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2014, Vol.24, No.2

  • 1.

    Effects of Cheunggihwadamhwan Extract on Lowering Lipid, Antioxidation and Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Rats Fed on High Fat Diet

    이한 | 박원형 | Cha Yun Yeop | 2014, 24(2) | pp.1~13 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Cheunggihwadamhwan (CGHDH) extract on lowering lipid, antioxidation and production of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed on high fat diet. Methods 40 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on high fat diet for 8 weeks and 32 rats (above 400 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (8 mice in each group) : control group, 100 mg/Kg CGHDH group, 200 mg/Kg CGHDH group, 300 mg/Kg CGHDH group. We fed a control group of rats a basal diet and administered normal saline(100 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. And We fed each experimental group of rats basal diet and administered an extract of Cheunggihwadamhwan extracts (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 1 time/ 1 day) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to determine their chemical composition. We measured lipid in plasma and liver, concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, antioxidative activity and gene expression. The gene expression level was investigated by the way of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results 1. Concentration of plasma FFA, plasma TG, plasma total cholesterol and plasma LDL-cholesterol showed a significant decrement in Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. However, concentration of plasma HDL-cholesterol showed a significant increment in 200, 300 mg/kg Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. 2. Concentration of liver total cholesterol and liver TG showed a significant decrement in Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. 3. Concentration of plasma TBARS showed a significant decrement in all Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. Concentration of liver TBARS showed a significant decrement in 200, 300 mg/kg Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. Concentration of liver GSH-Px, SOD and CAT showed a tendency to decrease in all Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. 4. Concentration of plasma IL-1β, plasma IL-6, TNF-α and NO, showed a tendency to decrease in all Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. Concentration of plasma IL-10 showed a tendency to increase in all Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. 5. In the analysis of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the gene expression of Apo-B and Apo-E in the Cheunggihwadamhwan groups showed a low expression than that of control group. The ratio of Apo-B expression per β-actin expression in the showed a significant decrement in all Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. The ratio of Apo-E expression per β-actin expression in the showed a significant decrement in 300 mg/kg Cheunggihwadamhwan groups. Conclusions According to this study, the extract of Cheunggihwadamhwan showed a positive effect of lowering lipid, antioxidation and a control of producing proinflammatory cytokines.
  • 2.

    Effects of Bangkeehwangkee-tang (fángjǐhuángqí-tāng) Treatment on the Monosodium Iodoacetate-induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

    김대훈 | 강성인 | 송민영 and 5other persons | 2014, 24(2) | pp.15~29 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Objectives We have studied to know effects of Bangkeehwangkee-tang on the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced osteoarthritis in rats. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by injection of monosodium iodoacetate into knee joint cavity of rats. Rats are devided into 4 groups; Sham, control, Bangkeehwangkee-tang , Shinbaro. Sham group was injected by normal saline into knee joint cavity only. Control group was taken no treatment and Experimental groups were taken extracts of Bangkeehwangkee- tang and Shinbaro by orally once a day for 4 weeks. The content of TNF-α, IL- 1β and IL-6 in synovial fluids were analysed. COX-2 in chondrocytes and blood PGE2 concentration were analysed. Histopathological examination was performed by Safranin-O fast green staining and Mankins score checking. Results The content of TNF-α, IL-1β in experimental groups were decreased compared with control group. COX-2 in chondrocytes and blood PGE2 concentration in experimental groups were decreased compared with control group. Histopathologically, osteoarthritic scores of experimental groups were decreased compared with control group. But the content of IL-6 in synovial fluids was not significantly compared with control group. Conclusions According to these results, it can be suggested that Bangkeehwangkeetang has anti-arthritic effects on the MIA induced osteoarthritis in rats.
  • 3.

