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pISSN : 1976-9334 / eISSN : 2288-1522

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2015, Vol.15, No.2

  • 1.

    Favorable Control Effects of Palmijihwang-Whan on the Propylthiouracil Induced Hypothyroidism Related Rat Male Reproductive Organ Damages Seung-Mo

    Seung-Mo Kim | 2015, 15(2) | pp.55~67 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: This study was to evaluate the effect of Palmijihwang-whan (PMJHW) aqueousextract in the regulation of hypothyroidism related reproductive organ damages in propylthiouracil(PTU)-induced rat model. Methods: PMJHW aqueous extract (yield=17.90%) were administered, once a day for 42 daysfrom 2 weeks before start of PTU treatment as oral doses of 500, 250, and 125 mg/kg (bodyweight), and hypothyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous treatment of PTU 10 mg/kg for28 days. Results: PTU-induced hypothyroidism and related male reproductive organ damages–atrophicchanges of testis, epididymis and prostate, were favorably and dose-dependently inhibited bytreatment of PMJHW 500, 250, and 125 mg/kg. They also effectively regulated the PTU-inducedabnormal antioxidant defense system changes in the testis. Although levothyroxine also favorablyinhibited PTU-induced hypothyroidism, it deteriorated the hypothyroidism related male reproductiveorgan damages through testicular oxidative damages. The results suggest that oral administrationof 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of PMJHW has favorable effects on the hypothyroidism andrelated reproductive organ damages through augmentation of antioxidant defense system in thetestis. Conclusions: This study suggest that PMJHW may be help to ameliorate the hypothyroidism andrelated organ damages in clinics. Key Words: Palmijihwang-whan, Hypothyroidism
  • 2.

    Effects of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Shengmai-San and Pyungwi-San on Gastrointestinal Motility in Mice

    이민철 | 박진령 | 심자환 and 2other persons | 2015, 15(2) | pp.68~74 | number of Cited : 6
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Shengmai-san andPyungwi-san, a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI)motility in mice. Methods: The in vivo effects of Shengmai-san and Pyungwi-san on GI motility were investigatedby measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice withexperimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acidor streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Results: In normal Institute of Cancer Research mice, ITRs were significantly and dosedependentlyincreased by Shengmaisan (0.01∼1 g/kg) and Pyungwi-san (0.01∼1 g/kg). TheITRs of acetic acid induced peritoneal irritation model and streptozotocin-induced diabetic modelmice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantlyand dose-dependently inhibited by Shengmai-san (0.01∼1 g/kg) and Pyungwi-san (0.01∼1g/kg). Conclusions: These results suggest that both Shengmai-san and Pyungwi-san are a goodcandidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD
  • 3.

    Effects of Gami-Cheongpyesagan-Tang on Body Fat in High Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice

    금선오 | 이하일 | 이종하 and 3other persons | 2015, 15(2) | pp.75~92 | number of Cited : 4
    Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gami-cheongpyesagan-tangextract (GCST) on high fat diet-induced obesity in rats. Methods: The mice were divided into six groups; normal diet control, high fat diet control (HFD),HFD+GCST administrated group (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) and olistat-admistrated group. Obesity was induced by high fat diet (45%) for 7 weeks in mice, and GCST was administratedorally every day for 7 weeks. The body weight, food intake, and serological markers such as totalcholesterol, triglyceride, lipid contents, leptin, adiponectin and glutamic oxaloacetictransaminase/glutamic pyruvic transaminase were measured in mice. The mRNA expression ofobese-associating genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, fattyacid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CaP desaturase (SCD-1), peroxisome proliferator-activatedreceptor (PPAR)-, COA oxidase (ACO), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1) wasanalyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: The administration of GCST at 400 mg/kg, significantly reduced the increase of bodyweight and food intake as well as food efficiency compared to HFD group. GCST decreased theserum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, leptin in HFDcontrol group and inhibited lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissues, but did not increasehigh-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In the liver tissues of GCST administrated HFD group, themRNA levels of SREBP-1c, FAS and SCD-1 were decreased and the mRNA levels of PPAR-,ACO, and CPT-1 were increased. Conclusions: These results indicate that GCST could improve high fat diet induced obesitythrough inhibiting the hyperlipidemia in fatty Liver. It suggest that GCST may be used clinically fordeclining the accumultion of body fat with hyperlipidemia.
  • 4.

    Protective Effects of Isorhamnetin against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in C2C12 Murine Myoblasts

    Yung Hyun Choi | 2015, 15(2) | pp.93~103 | number of Cited : 2
    Objectives: It was investigated the cytoprotective efficacies of isorhamnetin, a flavonoidoriginally derived from Hippophae rhamnoides L., against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis inC2C12 myoblasts. Methods: The effects of isorhamnetin on cell growth, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species(ROS) generation were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindolestaining and flow cytometry. The levels of apoptosis-regulatory and nuclear factorerythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway-related proteins, and caspase activities(caspase-3 and -9) were determined by Western blot analysis and colorimetric assay, respectively. Results: Our results revealed that treatment with isorhamnetin prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)exposure significantly increased the C2C12 cell viability and, indicating that the exposure ofC2C12 cells to isorhamnetin conferred a protective effect against oxidative stress. Isorhamnetinalso effectively attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis and ROS generation, which was associatedwith the restoration of the upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 induced by H2O2. Inaddition, H2O2 enhanced the activation of caspase-9 and -3, and degradation of poly (ADPribose)-polymerase, a typical substrate protein of activated caspase-3; however, these eventswere almost totally reversed by pretreatment with isorhamnetin. Moreover, isorhamnetinincreased the levels of heme oxygenase-1, a potent antioxidant enzyme, associated with theinduction of Nrf2. Conclusions: Our data indicated that isorhamnetin may potentially serve as an agent for thetreatment and prevention of muscle disorders caused by oxidative stress.
  • 5.

