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pISSN : 1976-9334 / eISSN : 2288-1522

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2018, Vol.18, No.2

  • 1.

    Effects of Leejung-tang, Rikkunshito, and Bojungikgi-tang on Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Channels

    KIM, BYUNG JOO | 2018, 18(2) | pp.57~63 | number of Cited : 3
    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is defined by a cluster of major cardiovascular risk factors: obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension. Several members of a large family of nonselective cation entry channels, e.g., transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels have been associated with the development of dyslipidemia and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Leejung-tang (Lizhong-tang), Rikkunshito, and Bojungikgi-tang (Buzhongyiqi-tang) on TRPV4 channel. Methods: Human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably transfected with the TRPV4 expression vectors were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% penicillin/streptomycin, 5 μg/mL blasticidin, and 0.4 mg/mL zeocin in a humidified 20% O2/10% CO2 atmosphere at 37˚C. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained using an Axopatch 700B amplifier and pClamp v.10.4 software (Molecular Devices, San Jose, CA, USA), and signals were digitalized at 5 kHz using Digidata 1422A. Results: Leejung-tang and Rikkunshito (10, 30 and 50 mg/mL) had no effects on the TRPV4 whole-cell currents at dose dependent manner. However, Bojungikgi-tang (10, 30, and 50 mg/mL) inhibited the TRPV4 whole-cell currents in a dose dependent manner and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Bojungikgi-tang was 18.2 mg/mL. Conclusions: These results suggest that Bojungikgi-tang plays an important roles to inhibit the TRPV4 channel, suggesting that Bojungikgi-tang is considered one of the candidate agents for the treatment of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension.
  • 2.

    Effect of Platycodon grandiflorum Fermentation with Salt on Fermentation Characteristics, Microbial Change and Anti-obesity Activity

    Shin Na Rae , 임수경 , Hojun Kim | 2018, 18(2) | pp.64~73 | number of Cited : 2
    Objectives: This study investigated the effect on microbial ecology, fermentation characteristics and anti-obesity of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) fermentation with salt. Methods: PG was fermented for four weeks with 2.5% salt and the characteristics of fermented PG were performed by measuring pH, total sugar content, viable bacteria number and microbial profiling. Also, we measured total polyphenol, flavonoid and the percent of inhibition of lipase activity and lipid accumulation. Results: Salt added to PG for fermentation had an effect on pH, total sugar, total and the number of lactic acid bacteria. Total sugar and pH were reduced and number of total and lactic acid bacteria were increased after fermentation. The majority of bacteria for fermentation were Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc psedomesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis regardless of salt addition. However, microbial compositions were altered by added salt and additional bacteria including Weissella koreensis, W. viridescens, Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus cuvatus were found in fermented PG with salt. Total flavonoid was increased in fermented PG and lipid accumulation on HepG2 cells treated with fermented PG was reduced regardless of salt addition. Moreover, fermented PG without salt suppressed lipase activity. Conclusions: Addition of salt for PG fermentation had influence on fermentation characteristics including pH and sugar content as well as number of bacteria and microbial composition. In addition, fermented PG showed anti-obesity effect by increasing flavonoid content and inhibition of lipase activity and lipid accumulation.
  • 3.

    The Protective Effects of Silbi-um Extract on the Alcoholic Liver Injury in Rats

    김범회 | 2018, 18(2) | pp.74~82 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of Silbi-um (SBU) extract on the alcoholic fatty liver induced by EtOH administration for 8 weeks. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were used. All animals were randomly divided into 3 groups; Normal, EtOH and EtOH+SBU. The rats of EtOH group were daily treated with ethanol of 25% (v/v) for 8 weeks (n=10). EtOH+SBU group was orally treated with SBU water extract after ethanol administration (n=10). The rats of Normal group were treated with saline (n=10). After 8 weeks, the mean body weight, liver weight, and liver-body weight ratio were calculated. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of all groups were measured. The morphological alterations were observed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Oil Red O staining. Moreover, the alteration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were analyzed immunohistochemistrically. Results: The histological data showed that liver sections from EtOH group displayed severe steatosis. SBU extract significantly inhibited the progression of the alcoholic liver injury. The increased serum level of ALT and AST induced by ethanol administration were decreased by SBU extract. Furthermore, SBU extract significantly decreased the liver concentrations of TNF-α. Conclusions: SBU water extract attenuated the alcohol induced fatty liver by improving hepatic lipid metabolism via suppression of TNF-α protein. SBU could be effective in protecting the liver from alcoholic fatty liver.
  • 4.