    Effects of Trachelospermum caulis Extract on Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP)-induced Inflammatory Responses in Rabbit HIG-82 Synovial Membrane Cells

    박정식 | Lim Hyung Ho | 2014, 24(2) | pp.31~40 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives Trachelospermi caulis, known as Nak-Suk-Deung in Korea, is the dried leafy stem of Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium Nakai, and climbing stems and branches of Trachelospermum sdisyivum var, intermedium nakai or Apocyanaceae . Trachelospermi caulis has antipyretic and analgesic activity. It has traditionally been used as a folk remedy in Korea for the treatment of various infla mMatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Effects of Trachelospermum caulis extract on SNP-induced infla mMatory responses in rabbit HIG-82 synovial membrane cells. Methods Anti-infla mMatory effects of the extract of Trachelospermum caulis were investigated using rabbit HIG-82 synovial membrane cells. For this study, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, western blot analysis, PGE2 i mMunoassay, and NO detection were conducted. Results The aqueous extract of Trachelospermum caulis exerted cytotoxicity and suppressed PGE2 synthesis and NO production in rabbit HIG-82 synovial membrane cells. The aqueous extract of Trachelospermum caulis also inhibited the SNP-induced expressions of COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α in rabbit HIG-82 synovial membrane cells. Conclusions These results showed that the extract of Trachelospermum caulis exerts the anti-infla mMatory effect by suppressing COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α expressions in the synovial membrane cells.
  • 4.

    Protective Effect of Clematidis Radix Extract on CoCl2-induced Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    박정우 | Lim Hyung Ho | 2014, 24(2) | pp.41~50 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Clematidis radix extract on CoCl2-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Methods In order to investigate the protective effect of Clematidis radix on CoCl2-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells, MTT(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, DAPI(4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindoleI) staining, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling) assay, DNA fragmentation assay and western blotting were performed on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Results Cells treated with CoCl2 exhibited several apoptotic features, while cells pre-treated with Clematidis radix prior to CoCl2 exposure showed a decrease in the occurrence of apoptotic features. CoCl2 increased HIF-1α expression, in contrast, Clematidis radix treatment decreased CoCl2-induced HIF-1α expression. Pre-treatment with the extract of Clematidis radix suppressed Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 expressions, and also increased Bcl-2 expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Conclusions These results suggest that Clematidis radix may exert a protective effect on CoCl2-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.
  • 5.

    Effects of Keonbodan (健步丹) on MIA-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rat

    Lee Eun Jung | Minseok Oh | 2014, 24(2) | pp.51~64 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Objectives This study was carried out to know the effects of Keonbodan (hereinafter referred to KBD) in osteoarthritis induced by Monosodium iodoacetate(hereinafter referred to MIA) on Wistar rat. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by injection of MIA into left knee joint cavities of rat. Osteoarthritis rats were divided into 4 groups (normal (n=6), control (n=6), indomethacin (n=6), KBD (n=6) group). The control group was administered normal saline and indomethacin group was administered indomethacin (2 mg/kg). And the KBD group was administered KBD (142 mg/kg). Each groups were administered by orally for 4 weeks. This experiment were carried out in vivo. In vivo, at the end of the experiment (5 weeks after MIA injection), effects on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, cytokines in serum, arachidonic acid, osteocalcin, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and cartilage volume were evaluated. And histopathological examinations on the articular structures of knee joints were performed. Results 1. In weight-bearing measurement, level of weight was increased. 2. In order to hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine were tested. And there were no significant changes. 3. In serum, levels of TNF-α, IL-1β were significantly decreased. IL-6 was insignificantly decreased. 4. In serum, level of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was decreased. 5. In serum, level of LTB4, PGE2 and osteocalcin was decreased. 6. In μCT-arthrography, the cartilage volume was greater than that of the control group. 7. The joint damage induced by osteoarthritis was lesser than the control group in histopathologic observation (H&E, Safranin-O staining). Conclusions These results demonstrated that KBD suppressed the osteoarthritis- inducing effects of MIA in rat. And further studies are required to find out more effective substance and anti-osteoarthritic mechanism in the future.
  • 6.

