4 possible reasons : Increased intraluminal pressure by enema, vascular spasm caused by room-temperature glycerin solution colder than intraluminal temperature, predisposition to bleeding disturbances by taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor(SSRI) for depression history and mucosal injury by osmotic effect of glycerin solution itself. For reducing the risk of bowel cleansing, glycerin enema should be carefully prescribed and practiced concerning the condition of each patient.
  • 17.

    Effect of Coffee Enema among Detoxification Therapy on Atherosclerosis : One Clinical Case Report

    김두희 | 신우석 | 정현우 and 4other persons | 2013, 23(2) | pp.193~199 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This study was performed to report the effect of coffee enema among detoxification Therapy on atherosclerosis. Russian patient was treated by coffee enema, acupuncture, herbal medicines, exercise, cupping, korean physical therapy, chuna manipulation treatment and moxibustion. The state of patient was measured by Infrared Thermography, Blood Vessel Stasis Test and Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. After treatments, both feet temperature were increased. And index of indicating the occlusion of the lower body was improved. Also, Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale scores were improved. It means the patient was successful at non-smoking during hospitalization. These results suggests that atherosclerosis was improved. According to above results, coffee enema was effective to improve the atherosclerosis. More studies should be followed.