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2016, Vol.26, No.2

  • 1.

    Influence of Galgeun-tang on Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    예성애 | 김호준 | KO SEONG-GYU and 1other persons | 2016, 26(2) | pp.1~12 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to evaluate anti-obesity effect of Galgeun- tang (gegentang) and elucidate the effect of it on gene expression related to obesity.MethodsThe experiments were performed with the use of Diet-Induced Obese mice. They were grouped NC (normal control), HFD (high fat diet control), GGT (Galgeun-tang (gegentang), 700 mg/kg), ORL (Orlistat, 10 mg/kg). GGT was orally administered for 12 weeks. Body weight was measured every week. Real-time PCR was performed to inves-tigate the effect of GGT on gene expression in liver tissue.ResultsGGT group and ORL group were reduced in body weight compared with HFD. HFD increased PPARγ, SREBP-1, Leptin, aP2, FATP1, FAS gene expression compared with NC. GGT increased FATP1 gene expression. But GGT reduced PPARγ & FAS gene expression in liver tissue of diet-induced obese mice compared with HFD. ConclusionsThese results suggest that GGT is supposed to have a certain impact on the treatment of obesity. But more study is needed in the future. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):1-12)
  • 2.

    Anti-obesity Effects of Galgeun-tang in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice Model

    기성훈 | 김호준 | KO SEONG-GYU and 1other persons | 2016, 26(2) | pp.13~28 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    ObjectivesTo investigate anti-obesity effects of Galgeun-tang, an herbal formula, in high fat diet induced obese mice model.Methods24 Male C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to normal group fed with nor-mal research diet (NOR, n=6), high fat diet control group treated with water (HFD, n=6), high fat diet group treated with Orlistat (ORL, n=6, Orlistat 10 mg/kg), and high fat diet group treated with Galgeun-tang (GGT, n=6, Galgeun-tang 700 mg/kg). 12 weeks later, body weight, fat weight, liver weight, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, ALT, AST, obesity related neuropeptides and adipokines, ratio of gut microbiota, and histo-pathology of liver were evaluated.ResultsIn the GGT group, 1. body weight gain, liver weight gain, and total fat weight gain were significantly less than those in the HFD group. 2. blood glucose level was significantly lower and insulin level was significantly higher than in the HFD group. 3. total cholesterol level and triglyceride (TG) level were significantly lower and high density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly higher than in the HFD group. 4. appetite-promoting ARC neuro-peptides such as Agrp and Npy were significantly less and appetite-inhibiting ARC neuro-peptide, Cart was significantly more than in the HFD group in qRT-PCR analysis. 5. adipo-nectin level and visfatin level were significantly higher, and resistin level and leptin level was sig-nificantly lower than in the HFD group. 6. the relative level of Bacteroidetes was significantly higher, and the relative level of Firmicutes was significantly lower than in the HFD group. 7. the increase of adipose tissue was significantly more inhibited than in the HFD group.ConclusionsThe present study showed that Glageun-tang exerts anti-obesity effects in that it. 1. inhibited the increase in body weight, liver weight, and total fat weight. 2. de-creased the level of TG, and increased the level of HDL. 3. influenced neuropeptides and adipokines that are important in regulating food intake and changes of body weight. 4. modified the beneficial quantitative changes in gut microbiota suppressing the tendency to-ward obesity. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):13-28)
  • 3.