    Effects of Mahwangbujaseshin-tang (Mahuangfuzixixintang) (麻黃附子細辛湯) on MIA-Induced Osteoarthritis Rats

    이형은 | Minseok Oh | 2014, 24(2) | pp.65~81 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Objectives This study was carried out to find out the anti-osteoarthritic effects of Mahwangbujaseshin- tang (Mahuangfuzixixintang ) on the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis rats. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by injecting MIA (50μl) into the knee joint of rats. Rats were divided into a 3 groups (n=7). The injection did not fit the normal group. A week later, after the injection of MIA, while control group took normal saline 2 ml, the extract of Mahwangbujaseshin-tang (Mahuangfuzixixintang ) (MBST) (200 mg/kg) was injected to treated group. After that, we examined hind paw weight bearing ability, functions of liver and kidney, serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2, LTB4, TIMP-1, MMP-9 and hematology. Volume of cartilage was measured by micro CT arthrography. Injury of synovial tissue was measured by H & E, Safranin-O immunofluorescence. Results 1) DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity of MBST was increased according to concentration of MBST and total phenolic contents were in high level. 2) In RAW 264.7 cells, ROS production was significantly decreased in MBST (at 10, 100μg/ml) and NO was also decreased but meaningless in MBST (at 100μg/ml). 3) In RAW 264.7 cells, IL-6 production was significantly decreased in MBST (at 100μg/ml) and TNF-α and IL-1β production were also decreased but meaningless in MBST (at 100μg/ml). 4) In hind legs weight-bearing measurement, level of weight-bearing was increased. 5) Functions of liver and kidney were not affected. 6) TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2, LTB4, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 production were significantly decreased. 7) In hematology, the levels of neutrophils, monocytes were significantly decreased and the levels of white blood cells, lymphocytes were also decreased but meaningless. 8) In micro CT-arthrography, cartilage volume was significantly increased. 9) Histopathologically, injury on cartilage and synovial membrane of MBST group was decreased. Conclusions Based on all results mentioned above, Mahwangbujaseshin-tang (Mahuangfuzixixintang) is believed to be meaningful for suppressing the progress of osteoarthritis. And it is related to inhibiting the activity of inflammatory cytokine and injury of volume in cartilage.
  • 7.

    The Review on the Study of Oriental Obesity Pattern Identification: Focused on Korean Research Papers

    박원형 | Cha Yun Yeop | SONG YUN KYUNG and 7other persons | 2014, 24(2) | pp.83~93 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Objectives The aim of this study is to analyse research trends about oriental obesity pattern identification in Korea. Methods We searched the papers with key words of ‘obesity’ and ‘Pattern identification’, ‘Syndrom differentiation’ in Korean database (Korean traditional knowledge portal, KISS, NDSL, DBPIA, KMBASE, Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation, Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research). We classified the papers by year and content. Results We reviewed 28 searched papers. Papers were published between 1992 and 2012. More than half of the total papers were published since 2008. There are 5 studies that focus on development and improvement of oriental obesity pattern identification questionnaire. 9 studies are research about using oriental obesity pattern identification questionnaire. 7 studies are research about Type of oriental obesity pattern identification. 4 studies are literature review of oriental obesity pattern identification. Other studies related to oriental obesity pattern identification are three. Conclusions To improve application and objectification about oriental obesity pattern identification, more clinical and oriental obesity pattern identification questionnaire studies are needed.
  • 8.

