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pISSN : 1976-9334 / eISSN : 2288-1522

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2020, Vol.20, No.1

  • 1.

    Inhibitory Effect of Dihydroartemisinin, An Active Ingredient of Artemisia annua, on Lipid Accumulation in Differentiating 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    Jang, Byeong-Churl | 2020, 20(1) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 0
    Objectives: Artemisinin and its derivatives extracted from Artemisia annua, a Chinese herbal medicine, have variable biological effects due to structural differences. Up to date, the anti-obesity effect of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effects of DHA on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods: Oil Red O staining and AdipoRed assay were used to measure lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) content in 3T3-L1 cells, respectively. Cell count analysis was used to determine the cytotoxicity of 3T3-L1 cells. Western blot and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to analyze the expression of protein and mRNA in 3T3-L1 cells, respectively. Results: DHA at 5 μM markedly inhibited lipid accumulation and reduced TG content in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells with no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, DHA at 5 μM inhibited the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and perilipin A as well as the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, while DHA at 5 μM had no effect on the mRNA expression of adiponectin, it strongly suppressed that of leptin in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. However, DHA at 5 μM had no lipolytic effect on differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, as assessed by no enhancement of glycerol release. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that DHA at 5 μM has a strong anti-adipogenic effect on differentiating 3T3-L1 cells through the reduced expression and phosphorylation of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, perilipin A, and STAT-3.
  • 2.

    Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid, Phenolic Compound of Momordica Charantia, against Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in C6 Glial Cell

    Kim Ji-hyun , Jung Ran Choi , CHO, EUN JU and 1 other persons | 2020, 20(1) | pp.10~19 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: Oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammation has been supposed as a crucial factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective activity against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation of protocatechuic acid (PA), active phenolic compound from Momordica Charantia. Methods: Protective activity of PA from oxidative stress was performed under in vitro conditions. Our study investigated the protective mechanism of PA from neuroinflammation in cellular system using C6 glial cell. To investigate the improvement the effects on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, we induced oxidative stress by H2O2 (100 μM) stimulation and induced neuroinflammation by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/mL) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) (10 ng/mL) in C6 glial cells. Results: PA showed strong radical scavenging effect against 1,1-dipenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxy radical (⋅OH) and nitric oxide (NO). Under oxidative stress treated by H2O2, the result showed the increased mRNA expressions of oxidative stress markers such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS). However, the treatment of PA led to reduced mRNA expressions of NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS. Moreover, PA attenuated the production of interleukin-6 and scavenged NO generated by both endotoxin LPS and IFN-γ together. Furthermore, it also reduced LPS and IFN-γ-induced mRNA expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Conclusions: In conclusion, our results collectively suggest that PA, phenolic compound of Momordica Charantia, could be a safe anti-oxidant and a promising anti-neuroinflammatory molecule for neurodegenerative diseases.
  • 3.

    The Retrospective Analysis of Effects of H Gambitang (GB-001) on Weight Loss in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Obese Woman

    Hong Seok Cho , Yeonho Seo , Kim Koh-Woon and 2 other persons | 2020, 20(1) | pp.20~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of H Gambitang (GB-001) on body composition and basal metabolic rate in pre- and post-menopausal obese woman retrospectively. Methods: The study was conducted on 57 middle-aged obese women. They were divided into two groups; pre-menopausal obesity group (Pr-MOG; n=34) and post-menopausal obesity group (Po-MOG; amenorrhea was continued to 14~48 month, n=23) with no significant difference of age, height, body weight and body mass index. All subjects took herbal medicine 3 times a day, for 6 weeks during treatment period. The weight, height, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and basal metabolic rate of all subjects were measured on first visit. The following measurements were repeated after 2 weeks (2nd), 4 weeks (3rd) and 6 weeks (4th) with Inbody 370 (Biospace) equipment to identify changes of body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and basal metabolic rate. Results are represented as mean and standard deviation. Results: Po-MOG showed significantly lower decrease rate in weight reduction on 2~6 weeks while significantly higher decrease rate in skeletal muscle reduction on 4~6 weeks. There were no significant differences between two groups in body fat reduction rate and basal metabolic increasing rate. Conclusions: H Gambitang (GB-001) can be used not only in Pr-MOG but in Po-MOG in weight loss although the effect can be lower in Po-MOG. To prevent skeletal muscle mass loss in Po-MOG, following study on adjusting dose and components of H Gambitang (GB-001) thought to be necessary.
  • 4.