    The Effects of Gyejibokryeong-hwan (桂枝茯苓丸) for Wound Healing after Skin Suture

    정 훈 | 이은정 | Minseok Oh | 2016, 26(2) | pp.29~50 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    ObjectivesThere is few Korean medicinal studies about post-operation wound healing despite much effort for minimizing wound or post-op scar. The aim of this study is to evaluate the wound healing effect of Gyejibokryeong-hwan (Guizhifuling-wan, GBH) after skin suture. Methods<In vitro> We observed anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 cells. For anti-oxidation, we mesured the total amount of polyphenol, flavonoid, DPPH scavenging ability, ABTS scavenging ability and the value of ROS production, and for anti-inflammation, we mesured the amount of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6). <In vivo> Thirty SD rats were divided into five equal groups (n=6, one normal, two controls and two experimentals). All groups except normal group were made a scar (around 1x4 cm2) in the back by the depth of the fascia and then sutured by a thread and needle. Normal group rats received no treatment at all. Control group rats were fed distilled water, and positive control group rats were per-cutaneously applied terramycin once in 2 days. GBH 200 group rats were orally medicated GBH 200 mg/kg, and GBH 400 group rats were orally medicated GBH 400 mg/kg per day for two weeks. We analyzed the blood samples (WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil), and the serums (TIMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-2. PGE2, TGF-β, VEGF), and exam-ined the wounded skin tissue histopathologically.Results<in vitro> 1. DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity was increased concen-tration-dependantly, and ROS production was significantly increased in GBH treated cells (100 μg/ml). Therefore in this study, Gyejibokryeong-hwan appears to have the an-ti-oxidative. 2. NO production was significantly reduced in GBH treated cells (100 μg/ml), and IL-1β production was significantly reduced in GBH treated cells (1 μg/ml). But, TNF-α and IL-6 did not show uneffective action. Therefore in this study, Gyejibokryeong-hwan did not show any significant effect on anti-inflammatory process. <in vivo> 1. Monocyte and neutrophil was significantly increased in GBH (200, 400) groups. WBC, lymphocyte and eosinophil did not show significant change. 2. TIMP-1, MMP-2, VEGF were sig-nificantly increased in GBH 400 group, PGE2 was significantly reduced in GBH 400 group. TGF-β was significantly increased in GBH (200, 400) groups, and MMP-9 was increased concentration-dependantly in GBH groups, but there was no significance. 3. In histopatho-logical examinations, collagen was significantly increased and keratin was significantly de-creased in GBH (200, 400) groups.ConclusionsAccording to in vitro experiment, GBH appears to have the anti-oxidative effect and in vivo experiment, GBH stimulate the wound healing process hematologically and histopathologically. In conclusion, the results suggest that GBH promotes wound heal-ing after skin suture. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):29-50)
  • 4.

    Study on Long-Term Preservation of Hwangnyunhaedok-Tang Pharmacopuncture

    이진호 | 하인혁 | Mi-Riong Kim and 5other persons | 2016, 26(2) | pp.51~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    ObjectivesWe studied long-term preservation in stability of a mixed preparation of dis-tilled and 70% alcohol extracted Hwangnyunhaedok-tang pharmacopuncture to establish standards for expiration date and quality control.MethodsThree lots of consecutively prepared Hwangnyunhaedok-tang pharmaco-puncture were each tested in triplicate to a total 5 tests at 3 month intervals over a period of 12 months for analysis of appearance, pH, specific gravity, index component content, en-dotoxins, microbial sterility, residual organic solvents, heavy metals, and pesticides. Items with no difference by elapsed time were tested at the initial and final timepoints, and data of items with potential difference by elapsed time were analyzed for trends to establish in-dividual quality control standards.ResultsAll tested items were stable over the study period, and therefore the expiration date was set as 12 months. pH quality control standards were set as 3.66∼5.69, and that of specific gravity as 0.802∼1.203, respectively. In index component content standards, berberine was set at 4.96∼8.98 μg/vial, baicalin at 6.47∼10.31 μg/vial, and geniposide at 116.03∼189.55 μg/vial, respectively. Standards for other items with no difference by elapsed time were set according to general Korean herbal medicine standards in the Korean Pharmacopoeia. ConclusionsManageable expiration date and quality control standards were established through long-term preservation testing of Hwangnyunhaedok-tang pharmacopuncture, fur-thering standardization of Korean medicine pharmacopuncture. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):51-59)
  • 5.

