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pISSN : 1976-9334 / eISSN : 2288-1522

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 1.63
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2020, Vol.20, No.2

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  • 1.

    Antiobesity and Antidiabetic Effects of Polyherbal Extract with Atractylodis Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Moutan Radicles Cortex in High Fat Diet-induced Obesity Mice

    Su Min Jung | Young Hyun Seol | Ka Yoon Chun and 5other persons | 2020, 20(2) | pp.69~77 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of polyherbal extract, DM2 consisting of Atractylodis Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Moutan Radicles Cortex in high fat diet-induced obesity mice. Methods: DM2 extract was prepared with a hot water. Six-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and then administrated with DM2 extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) for 4 weeks. The changes of physiological markers, body weight (BW), food and water intakes, and the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) were measured once a week for 4 weeks in mice. The the serum levels of glucose, insulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (T-CHO), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in sera were measured in mice using autometic chemical analyzer and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. We also observed the histological changes of liver and pancreatic tissues with Hematoxylin & Eosin staining. Results: In physiological change, the increases of BW, calorie intake, and FBG in HFD-induced obese mice were significantly decreased after administration of DM2 extract for 4 weeks. The decrease of water intake was significantly increased in DM2 extract-administrated mice. In serological change, the administration of DM2 extract in obesity mice was significantly decreased the serum levels of glucose, insulin, T-CHO, AST, and ALT levels. We also found that DM2 extract inhibited the increase of lipid droplets in liver and the structural destruction of pancreatic tissues in obesity mice. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that DM2 extract has antiobesity antidiabetic effects with body weight loss, decrease of glucose and insulin levels, and lipid accumulation on liver tissue.
  • 2.

    Comparative Study on the Differentiation Effect of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte by 65 Herbal Medicine Prescriptions

    Hye Min Choi | Byung-Woo Yu | Min-Ju Kim and 1other persons | 2020, 20(2) | pp.78~87 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: To expand and provide information on the efficacy of herbal medicines, anti-obesity effects were evaluated. In many studies, plant-derived components with anti-obesity efficacies have been investigated for their potential inhibitory effects on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of 65 herbal medicine in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. Methods: Preferentially, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 65 herbal medicines (500 µg/mL) during differentiation for 8 days. Next, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with selected herbal medicines at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 µg/mL during differentiation for 8 days. The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining. The expressions of genes related to adipogenesis were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Results: Among the 65 kinds of herbal medicines, 13 herbal medicines that been shown to be effective against the accumulation of lipid droplets were selected. Finally, selected Banhasasim-tang and Samhwangsasim-tang showed inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation at 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without affecting cell toxicity. In addition, Banhasasim-tang and Samhwangsasim-tang significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α. Conclusions : These results suggest that the ability of Banhasasim-tang and Samhwangsasimtang has inhibited overall adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells. Banhasasim-tang and Samhwangsasim-tang may be a promising medicine for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
  • 3.

    Effects of Valerianae Radix et Rhizoma Methanol Extract on High-fat Diet-induced Hyperlipidemic Mice

    Sun Mi Park | Young Kyun Kim | Yu Sun Ae and 4other persons | 2020, 20(2) | pp.88~96 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Valerianae Radix et Rhizoma Methanol Extract (VRME) on serum lipid levels in a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Methods: Each 8 C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to normal diet group, high-fat diet control group, high-fat diet plus 100 mg/kg/day of VRME group. In order to induce hyperlipidemia, high-fat diets were supplied to control group and VRME group for four weeks. Normal diet group were supplied with general feed for four weeks. After that control group supplied only high-fat diets as feed, VRME group received oral administration of VRME with high-fat diets for three weeks. and normal diet group were supplied with general feed for three weeks. After seven weeks, the changes in the body weight, the plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood glucose in serum were measured. Results: In our results, VRME did not affects weight gain, serum AST and ALT in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Oral administration of VRME lowered levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride, which were elevated by induction of hyperlipidemia. and oral administration of VRME lowered blood glucose significantly. Conclusions: These results suggest that VRME could act as a potent antihyperlipidemic in therapeutics for hyperlipidemia.
  • 4.