    The Review on the Study of Obesity Pattern Identification in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Research on CNKI

    박원형 | Cha Yun Yeop | SONG YUN KYUNG and 7other persons | 2014, 24(2) | pp.95~106 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyse research trends about obesity pattern identification in traditional chinese medicine. Methods Electronic searches were performed with China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The first key words were “肥胖”, “肥滿” and second key words were “病因”, “分型”, “病機”, “辨證”, “分流”. We classified the papers by year and content. We investigated frequency of chinese obesity pattern identification. Results 48 studies were finally included. Papers were published between 1987 and 2013. More than half of the total were published since 2009. 36 studies were literature and Paper review studies. 16 studies were clinical research. There were ‘qi deficiency’, ‘spleen deficiency’, ‘yang deficiency’, ‘yin deficiency’, ‘stomach heat ’, ‘qi stagnation’, ‘liver qi depression’, ‘phlegm-dampness’, ‘phlegm-heat’, ‘blood stasis’ in chinese obesity pattern identification studies. ‘Phlegm-dampness’ was used most frequently, followed by ‘spleen deficiency’, ‘yang deficiency’, ‘blood stasis’, ‘qi stagnation’, ‘liver qi depression’, ‘stomach heat ’, ‘qi deficiency’, ‘yin deficiency ’ and ‘phlegm-heat’ in literature and paper review studies. ‘Phlegm-dampness’ was used most frequently, followed by ‘yang deficiency’, ‘spleen deficiency’, ‘liver qi depression’, ‘stomach heat ’, ‘blood stasis ’, ‘yin deficiency’, ‘qi deficiency’, ‘phlegm-heat ’ and ‘qi stagnation’ in clinical research. Conclusions Based on studies of chinese obesity pattern identification, More clinical trials and obesity pattern identification studies are needed.
  • 9.

    Analysis of Development and Application of Pattern Identification System -Based on Oriental Obesity Pattern Identification-

    박정식 | SONG YUN KYUNG | Hwang Eui-hyoung and 8other persons | 2014, 24(2) | pp.107~114 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objectives The purpose of this study is analyzing internal research trends of oriental obesity pattern identification in korean literature based on obesity pattern identification questionnaires, development and application of Pattern Identification System to help solve problems of future researches. Methods 6 Korean databases were searched for articles of oriental obesity pattern identification, irrespective of publication year and 13 studies were reviewed. An analytical method such as descriptive statistics and an actual number and percentage was used. Results We collected 13 studies. 4 studies were published in 2012 and 2008, the highest number of studies. 7 Clinical studies were the major research method. The Studies were classified according to the characteristics and design. 5 studies were about research of analysis and improvement of oriental obesity pattern identification questionnaire, the most number of studies. 4 studies were about research of observational studies in clinical on obesity pattern identification. 3 studies were about research of intervention studies in clinical on obesity pattern identification and 1 study was about clinical practice recommendation. Conclusions Establishment of obesity pattern identification system and its clinical application could lead to standardizing obesity pattern identification and clinical practice guideline. Applied on other diseases, obesity pattern identification system could also lead to improving treatment rate, contributing to the development of clinical practice guidelines and academic field of research.
  • 10.

    Modern Interpretation on Kinesiology of Yangsaeng-Doinbub Presented in 「Zhu-Bing-Yuan-Hou-Lun⋅Yao-Bei-Bing-Zhu-Hou」