    A Review of Recent Studies for Treatment of TMD Using CNKI Database

    김정섭 | 김동은 | 정동훈 and 2other persons | 2016, 26(2) | pp.61~74 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    ObjectivesThe purpose of this research is to investigate recent clinical studies of Temporomandibular Joint Disorder in China.MethodsWe investigated recent clinical studies of Oriental Medicine therapies in tradi-tional Chinese medical journals for Temporomandibular Joint Disorder through CNKI search. 20 clinical articles published from 2010 to 2015 were analyzed. This study exam-ined the authors, published years, types of study designs, criteria for diagnosis and evalua-tion, periods, purposes of study and classified articles by techniques of treatment.ResultsMost of articles were classified as RCT. TMD was diagnosed by symptoms in a high proportion of articles. The criteria for evaluation that most frequently used were grad-ing scale, but there was a lack of objectivity. The techniques of treatment were Tuina, acu-puncture, herb medicine, electrotherapy, splint, PNF, congnitive behavior therapy, laser therapy, magnetic therapy.ConclusionsIn order to develop treatment of TMD in the Korean medicine, clinical stud-ies for various therapies on a high level and cooperative studies between medical commun-ities are needed. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):61-74)
  • 6.

    Effects of the Pharmacopuncture in Animal Models for Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Review of Animal Study Reports Published in Korea

    김정민 | 최수민 | Hee Duk An | 2016, 26(2) | pp.75~83 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    ObjectivesThis study is to review the effect of pharmacopuncture on treatment of os-teoporosis in animal models reported in korean domestic journals.MethodsThe databases (Koreantk, KISS, NDSL) were searched with term as osteopo-rosis, and animal study reports on osteoporosis with pharmacopuncture were reviewed. Animal model, intervention, and osteoporosis indicator were extracted.Results22 articles were reviewed. 11 studies used ddy mouse and 9 studies used SD rat. 20 studies used ovariectomy to induce osteoporosis. 21 studies used simple pharmacopuncture. Cervi pantotrichum cornu was most frequently used pharmaco-puncture and Umgok (KI10) was most frequently used acupuncture point. Each study shows significant changes of osteoporosis indicators.ConclusionsPharmacopuncture is expected to be a positive effect on osteoporosis. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):75-83)
  • 7.

    Thermographic Study on Effectiveness of Acupuncture, Electro-Acupuncture and Acupuncture with Pulsed Electromagnetic Therapy on Upper Extremity of Healthy and Hemiplegic Group

    이종하 | 송미영 | Dongho Keum | 2016, 26(2) | pp.85~96 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    ObjectivesThis study was performed to evaluate the effects of acupuncture, elec-tro-acupuncture and acupuncture with pulsed electromagnetic therapy on upper extremity of healthy people and hemiplegic patients by D.I.T.I..Methods20 healthy people and 20 hemiplegic patients caused by stroke were selected. They have been treated three different types of treatment; acupuncture, electro-acupunc-ture and acupuncture with pulsed electromagnetic therapy. And skin temperature of upper extremity has been measured before and after each treatment by D.I.T.I.. The thermo-graphic data was analyzed by 'Independent T-test' and 'Repeated measures ANOVA test'.Results1. In healthy group, there was very statistical significant difference (p<0.001) of the amount of thermal change by each treatment, and the amount of change was arranged in descending order; acupuncture with pulsed electromagnetic, acupuncture and elec-tro-acupuncture. 2. In hemiplegic group, the skin temperature of hemiplegic side was 0.97oC cooler than non-hemiplegic side. 3. Skin temperature of all hemiplegic patients was increased after acupuncture treatment. 4. In hemiplegic group, there was statistical sig-nificant difference (p<0.05) of the amount of thermal change by each treatment, and the amount of change was arranged in descending order; acupuncture with pulsed electro-magnetic, acupuncture and electro-acupuncture.ConclusionsThe results indicate that acupuncture, electro-acupuncture and acu-puncture with pulsed electromagnetic therapy had good effect on the change of skin tem-perature by stimulating sympathetic nervous system. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016; 26(2):85-96)
  • 8.

    Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Poncirus trifoliate (L.) Raf. in Stroke Patient with Constipation

    Moon Hyo Jeong | Sukyung Lee | Noh Seeung and 1other persons | 2016, 26(2) | pp.97~103 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    ObjectivesTo evaluate the effects and safety of the aqueous extract of the dried, im-mature fruit of Poncirus trifoliate (L.) Raf. (Rutaceae) (PF) in stroke patients with constipation.MethodsA total of 22 patients were recruited. Patients were interviewed about the clin-ical informations, constipation score and Bristol stool form scale at twice, before intake PF and after intake PF 2 weeks. The total and segmental colon transit time (CTT) were meas-ured by using radio-opaque markers (KolomarkⓇ). The degree of stool retention was eval-uated by the plain abdominal radiography and was scored by Leech score. ResultsBefore intake PF, constipation scores ranged from 3 to 12, average 6.54±2.87and Bristol stool form scale ranged from 1 to 6, average 3.86±1.21. CTTs were 9.05±6.89 hours, 14.29±10.68 hours, 12.11±7.19 hours and 35.40±19.5 hours in the right, left, rectosigmoid and total colon, respectively. Stool retention score was 2.45±0.61,2.3±0.86, 1.9±0.85, 6.65±1.56 in the right, left, rectosigmoid and total colon, respec-tively. After 2 weeks, constipation scores ranged from 2 to 8, average 4.28±2.05 and Bristol stool form scale ranged from 1 to 6, average 4.17±1.04. CTTs were 7.41±8.86hours, 11.12±9.12 hours, 8.83±8.75 hours and 27.3±20.2 hours in the right, left, rec-tosigmoid and total colon, respectively. Stool retention score was 1.9±0.64, 2.2±0.69,1.4±0.88, 5.5±1.39 in the right, left, rectosigmoid and total colon, respectively. There were statistically significant difference in the total and rectosigmoid colon CTT and constipation score, Stool retention score in right and rectosigmoid colon (p<0.05) after PF therapy. ConclusionsThese results suggest potential for PF therapy in stroke patient with constipation. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):97-103)
  • 9.

    The Study on Correlation between the Degree of Herniated Intervertebral Lumbar Disc at L4∼5 Level and Improvement of Low Back Pain Treated by Korean Medicine Therapy

    Hyung-Jin Yoo | 이현호 | 정성현 and 4other persons | 2016, 26(2) | pp.105~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to compare the effects between the degree of herniated intervertebral lumbar disc (HIVD) at L4-5 level and improvement of low back pain treated by Korean Medicine therapy.Methods567 patients who received inpatient treatment from May 2014 to December 2015 in the Daejeon-Jaseng of Korean Medicine Hospital were divided into 6 groups by the degree of HIVD at L4-5 level confirmed with a Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging. All patients received a combination of treatment including acupunture, chuna manual ther-apy, pharmacopunture, herbal medication. They were compared and analyzed on the basis of improvement between measuring Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EuroQol-5 Dimension Index (EQ5D Index) as they were hospitalized and as they were discharged. The statistically significance was evaluated by SPSS 23.0 for windows.ResultsAfter treatment, Normal stage on Intervertebral Lumbar Disc at L4-5 level group’s Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EuroQol-5 Dimension Index (EQ5D Index) improvement was 1.30±1.62, 4.52±11.82 and 0.04±0.11 respectively. Bulging group’s improvement was 3.25±2.81, 8.28±13.02 and 0.09±0.17 respectively. Spinal canal occupying ratio (SOR) less than 20 group’s improvement was 2.15±1.92,11.79±17.81 and 0.13±0.23 respectively. SOR 20 to less than 40 stage group's improve-ment was 2.13±1.92. 10.79±15.93 and 0.10±0.26 respectively. SOR 40 to less than 60 group’s improvement was 2.16±2.24, 9.80±16.62 and 0.15±0.25 respectively. Surgery group’s improvement was 2.47±2.21, 11.64±18.53 and 0.15±0.27 respectively (p<0.03). But there was no statistically significance between 6 group’s improvement after treatment (p>0.05).ConclusionsAfter inpatient treatment by Korean Medicine therapy, Most patient’s pain, disability and Health Related Quality of Life was improved significantly. But there was no statistically correlation between the degree of HIVD at L4-5 level and improvement of low back pain. So We think that future research of higher quality and correct statistics shall be necessary. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):105-121)
  • 10.

