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2019, Vol.29, No.2

  • 1.

    Effect of Acupuncture on Depression and Cell Proliferation in Hippocampal Gyrus Dentatus of Maternal-separated Rat Pups

    Jung-Sik Park | Hyung-Ho Lim | 2019, 29(2) | pp.91~99 | number of Cited : 0
    Objectives The loss of maternal care during early postnatal period may increase development of mood-related disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and personality disorders. In this study, the effect of acupuncture on depression in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampal gyrus dentatus was investigated using maternal-separated rat pups. Methods On the postnatal 14th day, rat pups from six dams were grouped into following groups: maternal care group, maternal separation group, maternal separation and non-acupoint-acupunctured group, maternal separation and Zusanli-acupunctured group, and maternal separation and fluoxetine-treated group. Acupuncture was performed from postnatal 28th day to postnatal 37th day. The rat pups that belong in the maternal separation and fluoxetine-treated group were injected subcutaneously with 5 mg/kg fluoxetine hydrochloride once a day for the same period of time. To evaluate activity of the rat pups, open field test was performed. Immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe and for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the hippocampal gyrus dentatus was conducted. Results The present results reveal that the activity was decreased by maternal separation. In contrast, acupuncture at Zusanli overcame maternal separation-induced hypoactivity. Maternal separation suppressed TPH expression and 5-HT synthesis in the dorsal raphe and decreased cell proliferation in the hippocampal gyrus dentatus of rat pups. In contrast, acupuncture at Zusanli alleviated maternal separation-induced decrease of 5-HT synthesisand TPH expression. Conclusions The present results demonstrate that acupuncture at Zusanli ameliorated depressive state through increasing cell proliferation and enhancing 5-HT synthesis. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):91-99)
  • 2.

    Protective Effects of Bogol-tang on Monosodium Iodoacetate-induced Osteoarthritis and Interleukin-1β-treated Primary Chondrocytes

    Jin Wook Sung | Hai Woong Lee | Kyung Hwa Kang and 2other persons | 2019, 29(2) | pp.101~113 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives Bogol-tang has clinically been used to protect joint cartilage and to treat osteoarthritis. Our objective was to study the protective effect of Bogol-tang extract (BGT) in functional impairment, behavioral disorders, cartilage loss and pathological changes in a monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced murine osteoarthritis (OA) model and interleukin (IL)-1β-treated primary rat chondrocytes. Methods Mouse knee joints were injected with MIA, a chemical that inhibits glycolysis and causes joint inflammation and matrix loss. MIA-OA induced mice orally administered BGT or acetaminophen (AAP) for 18 days by daily. Primary rat chondrocytes were pretreated with BGT or dexamethasone (DEX) and followed by co-incubation with IL-1β (10 ng/mL). Results In MIA-OA mice model, BGT led to delayed response on hot plate analysis, and suppressed the cartilage loss and damages in joint tissues. BGT suppressed the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators, nitrite and PGE2, the gene expression of matrix degrading enzymes, and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and c-JunN-terminal kinase phosphorylation in IL-1β-treated primary rat chondrocytes. Conclusions Our results suggest that BGT improve the knee joint function and delay the cartilage damages by anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and ant-catabolic effects, which indicate BGT could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):101-113)
  • 3.

    Effects of Curcumae Longae Rhizoma Pharmacopuncture on Monosodium Iodoacetate-induced Osteoarthritis Rats