    Effects of Agastache rugosa on Obesity Via Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma and Reduction of Food Intake

    김용민 | Mi Hye Kim | Woong Mo Yang | 2015, 15(2) | pp.104~110 | number of Cited : 5
    Objectives: The herb of Agastache rugosa (AR) is a traditional herbal medicine used for colds,vomiting and furuncles. However, there are few reports to investigate the inhibitory effects of ARon obesity. In this study, the effects of AR on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and itsmechanism of actions were investigated in experimental animals. Methods: The mice were fed HFD for 4 weeks to induce obesity. After randomly divided intonormal fat diet, HFD and AR groups, 200 mg/kg of AR was administrated for 4 weeks withcontinuous HFD feeding while vehicle was orally treated to HFD group. Food intake and bodyweight were recorded weekly. Results: Increased body weight by HFD was improved by AR treatment. AR administrationinhibited an increase of visceral fat weight as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Hepatic steatosiswas ameliorated in AR-treated mice. In addition, treatment of AR attenuated the expression ofadipogenic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma in theepididymal adipose tissue. Also the increased serum leptin level by HFD was maintained in ARgroup, leading to inhibition of food intake. Conclusions: AR treatment showed inhibitory effects on HFD-induced obesity by inhibition ofPPAR-gamma and reduction of food intake. AR could be an alternative treatment for obesity.
  • 6.

    The Effects of Schizandrae Fructus Chloroform Fraction on Gene Expression in Liver Tissue of Dyslipidemic Mice

    신윤리 | Kim Young Kyun | Kyoung-min Kim | 2015, 15(2) | pp.111~122 | number of Cited : 2
    Objectives: Schizandrae fructus (Schizandra chinensis) is one of very common herbs, it is knownas natural antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agent. Also some reports show that its extract worksto regulate of dyslipidemia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Schizandraefructus chloroform fraction (SFCF) on serum lipid levels in dyslipidemic mice. Methods: The levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride,aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting blood glucose inserum were measured. Histopathological and gene expression changes in liver tissue were alsoobserved. Results: Oral administration of SFCF lowered levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride, whichwere elevated by high-fat diet. But SFCF did not affect on weight changes and serum AST, ALTlevels in dyslipidemic mice. After carrying out gene ontological analysis, large numbers of genesin high-fat diet group were up-(347) or down-regulated (235). In SFCF treated mice, somechanged expression of the genes was restored to normal levels, with a recovery rate of 17%. Andit seems that fatty acid biosynthesis pathway was one of important key pathways to recovery. Conclusions: SFCF has beneficial effect on dyslipidemia, and could be used to prevent and treatcardiovascular disease.
  • 7.

    Microbial Change and Fermentation Characteristics during Samjung-Hwan Natural Fermentation

    Shin Na Rae | WANG JINGHUA | 임동우 and 2other persons | 2015, 15(2) | pp.123~130 | number of Cited : 3
    Objectives: Samjung-hwan (SJH), a well-known traditional fermented herb formula recorded inDongui Bogam, has been commonly used for prolonging life for four hundred years in EasternAsia. However, fermented SJH has not been investigated in terms of microbial ecology untilpresent time. Methods: SJH was fermented for five weeks and fermentation characteristics during SJHfermentation were performed including pH, acidity and microbial profiling. Also, we measuredtotal polyphenol and total flavonoid contents and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) freeradical scavenging activity. In order to select starter candidate, several lactic acid bacteria wereisolated from fermented SJH. Results: pH of fermented SJH was decreased from 4.7 to 3.0 and acidity was increased from0.45% to 1.72%. Also, fermented SJH increased antioxidant indicator such as total polyphenoland total flavonoid as well as DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Lactobacillus brevis wasincreased, Pseudanabaena sp. was decreased, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was stableduring 5-week fermentation of SJH. L. brevis and L. plantarum were isolated from fermentedSJH. Conclusions: Fermented SJH for four weeks had optimal effect on antioxidant and fermentationcharacteristics such as pH, acidity and microbial profile. Further studies are required to developstarter and analyze functional compounds in oder to produce standardized SJH.
  • 8.