    Pilot Study on Characterization of Patients with Low Back Pain: Multi-center, Prospective, Observation Study

    박창현 | Bo-Hyoung Jang | 고유미 and 6other persons | 2016, 26(2) | pp.123~132 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    ObjectivesThe aim of this study done as pilot study is to analyze the current state of pa-tients who have low back pain through registry.MethodsThis study is done under approval of Gil Oriental Medical Hospital of Gachon University, Oriental Medical Hospital of Sangji University, Jecheon Oriental Medical Hospital of Se-Myung University IRB. Among subjects who signed the consent form by their own will, we decided whom to register as subjects of this study by the standard of selection and exception. We collected the sociological investigation, character of low pack pain, degree of symptom which they felt before and after the hospitalization from registered subjects.Results1. The number of the subjects is 16. The average age is 41.0. 9 of them are fe-male, 7 of them are male. Most of the subjects have history illness which has connection with low pack pain. 2. According to the patient's free description of the back pain, 6 of them suffered throbbing pain. And 8 of the patients have chronic pain, 6 of them have inter-mittent pain of back pain analysing the character of the low back pain. They answered the pain lasted for 47.6 minutes on average. 3. About the change on the average R.O.M. of L-spine, R.O.M. of Lateral bending, Extension, Flexion, Rotation has increased after leaving the hospital compared with before hospitalization. 4. The amount of discomfort or strength of pain, which was checked by VAS on the day of leaving the hospital, has decreased than they were before the hospitalization. And there was the improvement on the dysfunction score and EQ-5D.ConclusionsThrough this study, we specifically analyzed the symptoms of the low back pain by accumulating the analysis about the symptoms using several indicators and de-scription which is freely spoken by patients about their symptoms. Further research is ex-pected to complete multi-center registry by building registry and by using it, to get various epidemiologic informations about low back pain. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2): 123-132)
  • 11.

    The Influential Factors Associated with Hospitalization Period of Patients from Traffic Accident by Groups: A Korean Medicine Hospital Experience, Respective Chart Review

    Dong Hwi Jeon | 이은정 | Minseok Oh | 2016, 26(2) | pp.133~144 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    ObjectivesThis study was designed to find out influential factors associated with Hospitalization of the patients from traffic accident by Groups.MethodsBased on the medical charts, we analyzed statistical study of 486 patients put-ting them into two groups to identify the factors associated with the duration of hospital-ization involving age, sex, elapse day (Interval between time of injury and visit to hospital), and the types of accident. Patients in group A were diagnosed with a mere ‘sprain’, and patients in Group B had other symptoms accompanied by ‘sprain’.Results1. In group A, cervical sprain was the most and male patients with the symptom outnumbered female patients. In group B, headache was most where female patients had the symptom 1.7 times more than male patients. 2. Female patients in group B were found to stay for a longer period of time in the hospital than the male counterparts (p<0.05). 3. Both group A and B have positive correlation between length of hospital stay and age though group B exhibited stronger correlation. 4. Patients who had accident while riding bus in group A and those who were pedestrians in group B were found to stay in the hospital for a significantly longer period of time than those who had any other types of accident (p<0.05).ConclusionsWe noticed that hospital stay lengthened when the patients were older and when they had accidents while riding bus in Group A whereas in Group B, patients stayed longer when they were females and older as well as when they were pedestrians in accidents. (J Korean Med Rehab 2016;26(2):133-144)