    Stimultaneous Determination of Ephedrine Alkaloids in Ephedra sinica and Wolbigachul-tang by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Miyoung Song | Jung-Ok Kim | Hyun Hee Leem and 1other persons | 2020, 20(2) | pp.97~108 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: Ephedra sinica and Wolbigachul-tang which contains Ephedra sinica are used to treat obesity in Korean medicine. The aim of this study was to analyze the quantities of ephedrine alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography. Methods: The analysis was performed using a YMC-Triat C18 column with operating at 25℃, and UV detection at 210 nm. The mobile phase used a gradient flow with 0.1% H3PO4 in water and acetonitrile. Specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantification were measured for validation anaylsis. This method was applied to analyze the quantities of ephedrine alkaloids in Ephedra sinica and Wolbigachul-tang. Results: The concentration per Ephedra sinica (gram) of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in Ephedra sinica decoction are 4.74±0.22 mg and 2.19±0.10 mg, respectively and in Wolbigachul-tang decoction are 6.39±0.34 mg and 2.97±0.21 mg, respectively. The retention time of ephedrine was 23.6 min and that of pseudoephedrine was 25.8 min, and norephedrine and methylephedrine were not detected. Conclusions: In conclusion, analyzed the concentration of ephedrine alkaloids in Ephedra sinica and Wolbigachul-tang by the developed validation method.
  • 5.

    Tanshinone I, an Active Ingredient of Salvia miltiorrhiza, Inhibits Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and Lipid Accumulation in Zebrafish

    Hyo-Shin Kwon | Byeong-Churl Jang | 2020, 20(2) | pp.109~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: Tanshinone I is a bioactive constituent in Salvia miltiorrhiza. At present, the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of tanshinone I are not fully understood. Here we investigated the effect of tanshinone I on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and zebrafish. Methods: Lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) content in 3T3-L1 cells were determined by Oil Red O staining and AdipoRed assay, respectively. The expression and phosphorylation levels of adipogenic/lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 cells were evaluated by Western blotting. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of adipogenic/lipogenic markers and leptin in 3T3-L1 cells were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Lipid accumulation in zebrafish was assessed by LipidGreen2 staining. Results: Tanshinone I at 5 μM largely blocked lipid accumulation and reduced TG content in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, tanshinone I decreased the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), and perilipin A but also the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, tanshinone I increased the phosphorylation of adenosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) while decreased the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content with no change in the phosphorylation and expression of liver kinase-B1 in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Importantly, tanshinone I also reduced the extent of lipid deposit formation in developing zebrafish. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that tanshinone I has strong anti-adipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 cells and reduces adiposity in zebrafish, and these anti-adipogenic effect in 3T3-L1 cells are mediated through control of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, STAT-3, FAS, ACC, perilipin A, and AMPK.
  • 6.

    Effect and Safety of Calorie Restriction and Complex Herbal Medicine Short-term Treatment (‘Oil-rescue’ Program) for Weight Reduction of Obesity or Overweight Patients: A Practice Based Research

    Byeongjo Kwon | Eunji Lee | Jeonghyun Chang and 7other persons | 2020, 20(2) | pp.122~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: This study is a practice based research conducted to investigate the effectiveness and safety of a 5-day short-term diet program (‘Oil-rescue’ program) designed to reduce the adverse events and initial dropout rate in obesity treatment. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 4 Korean medicine clinic patient data who completed ‘Oil-rescue’ program which is consisting of Gambi-hwan, Bium-hwan, Butgiban-hwan and Jayoon Kyungokgo. The weight change before and after participating ‘Oil-rescue’ program was primary outcome of our study. Changes in body mass index, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, body water content, lean body mass, protein, and minerals were also measured. Results: A total of 35 patients who satisfied the eligible criteria were finally included. The body weight decreased from 69.45±11.86 kg to 67.43±11.58 kg, a total of 2.02±1.03 kg (P<0.001). Body fat mass decreased from 25.77±7.45 kg to 24.98±7.26 kg, a total of 0.78±1.21 kg (P<0.001). Body mass index decreased from 26.39±3.64 kg/m2 to 25.64±3.49 kg/m2 , a total of 0.75±0.41 kg/m2 . (P<0.001). A total of 15 patients had side effects such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and insomnia, but all were mild. 16 out of 35 people switched to long-term obesity treatment programs. Conclusions: Through this retrospective practice based research, it was found that the ‘Oil-rescue’ program effectively reduced body weight, body fat, and body mass index, and the other obesity related parameters. It was a relatively safe and effective short-term obesity treatment program.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Counseling Practice for Obesity in Korean Medicine Clinics and the Satisfaction for Counseling Manual for the Standardized Management of Obesity in Korean Medicine