    The Effects of Cinnamomum cassia Blume, Aconitum carmichaeli Debx, and Pueraria lobata Benth on Glucose and Energy Metabolism in C2C12 Myotubes

    송미영 | 2015, 15(2) | pp.131~136 | number of Cited : 4
    Objectives: The prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide. Regulationof cellular energy metabolis has the potential to be manipulated therapeutically to serveas a target for obesity and insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle is regarded as a target for regulationof energy metabolism and insulin resistance. In this study, the authors investigated the regulatoryeffect of (Cinnamomum cassia Blume, CCB), Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (ACD), and Benth(Pueraria lobata Benth, PLB) on energy and glucose metabolism in C2C12 myotubes. Methods: The water extracts of CCB, ACD, and PLB (0.5 mg/ml) were treated in differentiatedC2C12 myotubes. The expressions of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK) and phosphorylation AMPK were detected with western blotting. Glucose metabolismwas investigated with glucose uptake assay and glucose consumption assay, total adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) content was also analyzed. Results: CCB, ACD, and PLB activated the phophorylation of AMPK, they also increased theglucose metabolism and total ATP contents in C2C12 myotubes. Conclusions: This study suggests that CCB, ACD, and PLB have the potential to increase energyand glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.
  • 9.

    Review of Clinical Studies for Obesity Using Cupping Therapy in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    유정은 | 장새별 | 2015, 15(2) | pp.137~143 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical studies of cupping therapy for obesity inTraditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and to evaluate the effects of it for use in practice. CNKIwere searched for controlled studies on cupping therapy for obesity that were published up toSeptember 2015. The review included 9 randomized controlled trials, and we analyzed theobjectives, process of interventions, outcome measurements, and main results of the studies. Wefound that cupping therapy combined with acupuncture, electric acupuncture or threadembedding have more effectively decreased body mass index, waist circumference and lipidprofile than acupuncture, electric acupuncture or thread embedding only have done. In thereviewed studies, cupping therapy treated in the region of abdomen, upper and lower limbs, anddorsal part operating on 5 to 25 minutes for one time with total 6 to 45 times of schedule. In thisstudy, we demonstrated that cupping therapy combined with acupuncture, electric acupunctureor thread embedding could have effectively used for treating obesity. Further evaluation andclinical researches are required to establish evidence in practice
  • 10.

    A Case Report for the Effects of Pharmacopuncture Combined Thread Implantation Therapy to Improve Localized Obesity

    전예진 | 유정은 | 2015, 15(2) | pp.144~148 | number of Cited : 2
    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pharmacopuncture combined threadimplantation therapy for treating localized obesity. The study was conducted on 3 subjects withabdominal localized fat, 1 subject with thigh and 1 subject with calf localized fat. We practiced twokinds of pharmacopunture, which were cultivated wild ginseng and contacting Ephedra sinicapharmacopuncture. In addition, we practiced thread implantation to 20 points on musclemembrane layer. We performed these treatments once in 2 weeks, totally for 3 times. Aftertreatments, abdominal circumference and waist-hip ratio were reduced by 4.6 % and 0.13,respectively. In addition, circumferences of thigh and calf were reduced by 5.8 % and 4%. Wesupposed that this combined therapy could be useful to deal with localized fat deposit. Long-termevaluation and further studies are required to identify effect size of this therapy.
  • 11.

    Effect of Acupotomy with Selective Cryolysis for Localized Fat: Case Report

    윤상훈 | 문용진 | 조경하 | 2015, 15(2) | pp.149~152 | number of Cited : 4
    The aim of this study is to report clinical progresses on localized fat. We devised the method oftreat localized fat using acupotomy with selective cryolysis. We selected 4 subjects among thepatients who maintained their body weight (within 5%) to minimize effects of losing weight. Wepracticed acupotomy with selective cryolysis therapy on 4 lesion of abdominal fat, 2 lesion ofupper arm fat, 5 times for 2 month. All subjects had loss of abdominal circumference, and 1 subjecthad significantly loss of upper arm circumference. And there was no adverse effects. It shows thatmethod of using acupotomy with selective cryolysis may be effective on localized fat.
  • 12.

    A Pilot Study to Develop Gamrosu, a Modified Fasting Therapy Beverage: Case Series

    Oh, Dal-Seok | 김동환 | Hyuntaeg Shin and 1other persons | 2015, 15(2) | pp.153~161 | number of Cited : 5
    Gamrosu is a modified fasting therapy beverage (431 kcal/d). A retrospective observationalstudy was conducted to investigate the detoxification feasibility of Gamrosu. Three cases werereviewed which participants have finished the fasting with Garmrosu for 10 consecutive days. Detoxification profiles of Gamrosu were reviewed at pre- and post-fasting sessions. Post-Gamrosu session, −6.3% of average weight, −6.5% of average body fat mass and −6.6%of average muscle mass were reduced with the nutrition indices being improved. The inflammationindices showed the significant diminished profiles. Liver/kidney functions and the standard ofelectrolytes were maintained within normal range in stable manners, however, marginal elevationof total bilirubin and mild ketoacidosis were observed. The indices of oxidative stress decreasedand those of antioxidative activity increased. The fatigue scale scores indicated lower scoresexcept insomnia symptom. Taken together, detoxification profiles of Gamrosu were sufficientlyfeasible and the observed findings should be considered for further clinical studies.