    Optimization of Mixing Ratio of Mulberry Leaf, Mulberry Fruit, and Silkworm for Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome

    Min-Ju Kim , 김현숙 , Kim Ae-Jung | 2018, 18(2) | pp.83~95 | number of Cited : 5
    Objectives: The aim of this study was optimized mixing ratio of mulberry leaf, mulberry fruit, and silkworm for amelioration of the metabolic syndrome by using response surface method (RSM). Methods: Antioxidant, antidiabetic and antihypertensive activities of fifteen mixed powder of mulberry leaf, mulberry fruit, and silkworm by RSM were measured as indicators of metabolic syndrome. Results: The optimal mixing ratio of mulberry leaves, mulberry fruits, and silkworm with the greatest antioxidant, antidiabetic and antihypertensive activities was as follows: 2.5890 of mulberry leaf (A), 0.1222 of mulberry fruit (B), 2.9999 of silkworm (C). At this time, it was predicted that the total polyphenol content was estimated to be 185.51 tannic acid equivalent mg/g, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhy drazyl radical scavenging activity 84.77%, 1-deoxynojirimycin content 415.66 mg/100 g, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity 64.31%, γ-aminobutyric acid content 267.77 mg/100 g, potassium content 1,899.11 mg/100 g, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitory activity was estimated to be 73.78%. Conclusions: It was concluded that the significant effect of the mulberry leaf, mulberry fruit, and silkworm on the metabolic syndrome-related biological activity indices (antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity and antihypertensive activity) was as follows: 2.5890 of mulberry leaf (A), 0.1222 of mulberry fruit (B), 2.9999 of silkworm (C).
  • 5.

    Microorganisms Involved in Natural Fermentation of Asparagus cochinchinensis Roots and Changes in Efficacies after Fermentation

    Min-Jee Kim , Shin Na Rae , Myeong-Jong Lee and 1 other persons | 2018, 18(2) | pp.96~105 | number of Cited : 3
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis (AC) and fermented AC (fAC) on microorganisms and efficacies. Methods: AC was fermented for four weeks without using any bacterial strains. Then we investigated fermentation characteristics including potential of hydrogen (pH), total sugar, microbial profiling and antioxidant compound contents such as total polyphenol and total flavonoid. The anti-obesity effects of AC and fAC were evaluated by using Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Also anti-diabetic effects of them were evaluated by using 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG) uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle cell. Results: Both pH and total sugar of fAC were decreased significantly compared to unfermented AC. And the abundance of total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria increased during fermentation, especially Lactobacillus plantarum. Also fermentation of AC increased the content of total polyphenol. On the metabolic aspects, we found that AC and fAC suppressed fat accumulation. Conclusions: After four weeks of fermentation, AC increased concentrations of active compounds, altered microbial composition, and inhibited fat accumulation such as triglyceride. These results indicate that fermentation of AC might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for obesity.
  • 6.

    Changes of Efficacy of Antioxidant, Antidyslipidemic, Antidiabetic and Microbiological Characteristics in Fermented and Salt-treated Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata

    SEONG EUN HAK , Myeong-Jong Lee , Hojun Kim and 1 other persons | 2018, 18(2) | pp.106~114 | number of Cited : 3
    Objectives: We investigated about the microbial properties and changes in the efficacy of the Codonopsis lanceolata (CL) by natural fermentation. Methods: CL was fermented for four weeks in a well-ventilated place with 2.5% salt. pH, total sugar, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid were measured to determine fermentation characteristics according to fermentation period and salt treatment. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction were carried out for microbial analysis during fermentation. In addition, HepG2 cell was cultured to check the lipid accumulation through oil red O staining and the glucose uptake was analyzed by measuring the 2-NBDG at C2C12 cell. Results: The pH level and the total sugar decreased with the CL fermentation. Total polyphenol and flavonoid increased after CL fermentation. It was confirmed that Leuconostoc mesenteroides were maintained continuously during fermentation. In the salt treatment CL, there was a sharp increase in Rahnella aquatilis. Lactobacillus plantarum matrix was observed in fermented CL. In addition, Lactococcus lactis, Weissella koreensis, R. aquatilis, L. plantarum, Leu. mesenteroides have been added to the salt treatment. Glucose uptake were significantly increased after fermentation with salt for four weeks. Lipid accumulation in the HepG2 cells was observed that there was difference (P<0.01) between free fatty acid group (100%) and decreased 4 weeks after fermentation (90.38%) at 800 μg/mL. Conclusions: Total polyphenol and flavonoid were increased after CL fermentation. Especially, percentage of the glucose uptake and lipid accumulation inhibition increased in CL fermentation with salt. It is expected that fermentation of salt treated CL will be more effective in diabetes and fatty liver.
  • 7.