    Effect and Safety of Combined Treatment of Gambihwan and Garcinia Cambogia on Weight Loss: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Sang-Hoon Yoon , Eunji Lee , Hyunjung Jo and 6 other persons | 2020, 20(1) | pp.31~39 | number of Cited : 3
    Objectives: Obesity is becoming more popular disease worldwide. Because of the side effects of conventional obesity treatment modality, herbal medicine treatment is becoming more preferred. Gambihwan which including Ephedra sinica Staph is widely used in traditional Korean Medicine practice for obesity treatment. Garcinia cambogia is a kind of health functional food that has body fat reducing effect. Nowadays, ephedra and Garcinia cambogia are often used simultaneously in clinical practice of Korean Medicine. However, the effectiveness and safety of combination therapy in obesity treatment is not well established. Methods: We conducted retrospective observational study to explore effectiveness and safety of combination therapy. We evaluated effect of combined treatment of Gambihwan and Garcinia cambogia on body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, and waist hip ratio reduction. We also assessed safety via liver function test and adverse event. Results: Finally, 23 patients were included. In paired t-test, body weight significantly decreased from 64.50±14.50 kg to 62.94±13.85 kg (P<0.001) and body mass index were also significantly decreased from 24.43±3.79 kg/m2 to 23.83±3.59 kg/m2 (P<0.001). Body fat mass was also reduced. Aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase were not significantly increased. There were no drug-induced liver injury and no severe adverse event. Conclusions: In our retrospective review, we found combination therapy of Gambihwan and Garcinia cambogia reduce body weight, body mass index and body fat mass. There were no severe adverse event and drug induced liver injury which indicated safety of combination therapy in obesity treatment.
  • 5.

    A Comparative Study on the Quality of Sleep, Tongue Diagnosis, and Oral Microbiome in Accordance to the Korean Medicine Pattern Differentiation of Insomnia

    Hyeyoon Shim , Ojin Kwon , Min-Jee Kim and 7 other persons | 2020, 20(1) | pp.40~51 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: We aimed to compare the quality of sleep, tongue diagnosis, oral microbiology differences in insomnia of Liver qi stagnation (LQS) and Non-Liver qi stagnation (NLQS). Methods: 56 patients were classified as LQS or NLSQ type insomnia through the insomnia differentiation questionnaire. The depression scores between the groups were compared through beck depression inventory (BDI), and the sleep quality was compared through Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). We analyzed the sleep efficiency, total sleep time, total awake frequency, total and average awake time through actigraph. For the tongue diagnosis, the distribution of tongue coating in six areas were measured through Winkel tongue coating index (WTCI). Linear discriminant analysis was performed to observe the differences in composition of microbial strains between the groups. Results: The scores of BDI, ISI and PSQI were significantly higher in LQS group. The total sleep time in LQS group was significantly less than that of NLQS group. Among the areas of tongue, according to the WTCI, the amount of tongue coating in zones A and C was significantly small. In oral microbial analysis, there was no significant difference between the groups at the phylum level. At the genus level, Prevotella, Veillonella, and Streptococcus were predominant in LQS group, whereas Prevotella, Neisseria, and Streptococcus in NLQS group. Conclusions: It was meaningful that insomnia was more likely in LQS group than in NLQS group, and the composition of oral microorganisms was significantly different, which could lead to the diseases caused by stress.
  • 6.

    The Effect of Auricular Acupuncture for Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Seohyun Park , Sunjoo An , Sunghwan Choi and 2 other persons | 2020, 20(1) | pp.52~68 | number of Cited : 1
    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the weight loss effects of auricular acupuncture in obese patients. Methods: Six databases (Research Information Sharing Service [RISS], Korean studies Information Service System [KISS], Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System [OASIS], PubMed, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched up to May 20, 2020. Eight eligible randomized controlled trials were included the present study. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed by Review Manager software. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis was performed to detect the sources of heterogeneity, identify the selection of acupuncture methods and explore its contributions to the weight loss effects. Results: Among 8 trials, 5 trials used auricular acupuncture and 2 trials used auricular acupressure, 1 trial used both types of intervention. Most commonly selected acupoints were Shenmen (TF4) and stomach (CO4). Treatment duration was six to twelve weeks, and total treatment session was six to twelve. Compared to the control groups, auricular acupuncture significantly decreased body weight, body mass index (BMI), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) and ghrelin. For the selection of acupuncture methods, both methods performed similarly in most outcome except waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP), and triglycerides (TG). Conclusions: We found that auricular acupuncture can be effective for weight loss and controlling appetite. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity. So further vigorous and well-designed studies should be conducted to strengthen the evidence of the use of auricular acupuncture for obesity.