    Jong-Hoon Lee | Chang-Hoon Woo | 2019, 29(2) | pp.115~133 | number of Cited : 0
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Curcumae Longae Rhizoma pharmacopuncture on the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis rats. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by injection of MIA (50 μL with 80 mg/mL) into knee joint cavity of rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups. Normal group was injected by normal saline into knee joint cavity only. Control group was induced for osteoarthritis by MIA and orally administered with distilled water. Normal Saline group was induced for osteoarthritis by MIA and injected with normal saline 100 μL. Positive comparison group was injected with MIA and orally administered with indomethacin 5 mg/kg. Curcumae Longae Rhizoma pharmacopuncture low concentration (CL) group was induced for osteoarthritis by MIA and injected with Curcumae Longae Rhizoma pharmacopuncture low concentration 100 μL. Curcumae Longae Rhizoma pharmacopuncture high concentration (CH) group was induced for osteoarthritis by MIA and injected with Curcumae Longae Rhizoma pharmacopuncture high concentration 100 μL. Curcumae Longae Rhizoma pharmacopuncture was injected at ST35 and EX-LE4 each group (CL, CH). After that, hind paw weight distribution was measured and oxidative stress biomarker in serum, liver function biomarker in serum, western blot analysis were measured. Histological analysis of knee joint tissue was performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, Safranin-O staining and Masson's trichrome staining. Results Hind paw weight distribution was significantly improved in both group. alanine aminotransferanse and aspartate aminotransferase were decreased significantly in CH group compare with Indomethacin threated group. Antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, Catalase and heme oxygenase-1 were increased in CH group compare with control group. Inflammatory cytokine cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-1 beta were decreased significantly in CH group. Histological analysis result shows that protective effects of joint and cartilage were observed in both CH and CL groups in a concentration-dependent. Conclusions The result suggest that Curcumae Longae Rhizoma pharmacopuncture has anti-oxidation effect, anti-inflammatory effect and also can prevent progression of osteoarthritis and protect joint cartilage. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):115-133)
  • 4.

    Effects of Pyrola japonica Extracts on Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption

    Jung-Sik Park | Hyung-Ho Lim | 2019, 29(2) | pp.135~147 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Pyrola japonica extract (NJ) and its principal constituent, homoarbutin (HA) on osteoclast differentiation and gene expression and bone resorption. The osteoclastogenesis and gene expression were determined in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-stimulated RAW264.7 cell. Methods In order to evaluate the effect of HA extracted from NJ on bone resorption, osteoclasts were used to be differentiated and formed by stimulating RAW264.7 cells with RANKL. Tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (+) polynuclear osteoclast formation ability was evaluated, and differentiation control genes including cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), and TRAP in osteoclast differentiation were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunoblotting was performed to measure the effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) factors on bone resorption, and the effect of osteoclasts on osteoclast differentiation was measured. Results Both NJ and high concentration of HA blocked RANKL-stimulated differentiation from RAW264.7 cell to TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. NJ reduced RANKL-induced expression of TRAP, cathepsin K. Both NJ and high concentration of HA inhibited RANKL- mediated expression of MMP-9, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1, and cellular Jun-fos. NJ suppressed RANKL-stimulated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and levels of interleukins. Both NJ and HA decreased bone resorption in osteoclast-induced bone pit formation model. Conclusions These results suggest that NJ and HA blocked bone resorption by decreasing RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis through down-regulation of genes for osteoclast differentiation. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):135-147)
  • 5.

    A Review of the Korean Traditional Medicine for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Da-young Byun | Gi-Eon Lee | Ji-ae Roh and 3other persons | 2019, 29(2) | pp.149~158 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives This study was performed to research the trends of Korean traditional medicine treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Clinical studies about Korean traditional medicine of CSM were searched in 7 online databases. We extracted the characteristics of selected studies according to author, publication year, country, research design, treatment methods, evaluation tools, and adverse events. Results Nineteen studies were selected in online databases. The included studies consist of 8 uncontrolled trial, 7 case reports, 3 randomized controlled trials and 1 non-randomized controlled trials. In these studies, various Korean traditional medicine treatments were performed, and herbal medicine was the most common. The most commonly used outcomes was effective rate. Conclusions This study showed that Korean traditional medicine could be an effective treatment for CSM. It was suggested that various studies should be conducted to provide objective evidence of the therapeutic effects of Korean traditional medicine treatment for CSM. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):149-158)
  • 6.

    Review of the Studies on the Treatment of Cauda Equina Syndrome Using Korean Medicine

    Jong-Han Park | Su-Hyeon Jeong | 2019, 29(2) | pp.159~169 | number of Cited : 0
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the use of Korean Medicine for treating cauda equina syndrome. Methods We searched for studies of the use of Korean Medicine for the treatment of cauda equina syndrome in 8 electronic databases and analyzed these studies. Results We found 297 studies on cauda equina syndrome from 8 electronic databases. We excluded 230 duplicate studies, 53 studies that did not involve the use of Korean Medicine and 1 review article. In addition, 13 case studies (13 patients) were included. Acupuncture, herbal medicine (13 times), moxibustion (9 times), pharmacopuncture (8 times), physical therapy (6 times), cupping therapy (5 times), and the bladder stimulation technique (4 times) were used. ST36 for acupuncture, Bojoongikgi-tang as a herbal medicine, CV4 for moxibustion, bee venom as a pharmacopuncture material and BL23 in pharmacopuncture point were the most frequently used. Conclusions Korean Medcine for cauda equina syndrome was effective. However, we found limited evidence regarding Korean Medicine for cauda equina syndrome. Thus, we think various type of studies including much more case reports, for cauda equina syndrome should be performed in the future. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):159-169)
  • 7.