    Review on Predictors of Weight Loss in Obesity Treatment

    남승희 , Seo-Young Kim , Young-Woo Lim and 1 other persons | 2018, 18(2) | pp.115~127 | number of Cited : 5
    Objectives: People often fail to reduce or maintain their weight despite trying to lose weight. The purpose of this study was to review previously published study results of the predictive factors associated with weight loss in obesity treatment. Methods: Authors searched for the articles related to weight loss, published from 2007 to 2017 found on PubMed, Scopus, Research Information Sharing Service (RISS), and Koreanstudies Information Service System (KISS). A total of 43 articles were finally selected. From the study results, unchangeable and changeable predictors were extracted, and these predictors were examined according to detailed categories. Results: Predictors of weight loss in obesity treatment included genetic and physiological factors, demographic factors, history of treatment on obesity related factors, behavioral factors, psychological factors and treatment process related factors. The main factors of weight loss were unchangeable predictors such as high initial degree of obesity and younger age, and changeable predictors such as dietary restraint, regular exercise, self-efficacy, initial weight loss and attendance. Especially dietary restraint, regular exercise, successful initial weight loss and high attendance were considered to be dominant factors for weight loss treatments. Conclusions: Our review results suggest that unchangeable and changeable predictors of weight loss should be carefully examined during treatments of obesity.
  • 8.

    Literature Review for the Clinical Application of Dietary Supplements in Cellulite Treatment

    윤정민 , Jongsoo Lee | 2018, 18(2) | pp.128~143 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and the mechanisms of dietary supplements in cellulite treatment, and then to provide the theoretical and clinical basis for the cellulite treatment in Korean Medicine. Methods: We searched for articles from Korea, China, and English electronic database (Koreanstudies Information Service System [KISS], National Digital Science Library [NDSL], KMbase, Research Information Sharing Service [RISS], Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System [OASIS], National Assembly Library, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, Google scholar, PubMed, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) until April 2018. We chose clinical trial studies by inclusion criteria through titles, abstracts and articles. Results: A total of 10 studies were selected through search. The experimental group had shown more effective cellulite improvement in 90% of studies. Also, improvement of symptoms related with cellulite like pain, edema, heaviness and increase of skin surface temperature were observed in experimental group. In addition, the density of connective tissues of the dermal layer was increased in experimental group. Conclusions: The use of dietary supplements in cellulite treatment is thought to be effective through mechanisms that antioxidant efficacy, microcirculation improvement, interstitial matrix improvement, diuretic effect, and skin metabolic activity effect.
  • 9.

    Evaluation of the Quality of Case Reports of the Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research from 2013 to 2018 According to the CARE (CAse REport) Guidelines

    Kyungmoo Park , Sung-Youl Choi , 이주아 and 1 other persons | 2018, 18(2) | pp.144~151 | number of Cited : 10
    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of case reports of the Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research by the Case Report (CARE) guidelines. Methods: Case reports published in the Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research from January 2013 to July 2018 were searched from Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS). We assessed the quality of reporting based on CARE guidelines. Results: A total of 8 case reports were finally included for the assessment. There was a deviation in the sub-item reporting rate by a maximum 75% and a minimum 57.14% in case reports. The 10 sub-items mentioned below, such as 'Timeline', 'Diagnostic challenges', 'Diagnostic reasoning including other diagnoses considered', 'Prognostic characteristics', 'Changes in intervention', 'Important follow-up diagnostic evaluations and other test results', 'Intervention adherence and tolerability', 'Adverse and unanticipated events', 'Patient perspective' and 'Informed consent' were reported below 30%. Conclusions: Efforts to diversify the subject of the case study and to apply appropriate reporting guidelines are needed to improve the quality of the case report contributed to the Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research.
  • 10.

    Effects of the Modified Fasting Therapy Using Gamrosu and Herbal Medicine on Changes of Body Compositions in Women: Case Series

    백선은 , Eun-Ji Park , 김혜원 and 1 other persons | 2018, 18(2) | pp.152~158 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of modified fasting therapy using Gamrosu and herbal medicine on the changes of body compositions in women. We analyzed the medical records of 11 patients, who carried out modified fasting therapy at Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University. Body compositions (body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, extracellular water ratio, abdominal circumference, thickness of abdominal subcutaneous fat, visceral fat area) were reviewed before and after modified fasting therapy. The body composition values (body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, extracellular water ratio, abdominal circumference, thickness of abdominal subcutaneous fat, visceral fat area) decreased after modified fasting therapy. Results from this investigation showed that modified fasting therapy using Gamrosu and herbal medicine has positive effects on changes of body compositions.