    김세준 | kim Sun Jung | 2014, 24(2) | pp.115~130 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objectives The objective of this study is to interpretate Yangsaeng-Doinbub presented in 「Zhu-Bing-Yuan-Hou-LunㆍYao-Bei-Bing-Zhu-Hou」 in a modern kineologic approach Methods Based on the interpretation of 「Zhu-Bing-Yuan-Hou-LunㆍYao-Bei-Bing-Zhu- Hou」 and implementation of its kinesiology, this study presents similar kineologies and their purposes, with the reference to various documents on modern kinesiology. Results 1) Yangsaeng-Doinbub presented in 「Zhu-Bing-Yuan-Hou-LunㆍYao-Bei-Bing- Zhu-Hou」 is similar to stretching, active exercise and resistance exercise. 2) Exercises in Yangsaeng-Doinbub presented in 「Zhu-Bing-Yuan-Hou-LunㆍYao-Bei-Bing-Zhu-Hou」, which are similar to resistance exercise, can be used for isometic exercise of cervical extensor. 3) Exercises in Yangsaeng-Doinbub presented in 「Zhu-Bing-Yuan-Hou-Lunㆍ Yao-Bei-Bing-Zhu-Hou」, which are similar to Stretching exercise, has its purpose to stretch quadratus Lumborum, lateral side of body, gluteus Maximus, quadriceps femoris, shoulder extensor, hamstrings, hip joint, ankle dorsi flexor, thoracic rotator,inferior shoulder joint. 4) Exercises in Yangsaeng-Doinbub presented in 「Zhu-Bing-Yuan-Hou-Lunㆍ Yao-Bei- Bing-Zhu-Hou」, which are similar to active exercise, can be used for strengthen exteral oblique. 5) Doctors can make various applications of Yansaeng-Doinbub. For example, it can be used to correct improper low back and neck exercise patterns. 6) Yangsaeng- Doinbub also describes breathing methods, which help normalization of breathing exercises and increase the efficiency of spine exercises. Conclusions The modern interpretation on kinesiology of Yangsaeng-Doinbub presented in 「Zhu-Bing-Yuan-Hou-LunㆍYao-Bei-Bing-Zhu-Hou」 leads to a conclusion that Yangsaeng-Doinbub consists of numourous exercises for various body parts. In particular, breathing methods increase efficiency of such exercises. Plus, the exercises in Yangsaeng-Doinbub can be applied to various uses by doctors.
  • 11.

    The Comparative Study on the Effect of Trigger Point Treatment, Self-Exercise Treatment, Trigger Point - Self-Exercise Cooperative Treatment for Neck Pain Caused by Traffic Accidents

    이현재 | 박정오 | Minseok Oh | 2014, 24(2) | pp.131~140 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objectives This study was aimed at comparing clinical effectiveness among trigger point treatment, Self-exercise treatment, trigger point - self-exercise cooperative treatment for neck pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods 63 patients with neck pain by traffic accidents were divided into 3 groups. Different types of treatments were carried out for each groups ; group A with trigger point, group B with self-exercise, group C with trigger point and self-exercise cooperative treatment. 3 groups were also treated with general acupuncture and herb-medicine treatment. Pain threshold, visual analogue scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI) were checked on a daily basis. SPSS ver. 18.0 for Windows was used for analysis of data. The effectiveness of treatment of each groups were verified by using paired test and one-way repeated-measures ANOVA test, and the comparison of VAS, NDI and pain threshold were demonstrated by independent samples t-test. Results 3 groups all showed significant difference in pain threshold, VAS and NDI after 8 days later. Group C showed more improvement in pain threshold, VAS and NDI than shown in group A and B. In the first period (from pre-treatment to 4th day treatment) group C showed significant difference in NDI and pain threshold but not in VAS as compared to group A and B. In the second period (from 4th treatment to 8th day treatment), Group C showed significant difference in pain threshold, VAS and NDI as compared to group A and B. Conclusions Trigger point - self-exercise cooperative treatment is proved to be more helpful to improve the unstability and reduce neck pain than trigger point treatment or self-exercise treatment only, therefore eventually leading to better satisfaction for patients with neck pain.
  • 12.

    A Clinical Case Report on a Patient of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Using Korean Medicine

    박정하 | Deuk Ju Oh | 장수희 and 1other persons | 2014, 24(2) | pp.141~153 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The objective of this study is to report the improvement of the patient with Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with Korean Medical intervention. The patient, diagnosed as ADEM, was treated by acupuncture, moxibustion and herb medicine and wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture. We evaluated the consequences by checking Manual Muscle Test (MMT), Korean Version of Barthel Index (K-MBI). As a result, the patient improved significantly MMT and K-MBI inclined. In ADEM, the initial diagnosis is important, and through a Korean medicine, we were able to achieve meaningful treatment result. There is a limit on this study due to sufficient number of case, thus, further studies will be needed.