    Kyungsun Han | Sungha Kim | 2020, 20(2) | pp.131~137 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: Korean Medicine Doctors (KMDs) have treated patients with obesity using a holistic approach with a multicomponent approach on counseling. However, there is currently no data regarding KMDs’ counseling practices for weight loss. We conducted a retrospective chart review to better understand the Korean medicine counseling practice for weight loss. Methods: Twenty-one KMDs were involved in this project as practitioners. The contents of counseling were categorized based on patterns according to the counseling manual for the standardized management of obesity in Korean Medicine. Results: The counseling was conducted based on the theory of Korean medicine and the contents of counseling were different from patterns. However, the quality of the counseling were different from each KMD, and the counseling were focused on evaluating patient conditions and not on providing specific recommendations for lifestyle changes. Conclusions: Therefore, specific guidance of counseling for healthier lifestyle and dietary habits, and the training of the standardized manual training are needed.
  • 8.

    The Anti-obesity Effects of Bangpungtongseong-san and Daesiho-tang: A Study Protocol of Randomized, Double-blinded Clinical Trial

    Jihong Oh | Hyeyoon Shim | Jiyun Cha and 6other persons | 2020, 20(2) | pp.138~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Bangpungtongseong-san (Fangfengtongsheng-san, BTS) and Daesiho-tang (Dachaihu-tang, DST) on weight loss and improvement in lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, we intend to develop a prediction model for drug effects through the analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), gut-microbiota, and the expression of immune-related biomarkers. Methods: This study is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-design clinical trial. One hundred twenty-eight participants will be assigned to the BTS group (n=64) and DST group (n=64). Both groups will be administered 4 g medication three times a day for up to 2 weeks. The primary outcomes is weight loss. The secondary outcomes include bioelectrical impedance analysis, waist circumstance, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, insulin resistance. The exploratory outcomes include 3-day dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire, quality of life questionnaire, gut microbiota analysis, immune biomarkers analysis, and SNP analysis. Assessment will be made at baseline and at week 4, 8, and 12. Conclusions: This protocol will be implemented by approval of the Institutional Review Board of Dongguk University. The results of this trial will provide a systematic evidence for the treatment of obesity and enable more precise herbal medicine prescriptions.
  • 9.

    Analysis of Research Trends in Papers Published in the Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research: Focused on 2010-2019

    Seohyun Park | SONG YUN KYUNG | 2020, 20(2) | pp.149~177 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: This study performed to identify trends in research published in the Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research during last one decade. Methods: All of the articles in the Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research published from 2010 to 2019 were collected. Search were conducted through “http://jkomor.org.” Collected articles were classified into year and type of publication. Additional data including study design, study topics, characteristics of participants and treatment, outcomes was extracted from full text of each study. Results: Total 135 articles were analyzed. The number of studies were increasing after 2015. According to classification by type of study, percentage of clinical study took 27%, preclinical study took 37%, literary study took 21%, and case report took 15%. The number of studies were grown and study topics have been diversified. However for the growth of quality, concern for subjects, study design, quality assessment according to research guidelines and ethical consideration is needed. Conclusions: The number of studies and issues each study focused on have been increasing. To improve the quality of studies, further studies should be followed.
  • 10.

    Comparison of the Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Treatment on Obesity Treatment by Patient Subtypes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Jin-Young Cha | Seo-Young Kim | In-Soo Shin and 2other persons | 2020, 20(2) | pp.178~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the impacts of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral treatment (BT) on weight loss and psychological outcomes among patients with three different subtypes of obesity: simple obesity, obesity with binge eating disorder, and obesity with depression. Methods: Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Research Information Sharing Service, and Korean Studies Information Service System were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials conducted on or before May 2020, that used CBT to treat obesity. Methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane’s risk of bias tool 2 and publication bias was evaluated through the funnel plot using the trim and fill method, Egger’s test, and Begg and Mazumdar rank correlation test. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model and the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine effect size. Results: Twenty-one randomized controlled trials with a total of 22 intervention arms and 2,590 patients were included. Our study results revealed that the effects of CBT, compared with BT, on weight loss distinctly differed across all patient subgroups. In the simple obesity group, CBT was more effective than BT (Hedges’ g=0.138, CI=0.012~0.264); however, in the obesity with binge eating disorder group, BT was more effective than CBT (Hedges’ g=-0.228, CI=-0.418~-0.038); in the obesity with depression group, the effect of CBT was not statistically different from that of BT (Hedges’ g=0.276, CI=-0.307~0.859). Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the outcomes observed in this study. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the effects of CBT on obesity treatment vary based on patient subtype. Therefore, our findings suggest that CBT or BT should be selectively recommended as a treatment strategy for different obesity subtypes.