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pISSN : 1976-9334 / eISSN : 2288-1522

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2019, Vol.19, No.2

  • 1.

    Membrane Free Stem Cell Extract from Adipose Tissue Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Ji Hyun Kim , Min Jeong Kim , Hye Sook Park and 2 other persons | 2019, 19(2) | pp.89~96 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: We investigated whether membrane free stem cell extract from adipose tissue (MFSCE) has anti-diabetic effect. Methods: To determine glucose uptake effect of MFSCE, we carried out glucose uptake assay in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The regulatory mechanisms of MFSCE on glucose uptake were examined by Western blot analysis. Results: When MFSCE was treated to adipocytes at the concentration of 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/mL, 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate uptake was elevated approximately 1.8-fold compared to cells not treated with MFSCE. It indicated that MFSCE enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, MFSCE reduced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at serine 307 and induced Akt and glucose transporter 4 protein expressions that were related to insulin signaling. Furthermore, MFSCE regulated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway by increases of increase phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase that were related to AMPK pathway. Conclusions: These results indicated that MFSCE promotes glucose uptake via modulation of insulin signaling and AMPK pathway. Therefore, MFSCE could be a promising agent for treatment of diabetes mellitus.
  • 2.

    Airway Microbiota in Stroke Patients with Tracheostomy: A Pilot Study

    Eunhak Seong , Yura Choi , Sookyoung Lim and 4 other persons | 2019, 19(2) | pp.97~105 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: We investigated differences between the tracheostomized and the non-tracheostomized stroke patients through microbiological analysis for the purpose of preliminary explorations of full-scale clinical research in the future. Methods: We collected tracheal aspirates samples from 5 stroke patients with tracheostomy and expectorated sputum samples from 5 stroke patients without tracheostomy. Genomic DNA from sputum samples was isolated using QIAamp DNA mini kit. The sequences were processed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology 1.9.0. Alpha-diversity was calculated using the Chao1 estimator. Beta-diversity was analyzed by UniFrac-based principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). To confirm taxa with different abundance among the groups, linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis was performed. Results: Although alpha-diversity value of the tracheostomized group was higher than that of the non-tracheostomized group, there was no statistically significant difference. In PCoA, clear separation was seen between clusters of the tracheostomized group and that of the non-tracheostomized group. In both groups, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria were identified as dominant in phylum level. In particular, relative richness of Proteobacteria was found to be 31% more in the tracheotomized group (36.6%) than the non-tracheostomized group (5.6%)(P<0.05). In genus level, Neisseria (24%), Prevotella (17%), Streptococcus (13%), Fusobacteria (11%), Porphyromonas (7%) were identified as dominant in the tracheostomized group. In the non-tracheostomized group, Prevotella (38%), Veillonella (20%), Neisseria (9%) were genera that found to be dominant. Conclusions: It is meaningful in that the tracheostomized group has been identified a higher rate of microbiotas known as pathogenic in respiratory diseases compared to the non-tracheostomized group, confirming the possibility that the risk of opportunity infection may be higher.
  • 3.

    Effect of Reduction in the Adipose Accumulation of Akkermansia muciniphila in Mature 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Hyeyoon Shim , Sookyoung Kim , Joo-Hyun Shin and 3 other persons | 2019, 19(2) | pp.106~112 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to observe the reduction of lipid accumulation by treatment with Akkermansia muciniphila extract on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: After treating pasteurized Akk. muciniphila strains in HT-29 colorectal cancer cell, the relative expression of interleukin (IL)-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA was analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. 27 strains of Akk. muciniphila which have anti-inflammatory effects were selected. 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were treated with Akk. muciniphila for 24 hr and then measured the toxicity using water soluble tetrazolium salt assay. The cells were incubated for 4 days and then differentiated into adipocytes using the medium including adipogenic reagents for 10 days. The Akk. muciniphila was treated when the medium was exchanged for differentiation medium at 4th day and insulin medium at 6th day. To observe the lipid accumulation, the cells were stained with Oil red O dye and were measured using a spectrophotometer. Results: In the cytotoxicity test, the cell viability of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly increased compared to the control group which untreated with Akk. muciniphila, and there was no cytotoxicity of Akk. muciniphila at 1×107 CFU/mL. The results on Oil red O staining and absorbance measurements were showed a significant decrease in lipid accumulation in the group which was treated with Akk. muciniphila compared to the control group. Conclusions: In our results, Akk. muciniphila has the inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This suggests that Akk. muciniphila could be help to improve obesity.
  • 4.

    Development of Manual for Standard Counseling of Obesity Patients in Korean Medicine

    Chung Won Suk , Kim Koh-Woon , Jun Young Jo and 1 other persons | 2019, 19(2) | pp.113~118 | number of Cited : 3
    A counseling manual for the standardized management of obesity in Korean Medicine was developed. Four specialist for obesity and ten advisors participated in the development. The development process was conducted in order to investigate the needs of clinical doctors for obesity, search for related books and references, determine the contents of the manual, produce the manual, and review of the advisors. The contents of the manual were written in order of goal of obesity counseling, assessment of obesity and health risk factors, assessment of obesity-related lifestyles, counseling for weight management, and counseling for Korean Medical treatment. This manual is the first standardized counseling manual developed, and it is meaningful to provide a counseling method for comprehensive Korean Medicine obesity care. Although there were various limitations in the review of the advisory committee, it is expected that this study will be used as a basic data for the establishment of obesity-related health care policy. We hope that obesity counseling of Korean Medicine will be settled as one of the certified korean medical treatment.
  • 5.

    Review on Predictors of Weight Loss Maintenance after Successful Weight Loss in Obesity Treatment

    Yu-Kyung Kwon , Seo-Young Kim , Young-Woo Lim and 1 other persons | 2019, 19(2) | pp.119~136 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: People often fail to maintain their weight even though they have succeeded in weight loss. The purpose of this study was to review previously published study results with regards to the predictive factors associated with weight loss maintenance after successful weight loss. Methods: The authors searched for the articles related to weight loss maintenance after successful weight loss, published up until June 2019 on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase, Research Information Sharing Service (RISS), and Koreanstudies Information Service System (KISS). A total of 76 articles were finally selected. From the study results, changeable and unchangeable predictors were extracted, and these predictors were examined according to detailed categories. Results: The changeable predictors of weight loss maintenance included behavioral factors, psychological factors and treatment process-related factors, whereas the unchangeable predictors included genetic and physiological factors, demographic factors, history of treatment on obesity-related factors. The main factors of weight loss maintenance were changeable predictors such as healthy eating habits, dietary intake control, binge eating control, regular exercise and physical activity, depression and stress control, social supports, self-regulation, self-weighing and initial weight loss and unchangeable predictors such as low initial weight and maximum lifetime weight. Conclusions: The results of our review results suggest that changeable and unchangeable predictors of weight loss maintenance should be carefully examined during treatments of obesity.
  • 6.

    Obesity from a Hyungsang Medical Standpoint

    Hwan-Su Jung | 2019, 19(2) | pp.137~139 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to contribute to diagnosis and treatment of obesity through classification of Hyungsang medicine. Specific form in Hyungsang medicine related to obesity is Essential family, Phlegm-retained fluid, Bladder physique, Yang brigtness shape, Qi family, and Blood family. Specific form in Hyungsang medicine respectively has its own unique pathology, symptom, prescription and the same principle is applied in treatment of obesity.