    An Intensive Review On Clinical Thesis about Hwangryunhaedok-tang Pharmacopuncture Treatment: Focused on Case Reports and Controlled Studies in Korean Academic Journals

    Soo-Hwan Lee | Soon-Joong Kim | 2019, 29(2) | pp.171~188 | number of Cited : 3
    Objectives The purpose of this thesis is to compare and analyze outcomes of case studies and controlled studies about Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HHT) pharmacopuncture in clinical studies. Based on these studies reporting clinical effects by using HHT pharmacopuncture, we object to deduct the comparative review in applying clinical disorders limitedly. And conclusionally, by using this comparative review, we aim to make the fine evidence in treating clinical specific diseases. Methods We searched 106 studies about HHT pharmacopuncture from 6 Korean web databases by using in Korean word 'Hwangryunhaedok-tang pharmacopuncture'. This search had been progressed throughout 1 month (January, 2019). There was 106 thesis and we excluded studies that are not related to HHT pharmacopuncture, experimental research, not the case report or randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, not using HHT pharmacopuncture, not using only one pharmacopuncture, and not using HHT pharmacopuncture for major treating method. As a result, 39 thesis are selected as a population. Results We analyzed 34 case reports and 5 controlled studies. As the final outcome, HHT pharmacopuncture was used in musculoskeletal diseases, dermatopathy, and 32 specific diseases. Conclusions After analyzing 39 studies, effective symptom changes clinically and statistically by using HHT pharmacopuncture herbal acupuncture were identified. However, these thesis designs were reported deficiently in many parts such as not excluding other confounding variables. After modifying defects of thesis design and conduct study, it can play a role as the evidence using HHT pharmacopuncture more precisely. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):171-188)
  • 8.

    Comparison of Tension According to the Type of Sling Cord during the Bridging Exercise with Sling in Stroke Patients

    Gwonuk Jang | Jongsung Chang | 2019, 29(2) | pp.189~194 | number of Cited : 0
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine comparison of tension according to the type of sling cord during the bridging exercise with sling in stroke patients. Methods Twenty six stroke patients were recruited for this study. Subjects were randomly performed sling bridging exercise with three types of sling cords such as nonelastic cord with affected side-nonelastic cord with non affected side (NC-NC), nonelastic cord with affected side-elastic cord with non affected side (NC-EC), and elastic cord with affected side-nonelastic cord with non affected side (EC-NC). They were measured tension with a tensiometer of sling cord during the bridging exercise with sling. Results The tension of sling cord was significantly different in affected side, non affected side, and tension ratio of affected side/non affected side. There were significant differences tension in NC-EC from NC-NC and EC-NC and the NC-EC method was increased tension of affected side and decreased tension of non affected side. Conclusions These results showed that the NC-EC method was improved the symmetry of affected side and non affected side. Sling exercise with appropriate type of sling cord should be increased activities of affected side and improved recovery in stroke patients. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):189-194)
  • 9.

    The Case Report on Twelve Patients of Lateral Epicondylitis Treated with Muscle Contraction/Relaxation Strengthen Technique, Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization Treatment and Acupuncture

    Seung-Hyun Jeong | Chang-gon Kim | Yeong-Ung Yun and 4other persons | 2019, 29(2) | pp.195~201 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to report the treatment effects of Korean medicine for patients with lateral epicondylitis. This study was done on 12 cases of patients with lateral epicondylitis who visited in Korean Medicine Clinic of Ganghwa-gun Public Health Care Center. We used muscle contraction/relaxation strengthen technique, Instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM), acupuncture on patients and mesured numerical rating scale (NRS), pain disability index (PDI), and grip strength test to evaluate treatment effects. Among twelve patients, eleven cases showed decreasing in NRS and all cases showed decreasing in PDI. Ten cases showed increasing in grip strength test. Korean medical treatments including muscle contraction/relaxation strengthen technique and IASTM are thought to be one of the effective treatment for patients with lateral epicondylitis. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2019;29(2):195-201)